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Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

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Articles 1 - 30 of 68

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Wiping Out Tall Weeds, Brad Rayner Mar 1995

Wiping Out Tall Weeds, Brad Rayner

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Control of weeds is an on-going battle for farmers, with many weapons becoming increasingly expensive. A refreshing exception to this trend is the blanket wiper, a cheap but effective meens of applying herbicides to taller weeds in pasture. Brad Rayner explains how it works.


Soil Sampling Made Easier, Mike Bolland, Mike Baker Jan 1993

Soil Sampling Made Easier, Mike Bolland, Mike Baker

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

A new rotary blade soil sampler has taken the hard work out of collecting soil samples from Western Australia's hard-setting soils to test for soil phosphorus levels .

Conceived and developed by Department of Agriculture technical officer Mike Baker, it should enable soil testing to be more widely adopted. Fortunately, the soil calibration tests that were developed using pogo samples can also be used for the new sampler.


Stubble : Friend And Foe, Department Of Agriculture And Food, Western Australia Jan 1992

Stubble : Friend And Foe, Department Of Agriculture And Food, Western Australia

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Several articles in this issue of the Journal of Agriculture discuss some of the important issues of stubble management. The articles are condensed from some of the papers presented at a stubble workshop at Geraldton in 1991.


Stubble Handling Machinery, Greg Haydon Jan 1992

Stubble Handling Machinery, Greg Haydon

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Farming in Western Australia, and in Australia, has undergone a revolution over the past 15 to 20 years. Two significant changes have been the cessation of ploughing to kill weeds, that is, the change from discs to tines, and the reduction in tillage through the use of agricultural chemicals. These have been important changes that have had conservation benefits. However, to handle stubble to best effect, further changes in machinery, newer machinery and combinations of machines will be needed. In this article, the author discusses current and possible future practces.


Stubble Handling Begins At Harvest, Ed Blanchard Jan 1992

Stubble Handling Begins At Harvest, Ed Blanchard

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Long stubble left in the paddock after harvest causes major difficulties at seeding time. To demonstrate the benefits of having short stubble at seeding, the Trayning Land Conservation District Committee created four stubble treatments at harvest in 1988 and sowed into these stubble treatments in 1989.


Cost Effective Stubble Retention Practices, Andrew Green, Ed Blanchard Jan 1992

Cost Effective Stubble Retention Practices, Andrew Green, Ed Blanchard

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

To increase the rate of adoption of stubble retention farming systems the Grains Research and Development Corporation is funding a three-year project with the Farm Machinery Unit to develop low cost, stubble handling systems from harvest to seeding


Narrow-Winged Seeder Points Reduce Water Erosion And Maintain Crop Yields, Kevin Bligh Jan 1991

Narrow-Winged Seeder Points Reduce Water Erosion And Maintain Crop Yields, Kevin Bligh

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Sowing crops without loosening the topsoil by tillage reduces water erosion. It can increase infiltration of rainfall into loamy soils, thereby reducing runoff and increasing potential crop yields. Crop yields were maintained after I1 seasons of seeding an Avon Valley loam near Beverley with minimum and no-tillage seeding operations. Infiltration increased significantly from 80 per cent of the 1983 growing-season rainfall under the traditional three tillage operations, to 87per cent under a single tillage operation using a combine seed drill. Infiltration increased further to 96 per cent under a no-tillage system using a triple^lisc drill. At Gnowangerup, 80 per ...


Whole-Farm Planning : Success At Wilgi Creek, Kevin Shanhun Jan 1991

Whole-Farm Planning : Success At Wilgi Creek, Kevin Shanhun

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Ian and Bev Lynch own Wilgi Creek, a 376 ha mixed farming property at West Mount Barker in the 700 mm rainfall zone. In 1983, they started a whole-farm plan to overcome the problems of declining production caused by waterlogging (their biggest problem), salinity and deterioration of the remnant native vegetation. Today, their property is an example of a successful, wholefarm land conservation plan based on agroforestry, timber production, water harvesting and improved pastures.


Drainage Of Sandplain Seeps For Salinity Control And Stock Water Supplies, Richard George, Peter Frantom Jan 1991

Drainage Of Sandplain Seeps For Salinity Control And Stock Water Supplies, Richard George, Peter Frantom

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Sandplain seeps are derived from a shallow groundwater system which flows from the deep sandplain soils upslope. Seeps result in small areas of salinity and waterlogging, which can be the focus of soil erosion. Sandplain seeps may represent as much as 10 per cent of Western Australia's salt problem in the drier agricultural area. Several drainage experiments conducted between 1986 and 1989 determined the best methods of reclaiming sandplain seeps.

This article discusses the results of these drainage experiments. It comments on the most suitable method for reclaiming sandplain seeps and developing them for stock water supplies.


Economics Of Interceptor Drains : A Case Study, Andrew Bathgate, Ian Evans Jan 1990

Economics Of Interceptor Drains : A Case Study, Andrew Bathgate, Ian Evans

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

This case study determines the most likely rate of return to capital invested in constructing seepage interceptor drains to reduce the effect of waterlogging on crop and pasture yields. The analysis of a farm in the Denbarker region, west of Albany, determined what increases were needed in pasture growth to justify the cost of constructing drains across four adjacent paddocks. The benefits of changing rotations to include lupins were also determined, as growing lupins was unprofitable before the construction of drains.


Improved Fertilizing Practices On The Peel-Harvey Catchment, P T. Arkell Jan 1989

Improved Fertilizing Practices On The Peel-Harvey Catchment, P T. Arkell

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Broad-acre farmers in the Peel-Harvey catchment have met a challange and achieved a great deal since the fertilizer extension programme started in 1983.

The main objective of the extension programme has been to ensure that every year three-quarters of the farmers make economically and technically sound fertilizer decisions, thus causing a minimum amount of phosphorus to enter the waterways of the Peel-Harvey estuarine system.


The Development Of An Efficient Lupin Harvesting Front, E D. Blanchard Jan 1989

The Development Of An Efficient Lupin Harvesting Front, E D. Blanchard

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Harvest losses represent a significant reduction in lupin production and farm productivity.

Since 1984, the Department's Farm Machinery Research and Liaison Unit at the Dryland Research Institute has studied the lupin harvesting operation to improve its mechanical efficiency. An experimental and a prototype harvesting front were built and tested in the field. Guidlines for efficient lupin harvesting were produced, and commercial modifications developed.


How To Select A Tractor, W T. Brown Jan 1979

How To Select A Tractor, W T. Brown

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

A look at some of the factors to be considered when choosing a tractor for your farm. There is no one answer


Options For Machinery And Labour, A F. Herbert Jan 1979

Options For Machinery And Labour, A F. Herbert

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Machinery is one of the highest costs in farming today. It is not unusual for capital investment in machinery to be 20 to 30 percent of the total investment in the farm.

On an annual basis, expenditure directly attributable to machinery can be 40 per cent or more.

This article cannon be a panacea for everyone to reduce machinery costs - each farm is different. But some of the issues might be of help.


Calibration Of Boom Sprays, J R. Peirce Jan 1979

Calibration Of Boom Sprays, J R. Peirce

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Boom sprays have become increasingly common on Western Australian farms, allowing farmers to take advantage of modern herbicided.

Most boom sprays used on farms have 50 cm nozzle spacings and require calibrating regularily to ensure accurate herbicide application.

By following these steps, the boom will deliver accurate amounts of herbicide.


Service And Spare Parts, D Hosken Jan 1979

Service And Spare Parts, D Hosken

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Service is the preparation, delivery and after-sales maintenance of machinery. It involves responsibilities for both the dealer and the purchaser.


There's Little To Choose Between Scarifier Points, C R. Lester Jan 1979

There's Little To Choose Between Scarifier Points, C R. Lester

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Tests on scarifier points showed that methods of treating them to prolong their life had little effect.


The Machinery Crisis, W T. Brown Jan 1979

The Machinery Crisis, W T. Brown

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

The machinery crisis - I believe we have come through a crisis in farming efficiency. To maintain his income, the farmer has had to reduce his costs of production, or increase production per man. He has done this by climbing to a new plateau of efficiency, and he expanded or got out; he has substituted capital for labour.

In many cases this means bigger, more powerful machinery. This is not a simple or easy move and there are many potential ways to mske the wrong decision.


Matching Tractors And Implements, I W. Grevis-James Jan 1979

Matching Tractors And Implements, I W. Grevis-James

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Tractor and implement matching involves balancing implement load characteristics with tractor output characteristics to obtain the best output from the combination. Too much or too little can be costly.


Getting The Best From Tractor Tyres, J Quealy Jan 1979

Getting The Best From Tractor Tyres, J Quealy

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

The amount of pull a tractor develops depends largely on tyre efficiency and so with so many tyre size options for the one tractor model it is very easy to make the wrong decision on tyre fitment.

Tyre efficiency varies with tractor weight, soil conditions, inflation pressure and tyre size.

Hers we look at some of these factors and how changing them may affect efficiency.


Simplifying Lubricants For Farm Machinery, R A. Platt Jan 1979

Simplifying Lubricants For Farm Machinery, R A. Platt

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

All moving parts on machinery needs lubrication. With the rapid development in farm machinery and its attendant sophistifications, the stresses imposed on the lubricants have also increased.

This article looks at some of the changes in requirements and developments in lubricants available.


Replacing Farm Machinery, R Crossman Jan 1979

Replacing Farm Machinery, R Crossman

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

In talking of machinery replacement it seems implied that the replacement items of plant are bigger and therefore better than their predecessers. It is also implied that plant replacement is becoming more costly.

Before any decision to replace machinery, the reason for replacement should be carefully considered.

There may be alternatives to the bigger and better solution.


Crutching Cradles Can Work Well, N M. Marney, R. A. Mills Jan 1978

Crutching Cradles Can Work Well, N M. Marney, R. A. Mills

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Crutching cradles allow successful do-it-yourself crutching if a continuous flow of sheep can be maintained. This article describes some units available and discusses costs.


Designing Yards For Sheep, Department Of Agriculture, Western Australia Jan 1977

Designing Yards For Sheep, Department Of Agriculture, Western Australia

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

This article has been adapted from a report of the 1976 Sheep and Wool Refresher Course.

The officers attending the Course inspected W. A. farms, and then met in groups to discuss what they had seen, and to pool their experience in compiling a report. This article has been adapted from the report of the group working on the topic "Sheep yards and facilities".

The W. A. representative in the group working on sheep yard design was Mr John Wise of the Department's Katanning office.

The principals discussed here should help farmers either design new sheep yards, or improve ...


Growing Sunflowers In South-Western Australia, M L. Poole Jan 1975

Growing Sunflowers In South-Western Australia, M L. Poole

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

The oil produced from sunflowers falls into the "polyunsaturated" group and usually commands a premium price on world markets.

Some Western Australian farmers seeking to diversify their cropping programmes in the face of marketing difficulties for many agricultural products are trying sunflowers, although commercial production has not yet been achieved.

This article sets out some basic information for farmers wishing to try sunflowers.


Faulty Germination Of Lupin Seeds, B J. Quinlivan Jan 1971

Faulty Germination Of Lupin Seeds, B J. Quinlivan

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

THE number of lupin seed samples tested in the seed laboratory over the last few years has shown a marked increase with the increasing popularity of lupins as a cash crop.

A seed with satisfactory germination is one which produces a healthy seedling. The germination of lupin samples tested in the laboratory has varied markedly.


The Setting And Control Of Disc Ploughs, P A. Taylor Jan 1970

The Setting And Control Of Disc Ploughs, P A. Taylor

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

THE trailed disc plough is the most commonly used tillage implement in Australian broadacre farming, yet it is considered in some areas to be difficult to set and to operate. These notes provide information resulting from C.S.I.R.O. research to assist operators in the control and operation of trailed disc ploughs.


How Many Acres Per Hour?, J G. Drever Jan 1970

How Many Acres Per Hour?, J G. Drever

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

MANY farm tractor operators don't know exactly how much land is covered in an hour by implements drawn by their tractors. This information, useful on any farm where tractors are used, is of particular value in contract work.

The capacity of the machine or implement, or in other words, its rate of working, depends on the width of the machine, how fast it travels, how efficiently it is operated and the time it works.


Australian Tractor Test Report. No. 56. Zetor 5511, G H. Vasey, W. F. Bailie Jan 1970

Australian Tractor Test Report. No. 56. Zetor 5511, G H. Vasey, W. F. Bailie

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

AUSTRALIAN TRACTOR TEST REPORT

The Zetor 5511 is a general purpose farm tractor. With 43 drawbar horsepower and 51 h.p. at the P.T.O. at rated engine speed it comes within Class 5 of Australian Standard Classification of Wheeled Tractors for Agricultural Purposes, A.S. Dl0-1967. It is equipped with 18.4 x 28 pneumatic tyres.

It has a five-speed gear box with a High and Low ratio change giving 10 forward and 2 reverse speeds


Australian Tractor Test Report No. 58 : Massey-Ferguson 165, G H. Vasey, W. T. Brown Jan 1970

Australian Tractor Test Report No. 58 : Massey-Ferguson 165, G H. Vasey, W. T. Brown

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

THE Massey-Ferguson 165 is a general purpose farm tractor. The test tractor gave 50 drawbar h.p. with 59 h.p. at the P.T.O. at rated engine speed it comes within Class 5 of the Australian Standard Classification of Wheeled Tractors for Agricultural Purposes, AS Dl 0-1967. It is equipped with 18.4 x 28 in. pneumatic tyres. It has a threespeed gear box with a ratio change giving 6 forward and reverse speeds.