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Masters Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Algorithm For Geodetic Positioning Based On Angle-Of-Arrival Of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasts, Richard Allen Gross Apr 2019

Algorithm For Geodetic Positioning Based On Angle-Of-Arrival Of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasts, Richard Allen Gross

Masters Theses

This paper develops a non-precision, three-dimensional, geodetic positioning algorithm for airborne vehicles. The algorithm leverages the proliferation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) equipped aircraft, utilizing them as airborne navigation aids to generate an RF Angle-of-Arrival (AOA) and Angle-of-Elevation (AOE) based geodetic position. The resulting geodetic position can serve as a redundant navigation system for use during locally limited Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) availability, be used to validate on-board satellite navigation systems in an effort to detect local spoofing attempts, and be used to validate ADS-B position reports.

The navigation algorithm is an implementation of an Extended Kalman Filter ...


Forecasting The Cost Of Electricity Generated By Offshore Wind Turbines, Timothy Costa Jan 2019

Forecasting The Cost Of Electricity Generated By Offshore Wind Turbines, Timothy Costa

Masters Theses

To impede the progress of climate change, many policy makers are considering avenues to decarbonize electricity production. In addition to decarbonization, policy makers must consider how the cost of electricity will impact various stakeholders, balancing cost and social benefits. Offshore wind farms have the potential to produce affordable, carbon-free electricity, but they are a relatively new technology. The relative juvenescence of offshore wind lends itself to an uncertain future, regarding production costs. In this thesis, we seek to understand cost drivers behind offshore wind electricity by analyzing historic trends in offshore wind levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) through learning curves ...


Ammonia Production From A Non-Grid Connected Floating Offshore Wind-Farm: A System-Level Techno-Economic Review, Vismay V. Parmar Jan 2019

Ammonia Production From A Non-Grid Connected Floating Offshore Wind-Farm: A System-Level Techno-Economic Review, Vismay V. Parmar

Masters Theses

According to U.S. Department of Energy, offshore wind energy has the potential to generate 7,200 TWh of energy annually, which is nearly twice the current annual energy consumption in the United States. With technical advances in the offshore wind industry, particularly in the floating platforms, windfarms are pushing further into the ocean. This creates new engineering challenges for transmission of energy from offshore site to onshore. One possible solution is to convert the energy produced into chemical energy of ammonia, which was investigated by Dr. Eric Morgan. In his doctoral dissertation, he assessed the technical requirements and economics ...


Light Touch Based Virtual Cane For Balance Assistance During Standing, Sindhu Reddy Alluri Jan 2019

Light Touch Based Virtual Cane For Balance Assistance During Standing, Sindhu Reddy Alluri

Masters Theses

"Can additional information about one's body kinematics provided through hands improve human balance? Light-Touch (LT) through hands helps improve balance in a wide range of populations, both healthy and impaired. The force is too small to provide any meaningful mechanical assistance -- rather, it is suggested that the additional sensory information through hands helps the body improve balance.

To investigate the potential for improving human balance through biofeedback through hands, we developed a Virtual Cane (VC) for balance assistance during standing. The VC mimics the physical cane's function of providing information about one's body in space. Balance experiments ...


Mathematical Modeling And Empirical Validation Of A Conceptual Exoskeleton For Astronaut Glove Augmentation, Joseph Kissling Sep 2018

Mathematical Modeling And Empirical Validation Of A Conceptual Exoskeleton For Astronaut Glove Augmentation, Joseph Kissling

Masters Theses

Space presents numerous difficulties for astronauts conducting their work, not the least of which is the spacesuit that is worn to protect them from space. It has long been known that a spacesuit is difficult to work in, especially the rigid and pressurized gloves that put strain on the astronaut's hands, frequently leading to injuries. Astronaut gloves inhibit more than 50% of their strength in some cases [1]. NASA and other space agencies have been working to alleviate these problems by attempting to mechanically augment the gloves to reduce the exertions of the astronaut. To date, no augmentation systems ...


Design For Sustainability Through A Life Cycle Assessment Conceptual Framework Integrated Within Product Lifecycle Management, Renpeng Zou Jan 2018

Design For Sustainability Through A Life Cycle Assessment Conceptual Framework Integrated Within Product Lifecycle Management, Renpeng Zou

Masters Theses

The need to include sustainable design principles during product realization poses several challenges in need of research. The demand for greener products has increased while competition has shortened product realization processes. Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) provides solutions in accelerating the development process and time to market by managing the information through a full life cycle of a product line. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a way to predict the environmental impacts that should be expected over the complete life cycle of a given product, but LCA methods are not well suited to efficient comparison of product alternatives during early design ...


A Numerical Flutter Predictor For 3d Airfoils Using The Onera Dynamic Stall Model, Pieter Boersma Jan 2018

A Numerical Flutter Predictor For 3d Airfoils Using The Onera Dynamic Stall Model, Pieter Boersma

Masters Theses

To be able to harness more power from the wind, wind turbine blades are getting longer. As they get longer, they get more flexible. This creates issues that have until recently not been of concern. Long flexible wind turbine blades can lose their stability to flow induced instabilities such as coupled-mode flutter. This type of flutter occurs when increasing wind speed causes a coupling of a bending and a torsional mode, which create limit cycle oscillations that can lead to blade failure. To be able to make the design of larger blades possible, it is important to be able to ...


Thermal Radiation Measurement And Development Of Tunable Plasmonic Thermal Emitter Using Strain-Induced Buckling In Metallic Layers, Amir Kazemi-Moridani Jan 2018

Thermal Radiation Measurement And Development Of Tunable Plasmonic Thermal Emitter Using Strain-Induced Buckling In Metallic Layers, Amir Kazemi-Moridani

Masters Theses

An infrared radiometry setup has been developed based on a commercially available FTIR spectrometer for measuring mid-infrared thermal radiation. The setup was calibrated with a lab-built blackbody source. The setup was tested with a grating structure with 4-micron periodicity. Periodic microstructures using nickel and gold are fabricated on elastomeric substrates by use of strain-induced buckling of the nickel layer. The intrinsically low emissivity of gold in the mid-infrared regime is selectively enhanced by the surface plasmonic resonance at three different mid-infrared wavelengths, 4.5 µm, 6.3 µm, and 9.4 µm. As the thermal emission enhancement effect exists only ...


Electroplating Of Copper On Tungsten Powder, Richard Berdos Jan 2018

Electroplating Of Copper On Tungsten Powder, Richard Berdos

Masters Theses

Strengthening, resistant and shielding properties, to name a few, can be achieved by implementing a surface material coating onto an engineering component. Various elements of these compounded parts can augment the functionality of the part, such as, increased life time and more interactive surfaces. Tungsten has proven to be a challenge to plate with other metals, but if done correctly, the results can allow for the cold spray of tungsten. Cold spraying tungsten particles alone provides a challenge because the powder is too hard and instead of adhering, it erodes the surface it is attempting to plate. Coating tungsten in ...


Designed Extrudate For Ceramic Additive Manufacturing, Devin Mcmillen Jan 2018

Designed Extrudate For Ceramic Additive Manufacturing, Devin Mcmillen

Masters Theses

"The objective of this thesis work was to design ceramic paste systems that assist in achieving a high theoretical density ( > 95%) after deposition by a novel additive manufacturing process, i.e. Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE). The work is encompassed in five main sections: Sections 1 and 2 provide an introduction and literature review of relevant topics for the following sections of experimentation. Section 3 provides an analysis of a reaction chemistry to identify three discrete materials that could be combined via CODE and result in zirconium diboride (ZrB2) post-sintering. Section 4 describes the development of a high solids loading ...


Controlling Phase Fractions Of 304l-Ss In Selective Laser Melting Using Cooling Rate, Eberechukwu Anthony Okoro Jan 2018

Controlling Phase Fractions Of 304l-Ss In Selective Laser Melting Using Cooling Rate, Eberechukwu Anthony Okoro

Masters Theses

"This study examines the thermal profile and the ferrite-austenite phase fractions upon heating and cooling of 304- stainless steel powder via Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Experiments were performed to validate the ABAQUS finite element model, while the phase transformation simulation was performed using MatCalc and ThermoCalc. A correlation between the thermo-mechanical changes in ABAQUS and the microstructural changes from MatCalc was obtained by matching their cooling rates. The result indicates that cooling rate has a significant effect on the phase fractions of FCC and BCC formed in 304L stainless steel via the SLM process. The results also indicate that for ...


Computational Investigation Of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell With Nature-Inspired Fibonacci Spiral Flow Field, Suleyman Kose Jan 2018

Computational Investigation Of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell With Nature-Inspired Fibonacci Spiral Flow Field, Suleyman Kose

Masters Theses

"Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are promising clean energy devices. The flow field design has crucial role in PEMFC performance for effective distribution of reactants and removal of products. Several nature-inspired flow field designs have recently been proposed in the literature. Common characteristics of these designs were sudden changes in the flow direction through sharp bends and flow field geometries restrained to areas having corners. In this thesis, Fibonacci spiral configuration, which is found in the nature from hurricanes to seashells, was considered for flow field pattern of a PEMFC. Contrary to the bio-inspired designs proposed in previous studies ...


Numerical Modeling Of Capillary-Driven Flow In Open Microchannels: An Implication Of Optimized Wicking Fabric Design, Mehrad Gholizadeh Ansari Jan 2018

Numerical Modeling Of Capillary-Driven Flow In Open Microchannels: An Implication Of Optimized Wicking Fabric Design, Mehrad Gholizadeh Ansari

Masters Theses

"The use of microfluidics to transfer fluids without applying any exterior energy source is a promising technology in different fields of science and engineering due to their compactness, simplicity and cost-effective design. In geotechnical engineering, to increase the soil's strength, hydrophilic wicking fibers as type of microfluidics have been employed to transport and drain water out of soil spontaneously by taking advantage of natural capillary force without using any pumps or other auxiliary devices. The objective of this study is to understand the scientific mechanisms of the capability for wicking fiber to drain both gravity and capillary water out ...


Investigation Of The Information Provided By Light Touch For Balance Improvement In Humans, Anirudh Saini Jan 2018

Investigation Of The Information Provided By Light Touch For Balance Improvement In Humans, Anirudh Saini

Masters Theses

"This study investigates the information provided by Light Touch (LT) in improving human postural stability without mechanical assistance. Light Touch, an interaction force with a magnitude about 1 N, is known to improve postural stability in humans during quiet standing. However, the nature of the information from LT that helped improve balance is yet unknown. In this work, we hypothesized that LT provides information about one's body kinematics. We used a haptic robot to provide modulated, measurable light interaction force on the high back haptic location of humans to provide body kinematics-dependent information through LT. Standing balance experiments were ...


Advanced Process To Embed Optical Fiber Sensors Into Casting Mold For Smart Manufacturing, Raghavender Reddy Jakka Jan 2018

Advanced Process To Embed Optical Fiber Sensors Into Casting Mold For Smart Manufacturing, Raghavender Reddy Jakka

Masters Theses

"Optical fiber sensors embedded in metals with distributed sensing can sense temperature at multiple points with single fiber. This is useful for smart manufacturing like structural health monitoring in aerospace industry and smart molds in manufacturing plants. There is a huge difference in thermal coefficient of expansion for fiber and metal. This is the reason for the increase in sensitivity for embedded fiber sensors. However, at high temperatures, the stress on the fiber increases, eventually damaging the sensor. The fiber-metal interface determines the sensor performance. A tight interface results in high sensitivity and a gap in the interface enhances sensing ...


High Strain Rate Dynamic Response Of Aluminum 6061 Micro Particles At Elevated Temperatures And Varying Oxide Thicknesses Of Substrate Surface, Carmine Taglienti Jan 2018

High Strain Rate Dynamic Response Of Aluminum 6061 Micro Particles At Elevated Temperatures And Varying Oxide Thicknesses Of Substrate Surface, Carmine Taglienti

Masters Theses

Cold spray is a unique additive manufacturing process, where a large number of ductile metal micro particles are deposited to create new surface coatings or free-standing structures. Metallic particles are accelerated through a gas stream, reaching velocities of over 1 km/s. Accelerated particles experience a high-strain-rate microscopic ballistic collisions against a target substrate. Large amounts of kinetic energy results in extreme plastic deformation of the particles and substrate. Though the cold spray process has been in use for decades, the extreme material science behind the deformation of particles has not been well understood due to experimental difficulties arising from ...


Streamwise Flow-Induced Oscillations Of Bluff Bodies - The Influence Of Symmetry Breaking, Tyler Gurian Jan 2018

Streamwise Flow-Induced Oscillations Of Bluff Bodies - The Influence Of Symmetry Breaking, Tyler Gurian

Masters Theses

The influence of symmetry breaking on the flow induced oscillations of bluff bodies in the steamwise direction is studied. First, a series of experiments is conducted on a one-degree-of-freedom circular cylinder allowed to exhibit pure translational motion in the streamwise direction over a range of reduced velocities, 1.4 < U* < 4.4, corresponding to a Reynolds number range of 970 < Re < 3370. Two distinct regions of displacements were observed in reduced velocity ranges of 1.6 < U* < 2.5 and 2.75 < U* < 3.85. Measured force coefficients in the drag and lift direction were examined, along with the wake visualization, through the range of reduced velocities, to infer the resulting wake modes. A new Alternating Symmetric (AS) mode was found. This transition from symmetric to AS shedding occurred near the end of the first region of response. Similar tests were run with a square prism in the parameter space of 2.4 < U* < 5.8 and 757 < Re < 1900 over angles of incidence of 0° ≤ α ≤ 45°. A distinct region of lock-in is observed for α = 0°, 2.5°, 5°, 7.5° over 3.2 < U* < 5.4 for α = 0°, and decreasing with increasing α. The wake structures were found to be roughly symmetric for α = 0°, but transitioned towards asymmetry with ...


Application And Evaluation Of Lighthouse Technology For Precision Motion Capture, Soumitra Sitole Jan 2018

Application And Evaluation Of Lighthouse Technology For Precision Motion Capture, Soumitra Sitole

Masters Theses

This thesis presents the development towards a system that can capture and quantify motion for applications in biomechanical and medical fields demanding precision motion tracking using the lighthouse technology. Commercially known as SteamVR tracking, the lighthouse technology is a motion tracking system developed for virtual reality applications that makes use of patterned infrared light sources to highlight trackers (objects embedded with photodiodes) to obtain their pose or spatial position and orientation. Current motion capture systems such as the camera-based motion capture are expensive and not readily available outside of research labs. This thesis provides a case for low-cost motion capture ...


Smart Augmented Reality Instructional System For Mechanical Assembly, Ze-Hao Lai Jan 2018

Smart Augmented Reality Instructional System For Mechanical Assembly, Ze-Hao Lai

Masters Theses

"Quality and efficiency are pivotal indicators of a manufacturing company. Many companies are suffering from shortage of experienced workers across the production line to perform complex assembly tasks such as assembly of an aircraft engine. This could lead to a significant financial loss. In order to further reduce time and error in an assembly, a smart system consisting of multi-modal Augmented Reality (AR) instructions with the support of a deep learning network for tool detection is introduced. The multi-modal smart AR is designed to provide on-site information including various visual renderings with a fine-tuned Region-based Convolutional Neural Network, which is ...


Design Of A Robotic Instrument Manipulator For Endoscopic Deployment, Ryan Ponten Aug 2017

Design Of A Robotic Instrument Manipulator For Endoscopic Deployment, Ryan Ponten

Masters Theses

This thesis describes the initial design process for an application of continuum robotics to endoscopic surgical procedures, specifically dissection of the colon. We first introduce the long-term vision for a benchtop dual-instrument endoscopic system with intuitive haptic controllers and then narrow our focus to the design and testing of the instrument manipulator itself, which must be actuated through the long, winding channel of a standard colonoscope.

Based on design requirements for a target procedure, we analyze simulations of two types of continuum robots using recently established kinematic and mechanic modeling approaches: the concentric-tube robot (CTR) and the concentric agonist-antagonist robot ...


Nanoscale Investigations Of Thermal And Momentum Transport In Graphene – Water Systems, Drew Champion Marable May 2017

Nanoscale Investigations Of Thermal And Momentum Transport In Graphene – Water Systems, Drew Champion Marable

Masters Theses

Demand for miniaturized electronic devices has given rise to new challenges in thermal management. Integration with graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) material with excellent thermal properties, allows for further reduced sizes and combats thermal management issues within novel devices. Moreover, due to its wide availability and adequate thermal properties, liquid water is commonly used within traditional thermal systems to enhance cooling performance; as such, water is expected to yield similar performance in smaller-scale applications. However, at reduced sizes descending to the nanoscale realm, system behaviors deviate from traditional macroscale-based theory as interfacial effects become amplified. Employing insight provided by molecular dynamics ...


A Magnetic Resonance Compatible Knee Extension Ergometer, Youssef Jaber Jan 2017

A Magnetic Resonance Compatible Knee Extension Ergometer, Youssef Jaber

Masters Theses

The product of this thesis aims to enable the study of the biochemical and physical dynamics of the lower limbs at high levels of muscle tension and fast contraction speeds. This is accomplished in part by a magnetic resonance (MR) compatible ergometer designed to apply a load as a torque of up to 420 Nm acting against knee extension at speeds as high as 4.7 rad/s. The system can also be adapted to apply the load as a force of up to 1200 N acting against full leg extension. The ergometer is designed to enable the use of ...


Bmi, Tumor Lesion And Probability Of Femur Fracture: A Probabilistic Biomechanics Approach, Zhi Gao Jan 2017

Bmi, Tumor Lesion And Probability Of Femur Fracture: A Probabilistic Biomechanics Approach, Zhi Gao

Masters Theses

found that most of these factors are directly or indirectly linked to subjects’ BMI (body mass index). Thus, from a statistical perspective, BMI could be an overall indicator of the probability of femur fracture from a sideways fall. Using a biomechanics approach coupled with statistical data we investigate this relationship with a large cohort of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 from WHI-OS (Women’s Health Initiative Observational Cohort). The cohort is divided into six sub-cohorts by BMI where each fall-related factor is examined and compared with each other. Significant differences are discovered among cohorts in terms of femur size, aBMD (areal ...


Evaluation Of Impedance Control On A Powered Hip Exoskeleton, Punith Condoor Jan 2017

Evaluation Of Impedance Control On A Powered Hip Exoskeleton, Punith Condoor

Masters Theses

This thesis presents an impedance control strategy for a novel powered hip exoskeleton designed to provide partial assistance and leverage the dynamics of human gait. The control strategy is based on impedance control and provides the user assistance as needed which is determined by the user’s interaction with the exoskeleton. A series elastic element is used to drive the exoskeleton and measures the interaction torque between the user and the device. The device operates in two modes. Free mode is a low impedance state that attempts to provide no assistance. Assist mode increases the gains of the controller to ...


Effects Of Malformed Or Absent Valves To Lymphatic Fluid Transport And Lymphedema In Vivo In Mice, Akshay S. Pujari Jan 2017

Effects Of Malformed Or Absent Valves To Lymphatic Fluid Transport And Lymphedema In Vivo In Mice, Akshay S. Pujari

Masters Theses

Lymph is primarily composed of fluid and proteins from the blood circulatory system that drain into the space surrounding cells, interstitial space. From the interstitial space, the fluid enters and circulates in the lymphatic system until it is delivered into the venous system. In contrast to the blood circulatory system, the lymphatic system lacks a central pumping organ dictating the predominant driving pressure and velocity of lymph. Transport of lymph via capillaries, pre-collecting and collecting lymphatic vessels relies on the synergy between pressure gradients, local tissue motion, valves and lymphatic vessel contractility. The direction of lymph transport is regulated by ...


Electroless Deposition & Electroplating Of Nickel On Chromium-Nickel Carbide Powder, Jeffrey Rigali Jan 2017

Electroless Deposition & Electroplating Of Nickel On Chromium-Nickel Carbide Powder, Jeffrey Rigali

Masters Theses

Engineered components can gain desirable properties when coated with surface materials. Wear-resistant coatings can improve the performance of contacting surfaces and allow for an extended life of the parts. Hard chromium has been the plating material of choice for certain wear and corrosion- resistant coatings because of its desirable combination of chemical resistance, adhesion, and mechanical properties. However, hexavalent chromium, a component of the process for applying hard chromium coatings, has been recognized by the EPA as having hazardous health and environmental impacts. Existing and planned environmental regulations restricts the use of process chemicals containing hexavalent chromium ions. This substantiates ...


Bio-Inspired Flow Fields For Pem Fuel Cells- Decoupling Pressure And Distribution Effects On Performance And Identifying Design Opportunities, Joshua David Heck Jan 2017

Bio-Inspired Flow Fields For Pem Fuel Cells- Decoupling Pressure And Distribution Effects On Performance And Identifying Design Opportunities, Joshua David Heck

Masters Theses

"The performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) is significantly impacted by flow distributor geometry. The effects of flow distributor geometry on PEMFCs was explored in two ways in this study. Firstly, the relative effects of pressure and distribution characteristics of different flow fields on fuel cell unit and system level performance were considered. A method of decoupling these effects was proposed and demonstrated by application to the traditional serpentine and parallel flow field designs.The performance of these two designs were modeled computationally and it was shown that, of the 17% better performance of the serpentine design, 12 ...


Wrinkling Of Functionally Graded Sandwich Structures Subject To Biaxial And In-Plane Shear Loads, Harold Costa Jan 2017

Wrinkling Of Functionally Graded Sandwich Structures Subject To Biaxial And In-Plane Shear Loads, Harold Costa

Masters Theses

"Benefits of a functionally graded core increasing wrinkling stability of sandwich panels have been demonstrated in a recent paper [1] where a several-fold increase in the wrinkling stress was observed, without a significant weight penalty, using a stiffer core adjacent to the facings. In the present paper wrinkling is analyzed in case where the facings are subject to biaxial compression and/or in-plane shear loading and the core is arbitrary graded through-the-thickness. Two issues addressed are the effect of biaxial or in-plane shear loads on wrinkling stability of panels with both graded and ungraded core and the verification that functional ...


Dynamic Electromechanical Characterization Of Ferroelectrics At Cryogenic Temperatures, William Kent Hays Jan 2017

Dynamic Electromechanical Characterization Of Ferroelectrics At Cryogenic Temperatures, William Kent Hays

Masters Theses

"Electromechanical coupling in ferroelectric materials has given rise to a myriad of technological applications. Through the complex domain structure of ferroelectrics materials, which are typically stiff and have low damping, can exhibit significant structural damping. The applications for a material with a relatively large Young’s modulus and the ability to damp out vibrations would be useful for structures, more specifically, aerospace structures. The dynamic mechanical properties of ferroelectrics, particularly mechanical properties while an electric field is applied, are not well understood. This is due in part to the lack of experimental methods to measure such properties. Even with recent ...


Ti-Fe Intermetallics Analysis And Control In Joining Titanium Alloy And Stainless Steel By Laser Metal Deposition, Wei Li Jan 2017

Ti-Fe Intermetallics Analysis And Control In Joining Titanium Alloy And Stainless Steel By Laser Metal Deposition, Wei Li

Masters Theses

"Direct fusion joining titanium alloy and stainless steel can cause brittle Ti-Fe intermetallics which compromise the mechanical properties of diffusion bonds between titanium alloys and stainless steel. Therefore, filler metals are required as transition layers. In this research, stainless steel metallic powder was directly deposited on the titanium alloy substrate by laser beam, the Ti-Fe intermetallic phases formed in this process were investigated through analyzing fracture morphology, phase identification, and Vickers Hardness Number (VHN). After that, Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) was applied to explore a new fabricating process to join Ti6Al4V and SS316. A transition composition route was introducedTi6Al4V → V ...