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Doctoral Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Development Of A Counter-Flow Thermal Gradient Microfluidic Device, Shayan Davani Feb 2019

Development Of A Counter-Flow Thermal Gradient Microfluidic Device, Shayan Davani

Doctoral Dissertations

This work presents a novel counter-flow design for thermal stabilization of microfluidic thermal reactors. In these reactors, precise control of temperature of the liquid sample is achieved by moving the liquid sample through the thermal zones established ideally through the conduction in the solid material of the device. The goal here is to establish a linear thermal distribution when there is no flow and to minimize the temperature change at flow condition. External convection as well as internal flowinduced effects influence the prescribed thermal distribution. The counter-flow thermal gradient device developed in this study is capable of both stabilizing the ...


Reliability Analysis For Systems With Outsourced Components, Zhengwei Hu Jan 2019

Reliability Analysis For Systems With Outsourced Components, Zhengwei Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

"The current business model for many industrial firms is to function as system integrators, depending on numerous outsourced components from outside component suppliers. This practice has resulted in tremendous cost savings; it makes system reliability analysis, however, more challenging due to the limited component information available to system designers. The component information is often proprietary to component suppliers. Motivated by the need of system reliability prediction with outsourced components, this work aims to explore feasible ways to accurately predict the system reliability during the system design stage. Four methods are proposed. The first method reconstructs component reliability functions using limited ...


Time-Dependent Reliability Methodologies With Saddlepoint Approximation, Zhangli Hu Jan 2019

Time-Dependent Reliability Methodologies With Saddlepoint Approximation, Zhangli Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

"Engineers always encounter time-dependent uncertainties that ubiquitously exist, such as the random deterioration of material properties and time-variant loads. Therefore the reliability of engineering systems becomes time-dependent. It is crucial to predict the time-dependent reliability in the design stage, given possible catastrophic consequences of a failure. Although extensive research has been conducted on reliability analysis, estimating the reliability accurately and efficiently is still challenging. The objective of this work is to develop accurate and efficient reliability methodologies for engineering design. The basic idea is the integration of traditional reliability methods with saddlepoint approximation (SPA), which can accurately approximate the tail ...


Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li Jan 2019

Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is a recently developed freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing dense ceramic components from single and multiple constituents. In this process, aqueous paste of ceramic particles with a very low binder content ( < 1 vol%) is extruded through a moving nozzle to print each layer sequentially. Once one layer is printed, it is surrounded by oil to prevent undesirable water evaporation from the perimeters of the part. The oil level is regulated just below the topmost layer of the part being fabricated. Infrared radiation is then applied to uniformly and partially dry the top layer so that the yield stress of the paste increases to avoid part deformation. By repeating the above steps, the part is printed in a layer-wise fashion, followed by post-processing. Paste extrusion precision of different extrusion mechanisms was compared and analyzed, with an auger extruder determined to be the most suitable paste extruder for the CODE system. A novel fabrication system was developed based on a motion gantry, auger extruders, and peripheral devices. Sample specimens were then produced from 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia using this fabrication system, and their properties, including density, flexural strength, Young's modulus, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness were measured. The results indicated that superior mechanical properties were achieved by the CODE process among all the additive manufacturing processes. Further development was made on the CODE process to fabricate ceramic components that have external/internal features such as overhangs by using fugitive support material. Finally, ceramic composites with functionally graded materials (FGMs) were fabricated by the CODE process using a dynamic mixing device"--Abstract, page iv.


Solvent-Free Additive Manufacturing Of Electrodes For Li-Ion Batteries, Brandon Joshua Ludwig Jan 2019

Solvent-Free Additive Manufacturing Of Electrodes For Li-Ion Batteries, Brandon Joshua Ludwig

Doctoral Dissertations

"A new Li-ion battery electrode manufacturing process using a solvent free additive manufacturing method has been developed. Li-ion battery electrodes consist of active material particles, a binder additive, and a conductive additive. Traditionally, Li-ion battery electrodes are manufacturing using the "slurry casting" technique. In this method, the electrode materials are mixed with a solvent to create a slurry. Electrodes fabricated in this method are readily implemented for small platforms, such as portable electronics. However, this method isn't as economically viable in large platforms due to high material and manufacturing costs. High material and manufacturing costs are mostly attributed to ...


Laser Welding Of Metallic Glass To Crystalline Metal In Laser-Foil-Printing Additive Manufacturing, Yingqi Li Jan 2019

Laser Welding Of Metallic Glass To Crystalline Metal In Laser-Foil-Printing Additive Manufacturing, Yingqi Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"The application of metallic glasses has been traditionally limited to parts with small dimensions and simple geometries, due to the requirement of fast cooling during the conventional process of casting. In addition, joining metallic glass to crystalline metal is of interest for many applications that require locally tailored functions and properties, but it is challenging. This research describes a promising additive manufacturing technology, i.e., laser-foil-printing, to make high-quality metallic glass parts with large dimensions and complex geometries and to fabricate multi-material components from metallic glass and crystalline metal. In this research, Zr52.5Ti5Al10Ni ...


Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panos Pantidis Jan 2019

Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panos Pantidis

Doctoral Dissertations

Structural systems are potentially subjected to damage initiating scenarios throughout the course of their service time. Depending on the nature and extent of the damaging event, they may experience significant reduction or even complete loss of their mechanical performance. This dissertation delves into the mechanics of structural systems under the notion of missing members from their domain, investigating types of structural systems: a) multi-story steel framed buildings, and b) materials with a truss-lattice microstructure.

Part I of the dissertation investigates the performance of multi-story steel framed buildings under a column removal scenario, developing an analytical framework for their quasi-static robustness ...


A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana Jan 2019

A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana

Doctoral Dissertations

Floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) hold great potential for the renewable energy industry, but capital costs remain high. In efforts to increase FOWT substructure efficiency and reduce costs, this thesis investigates a novel multiline anchor concept in which FOWTs share anchors instead of being moored separately. The goal of this thesis is to evaluate the force dynamics, design, and potential cost reduction of the system. Anchor forces are simulated using the NREL 5 MW reference turbine and OC4-DeepCwind semisubmersible platform, and multiline anchor force is computed as the vector sum of the contributing mooring line tensions.

The use of a ...


Investigation Of Small-Scale Thermal Recovery And Storage Systems, Suvhashis Thapa Jul 2018

Investigation Of Small-Scale Thermal Recovery And Storage Systems, Suvhashis Thapa

Doctoral Dissertations

An approach to recover and store waste heat is presented in this dissertation. The waste heat is the energy that is rejected to the environment without being put to practical use and it is a result of both equipment inefficiency and thermodynamic limitation on the equipment and the process. In a typical Otto cycle, for instance, out of the total energy consumed by the system, only one-third of the energy is converted into useful work and the rest is discharged in the environment as waste heat [1]. For a spark ignition, a 1.4 liters internal combustion engine with the ...


Monitoring Of Hybrid Manufacturing Using Acoustic Emission Sensor, Haythem Gaja Jan 2018

Monitoring Of Hybrid Manufacturing Using Acoustic Emission Sensor, Haythem Gaja

Doctoral Dissertations

"The approach of hybrid manufacturing addressed in this research uses two manufacturing processes, one process builds a metal part using laser metal deposition, and the other process finishes the part using a milling machining. The ability to produce complete functioning parts in a short time with minimal cost and energy consumption has made hybrid manufacturing popular in many industries for parts repair and rapid prototyping. Monitoring of hybrid manufacturing processes has become popular because it increases the quality and accuracy of the parts produced and reduces both costs and production time. The goal of this work is to monitor the ...


Research On Additive Manufacturing Of Metallic Glass Alloy, Yiyu Shen Jan 2018

Research On Additive Manufacturing Of Metallic Glass Alloy, Yiyu Shen

Doctoral Dissertations

"The required rapid cooling has limited the dimension of the Bulk Metallic glasses (BMGs) produced by traditional method, and hence has seriously limited their applications, despite their remarkable mechanical properties. In this present project, a detailed study is conducted on the methodology and understanding of manufacturing large Zr- based metallic glass part by laser based additive manufacturing technology, which breaks the size limitation. The first research issue proposes and develops a new additive manufacturing technology, named Laser-Foil-Printing (LFP). Sheet foils of LM105 (Zr52.5Ti5Al10Ni14.6Cu17.9 (at. %)) metallic glass are used ...


Investigation Of Microstructure And Mechanical Properties By Direct Metal Deposition, Jingwei Zhang Jan 2018

Investigation Of Microstructure And Mechanical Properties By Direct Metal Deposition, Jingwei Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Microstructure and properties of Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) parts are very crucial to meeting industrial requirements of parts quality. Prediction, and control of microstructure and mechanical properties have attracted much attention during conventional metal manufacturing process under different conditions. However, there is few investigations focused on microstructure simulation and mechanical properties control under different process parameters during DMD process. This dissertation is intended to develop a multiscale model to investigate Ti6Al4V grain structure development and explore Ti6Al4V based functionally graded material (FGM) deposit properties during DMD process. The first research topic is to investigate and develop a cellular automaton-finite element ...


Development And Management Of Advanced Batteries Via Additive Manufacturing And Modeling, Jie Li Jan 2018

Development And Management Of Advanced Batteries Via Additive Manufacturing And Modeling, Jie Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"The applications of Li-ion batteries require higher energy and power densities, improved safety, and sophisticated battery management systems. To satisfy these demands, as battery performances depend on the network of constituent materials, it is necessary to optimize the electrode structure. Simultaneously, the states of the battery have to be accurately estimated and controlled to maintain a durable condition of the battery system. For those purposes, this research focused on the innovation of 3D electrode via additive manufacturing, and the development of fast and accurate physical based models to predict the battery status for control purposes. Paper I proposed a novel ...


Modeling And Characterization Of Thermo-Oxidative Behavior Of Bismaleimide Composites, Rafid Muhammad Hussein Jan 2018

Modeling And Characterization Of Thermo-Oxidative Behavior Of Bismaleimide Composites, Rafid Muhammad Hussein

Doctoral Dissertations

"High-temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMCs) are susceptible to thermo-oxidation, which accelerates the composites' degradation and reduces the service life. Mechanical properties of HTPMCs deteriorate due to coupled thermo-oxidation and cross-linking mechanisms. Bismaleimides (BMIs) are commonly used high-temperature resins for aerospace applications. This work presents the viability of using experimental weight loss to model the spatial distribution of oxidation when the oxidized polymer matrix is not discernible. Three tasks are introduced: (1) Anisotropic oxidation prediction using optimized weight loss behavior of bismaleimide composites, (2) A multi-scale modeling of thermo-oxidative effects on the flexural behavior of cross-ply bismaleimide composites, and (3) Thermo-oxidative ...


High Temperature Polymer Composites Using Out-Of-Autoclave Processing, Sudharshan Anandan Jan 2018

High Temperature Polymer Composites Using Out-Of-Autoclave Processing, Sudharshan Anandan

Doctoral Dissertations

"High performance polymer composites possess high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and have design flexibility. Carbon/epoxy composites are commonly used aerospace materials. Bismaleimide based composites are used as a replacement for epoxy systems at higher service temperatures. Aerospace composites are usually manufactured, under high pressure, in an autoclave which requires high capital investments and operating costs. In contrast, out-of-autoclave manufacturing, specifically vacuum-bag-only prepreg process, is capable of producing low cost and high performance composites. In the current study, out-of-autoclave processing of high temperature carbon/bismaleimide composites was evaluated. The cure and process parameters were optimized. The properties of out-of-autoclave cured ...


Modeling And Simulation Of Viscoplasticity, Recrystallization, And Softening Of Alloyed Steel During Hot Rolling Process, Xin Wang Jan 2018

Modeling And Simulation Of Viscoplasticity, Recrystallization, And Softening Of Alloyed Steel During Hot Rolling Process, Xin Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Hot rolling is one of the most important and complex deformation processes in steel manufacturing and is essential to final product quality. The objective of this study is to investigate viscoplasticity, dynamic recrystallization, and static softening of alloyed metal during hot rolling process. Gleeble hot compression tests were performed to provide experimental stress-strain curves at different temperatures and strain rates. An inverse finite element analysis was performed to calibrate the experimental curves. Viscoplastic models including a Johnson-Cook (JC) model, a Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) model, and a combined JC and ZA model were developed. Dynamic recrystallization behavior was investigated and modeled based ...


Modeling And Experimental Investigations On Particle Dynamic Behaviors In Laser 3d Printing With Blown Powder, Wei Li Jan 2018

Modeling And Experimental Investigations On Particle Dynamic Behaviors In Laser 3d Printing With Blown Powder, Wei Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"Pre-mixed powder is frequently-used powder supply to fabricate Functional Gradient Material (FGM) by Laser 3D printing, which is also called Laser Metal Deposition (LMD). The deposited FGM composition is expected to be similar or same as supplied powder mixture. However, because pre-mixed powder has different particle densities and particle sizes, the caused particle acceleration differences can result in the separation in powder mixture. Up to now, there was no study focused on pre-mixed powders' flow behavior in LMD. The current research aims to investigate the flow behaviors of pre-mixed powder supplied for LMD through both experimental and modeling approaches. In ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Advanced Materials Using Laser Metal Deposition From Elemental Powder Mixture, Xueyang Chen Jan 2018

Fabrication And Characterization Of Advanced Materials Using Laser Metal Deposition From Elemental Powder Mixture, Xueyang Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

"Over the past decades of years, a great deal of money has been spent to machine large and complex parts from high-performance metals (i.e., titanium components for aerospace applications), so users attempt to circumvent the high cost of materials. Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating complicated structures with superior properties. This dissertation aims to improve the applications of LMD technique for manufacturing metallic components by using various elemental powder mixture according to the following three categories of research topics. The first research topic is to investigate and develop a cost-effective possibility by using ...


Laser Foil Printing And Surface Polishing Processes, Chen Chen Jan 2018

Laser Foil Printing And Surface Polishing Processes, Chen Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

"A foil-based additive manufacturing technology for fabricating metal parts, called Laser Foil Printing (LFP), was proposed and developed in this dissertation. The manufacturing sub-processes comprising the LFP technology were comprehensively studied, which include the laser spot welding of foil, laser raster-scan welding of foil, laser cutting of foil, and laser polishing processes. The fabricated free-form parts were demonstrated and own better mechanical properties (micro hardness and tensile strength) than the raw material, because of the rapid-cooling process of laser welding. The full and strong bond between layers was formed by the laser welding process, with no micro-cracks or pores observed ...


Supporting Engineering Design Of Additively Manufactured Medical Devices With Knowledge Management Through Ontologies, Thomas Hagedorn Jan 2018

Supporting Engineering Design Of Additively Manufactured Medical Devices With Knowledge Management Through Ontologies, Thomas Hagedorn

Doctoral Dissertations

Medical environments pose a substantial challenge for engineering designers. They combine significant knowledge demands with large investment for new product development and severe consequences in the case of design failure. Engineering designers must contend with an often-chaotic environment to which they have limited access and familiarity, a user base that is difficult to engage and highly diverse in many attributes, and a market structure that often pits stakeholders against one another. As medical care in general moves towards personalized models and surgical tools towards less invasive options emerging manufacturing technologies in additive manufacturing offer significant potential for the design of ...


Model-Based Predictive Analytics For Additive And Smart Manufacturing, Zhuo Yang Jan 2018

Model-Based Predictive Analytics For Additive And Smart Manufacturing, Zhuo Yang

Doctoral Dissertations

Qualification and certification for additive and smart manufacturing systems can be uncertain and very costly. Using available historical data can mitigate some costs of producing and testing sample parts. However, use of such data lacks the flexibility to represent specific new problems which decreases predictive accuracy and efficiency. To address these compelling needs, in this dissertation modeling techniques are introduced that can proactively estimate results expected from additive and smart manufacturing processes swiftly and with practical levels of accuracy and reliability. More specifically, this research addresses the current challenges and limitations posed by use of available data and the high ...


Computational Exploration Of Flash-Boiling Internal Flow And Near-Nozzle Spray, Sampath K. Rachakonda Jan 2018

Computational Exploration Of Flash-Boiling Internal Flow And Near-Nozzle Spray, Sampath K. Rachakonda

Doctoral Dissertations

Gasoline engines operating under the principle of direct injection are susceptible to flash-boiling due to superheated nature of the fuel and the sub-atmospheric in-cylinder pressures during injection. A review of the literature on flash-boiling sprays shows that a majority of the studies have focused on the far-field regions of the spray, with limited attention given to understanding the influences of the injector geometry and the near-nozzle regions of the spray. Modeling the internal nozzle flow and the primary atomization, on which the far-field spray depends, is a challenge. This thesis, therefore, is aimed at understanding the complex flow through a ...


Performance And Economic Analysis Of Hybrid Microhydro Systems, Ram Poudel Jan 2018

Performance And Economic Analysis Of Hybrid Microhydro Systems, Ram Poudel

Doctoral Dissertations

Microhydro (MHP) systems usually employ unregulated turbines and an electronic load controller, a demand-side control device. Existing analytical models for such systems are lacking details, especially supply-side flow control, for performance simulation at hourly or sub-hourly scales. This work developed stochastic models for downscaling of streamflow and an empirical model of MHP systems. We integrated these models within the framework of Hybrid2 tool to simulate the long-term performance of a tri-hybrid system consisting of hydropower, solar PV and wind turbine.

Based on an additive model of time series decomposition, we develop a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) model in order ...


Dynamic In Vivo Skeletal Feature Tracking Via Fluoroscopy Using A Human Gait Model, William Patrick Anderson Dec 2017

Dynamic In Vivo Skeletal Feature Tracking Via Fluoroscopy Using A Human Gait Model, William Patrick Anderson

Doctoral Dissertations

The Tracking Fluoroscope System II, a mobile robotic fluoroscopy platform, developed and built at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, presently employs a pattern matching algorithm in order to identify and track a marker placed upon a subject’s knee joint of interest. The purpose of this research is to generate a new tracking algorithm based around the human gait cycle for prediction and improving the overall accuracy of joint tracking.

This research centers around processing the acquired x-ray images of the desired knee joint obtained during standard clinical operation in order to identify and track directly through the acquired image ...


Correlating Long-Term Lithium Ion Battery Performance With Solid Electrolyte Interphase (Sei) Layer Properties, Seong Jin An Aug 2017

Correlating Long-Term Lithium Ion Battery Performance With Solid Electrolyte Interphase (Sei) Layer Properties, Seong Jin An

Doctoral Dissertations

This study was conducted to understand effects of some of key factors (i.e., anode surface properties, formation cycling conditions, and electrolyte conditions) on solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and the battery cycle life. The SEI layer passivates electrode surfaces and prevents electron transfer and electrolyte diffusion through it while allowing lithium ion diffusion, which is essential for stable reversible capacities. It also influences initial capacity loss, self-discharge, cycle life, rate capability and safety. Thus, SEI layer formation and electrochemical stability are primary topics in LIB development. This research involves experiments and discussions on key ...


Value Of Flow Measurement Accuracy In Hydropower Plants With Short Converging Intakes, Mark Herbert Christian Aug 2017

Value Of Flow Measurement Accuracy In Hydropower Plants With Short Converging Intakes, Mark Herbert Christian

Doctoral Dissertations

This report documents research undertaken to determine the value of flow measurement accuracy in hydropower plants with short converging intakes. The motivation was to provide a suite of tools and best practices to streamline flow measurement sensor modeling in any type of hydropower plant. The Lower Granite Lock and Dam hydroplant was leveraged in development of the analysis tool. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of Lower Granite Unit 4 provided necessary information about the hydraulic structures distribution through the unit. Two different CFD models were created. The first was done using the as-built plans; the second was created through modifications ...


Modeling, Analysis, Force Sensing And Control Of Continuum Robots For Minimally Invasive Surgery, Caroline Bryson Black May 2017

Modeling, Analysis, Force Sensing And Control Of Continuum Robots For Minimally Invasive Surgery, Caroline Bryson Black

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes design, modeling and application of continuum robotics for surgical applications, specifically parallel continuum robots (PCRs) and concentric tube manipulators (CTMs). The introduction of robotics into surgical applications has allowed for a greater degree of precision, less invasive access to more remote surgical sites, and user-intuitive interfaces with enhanced vision systems. The most recent developments have been in the space of continuum robots, whose exible structure create an inherent safety factor when in contact with fragile tissues. The design challenges that exist involve balancing size and strength of the manipulators, controlling the manipulators over long transmission pathways, and ...


Improving Predictive Capabilities Of Classical Cascade Theory For Nonproliferation Analysis, David Allen Vermillion May 2017

Improving Predictive Capabilities Of Classical Cascade Theory For Nonproliferation Analysis, David Allen Vermillion

Doctoral Dissertations

Uranium enrichment finds a direct and indispensable function in both peaceful and nonpeaceful nuclear applications. Today, over 99% of enriched uranium is produced by gas centrifuge technology. With the international dissemination of the Zippe archetypal design in 1960 followed by the widespread illicit centrifuge trafficking efforts of the A.Q. Khan network, traditional barriers to enrichment technologies are no longer as effective as they once were. Consequently, gas centrifuge technology is now regarded as a high-priority nuclear proliferation threat, and the international nonproliferation community seeks new avenues to effectively and efficiently respond to this emergent threat.

Effective response first requires ...


Computational Thermal-Hydraulics Modeling Of Twisted Tape Enabled High Heat Flux Components, Emily Buckman Clark May 2017

Computational Thermal-Hydraulics Modeling Of Twisted Tape Enabled High Heat Flux Components, Emily Buckman Clark

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this work was to perform a computational investigation into the thermalhydraulic performance of water-cooled, twisted tape enabled high heat flux components at fusion relevant conditions. Fusion energy is a promising option for future clean energy generation, but the community must overcome significant scientific and engineering challenges before meeting the goal of electricity generation. One such challenge is the high heat flux thermal management of components in fusion and plasma physics experiments. Plasma facing components in the magnetic confinement devices, such as ITER or W7-X, will be subjected to extreme heat loads on the order of 10-20 MW ...


Bio-Based Wind Turbine Blades: Renewable Energy Meets Sustainable Materials For Clean, Green Power, Rachel Koh Jan 2017

Bio-Based Wind Turbine Blades: Renewable Energy Meets Sustainable Materials For Clean, Green Power, Rachel Koh

Doctoral Dissertations

Wood, once the material of choice for wind turbine blades, was phased out in the late 20th century as the growing size of blades imposed stricter material requirements and glass- and carbon-fiber composites gained industry popularity. However, the last several years have seen great advances in bio-based composite materials technology, including flax, hemp, and wood composites and laminates. These materials are increasingly utilized in high-performance, structurally demanding applications, largely because they are a more sustainable choice than many other engineering materials. Today, as the first glass-fiber wind turbine blades are ready to retire, wind developers are presented with an enormous ...