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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Electric-Field Assisted Manipulation And Self-Assembly Of Particle Suspensions, Edison Chijioke Amah Jan 2018

Electric-Field Assisted Manipulation And Self-Assembly Of Particle Suspensions, Edison Chijioke Amah

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Study On The Dispersion Of Particles At A Fluid-Liquid Interface And Its Application In Hydrophilous Pollination, Naga Aditya Musunuri Jan 2017

Study On The Dispersion Of Particles At A Fluid-Liquid Interface And Its Application In Hydrophilous Pollination, Naga Aditya Musunuri

Dissertations

This dissertation work describes the physics of particle adsorption and the spontaneous dispersion of powders that occurs when they come in contact with a fluid-liquid interface and its application in hydrophilous pollination of Ruppia Maritima, an aquatic plant. The dispersion of particles can occur so quickly that it appears explosive, especially for small particles on the surface of mobile liquids like water. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurements show that the adsorption of a spherical particle at the interface causes an axisymmetric streaming flow about the vertical line passing through the particle center. The fluid directly below the particle rises upward ...


Fast Estimation Model Of Pressure-Temperature Response For Planning Focused Ultrasound Surgery, Tariq Mohammad Arif Jan 2017

Fast Estimation Model Of Pressure-Temperature Response For Planning Focused Ultrasound Surgery, Tariq Mohammad Arif

Dissertations

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is becoming a widely accepted modality for extracorporeal non-invasive hyperthermia and surgical procedures. Since ultrasonic transducers need to operate in various challenging body locations, the arrangement of their array elements can be optimized to improve the capability of controlling focus intensity. In the first part of this dissertation, patterns of pressure field variations with several selected design variables (kerf, transducer element’s number and element’s width-height) are studied. These patterns indicate that there is a more suitable shape and arrangement of transducer elements in a specified area to achieve highest possible pressure. In order ...


Aerosol Transport By Coughing In A Depressurized And Air-Conditioned Chamber, Bo Zhang Jan 2016

Aerosol Transport By Coughing In A Depressurized And Air-Conditioned Chamber, Bo Zhang

Dissertations

Expiratory droplets from human coughing in an air-conditioned environment have always been considered to be potential carriers of pathogens, responsible for respiratory disease transmission. The air movement/circulation and ambient conditions such as pressure and temperature are all key factors of aerosol transport. To study the transmission of disease by human coughing in a depressurized air-conditioned chamber, there are many technical challenges, including the following: 1) the study of simulating human coughing; 2) the collection of aerosol generated by coughing; 3) the CFD simulation of coughing-induced aerosol transport in an air-conditioned chamber; 4) the validation of such a CFD simulation ...


Field Induced Assembly Of Particulate Systems, Kinnari Shah Jan 2016

Field Induced Assembly Of Particulate Systems, Kinnari Shah

Dissertations

The primary focus of the first part of this dissertation is to study the AC field-driven assembly of monodisperse silica and glass particles on liquid - liquid interface and forming a liquid film of uniform thickness having arrangement of particles on it. This liquid film with arrangement of regular particles can be converted into a solid film by curing top UV curable liquid. Here, electric field is used as a tool to facilitate AC field-driven assembly. The work describes the assembly of different size of regular particles and effective development of solid film.


Gas-Solid Transport And Reaction Via Intervened Evaporating Sprays, Pengfei He May 2014

Gas-Solid Transport And Reaction Via Intervened Evaporating Sprays, Pengfei He

Dissertations

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a major process used for converting heavy oils to transportation fuels and light olefins. The gas-solid transport with reaction via intervened evaporating sprays in the FCC riser is specially important but complicated, with coupled mechanisms of chemical reaction and heat, momentum and mass transfer among multiple phases (liquid, solid and gas) in the restriction of wall boundary. Recent developments in FCC process models have progressed along two lines. One aims to develop composition-based kinetic models derived from molecular characterization of petroleum fractions while overlooking the hydrodynamic effect on local catalyst to oil ratio (CTO). The ...


Dynamics Of 1d Granular Column, Luo Zuo May 2014

Dynamics Of 1d Granular Column, Luo Zuo

Dissertations

This dissertation is focused on a discrete element study of the dynamics of a one- dimensional column of inelastic spheres that it subjected to taps by prescribing a half sine wave pulse to supporting floor. Contact interactions obey the Walton-Braun soft-sphere model in which the loading (unloading) path is governing by linear springs of stiffness K1, thereby producing col lisional energy loss through a constant restitution coefficient e. Over a ‘short time scale’, computations are done to examine the floor pulse wave as it propagates through the column contact network. Comparisons of the simulated findings are made with experimental measurements ...


Computational Optimization Methods For Modeling The Effect Of Muscle Forces On Bone Strength Adaptation, Catherine Siena Florio Dec 2013

Computational Optimization Methods For Modeling The Effect Of Muscle Forces On Bone Strength Adaptation, Catherine Siena Florio

Dissertations

An improved understanding of the mechanical influences that alter the strength of a bone can aid in the refinement of the wide array of currently available techniques to counteract the losses of bone strength that occur due to age or disuse both on Earth and in Space. To address this need, computational modeling methods to quantitatively analyze and compare the effects of mechanical factors on the strength of a targeted bone within a multibone, multimuscle system are developed and implemented in this work. Through a more detailed representation of the system in which the bone acts and the creation of ...


Design And Automated Operation Of A Condensation-Induced Depressurization System, Fen Du May 2012

Design And Automated Operation Of A Condensation-Induced Depressurization System, Fen Du

Dissertations

Typical examples of the use of the vacuum environments in industry include vacuum coating, vacuum drying, vacuum packing, vacuum casting, vacuum heat treatment, vacuum cooling for food storage and leakage detection. Most of these applications require a comparatively small volume of vacuum environment. However, there are also many applications where enormous vacuum chambers are needed. For example, a large vacuum chamber is used to simulate the conditions of space.

This study investigates the design and the automated operation of a vacuum generation system based on the idea of the condensation-induced depressurization with prefilled condensable medium in a confined, adiabatic chamber ...


Adsorption Of Particles On Fluid-Liquid Interfaces, Bhavin Dalal May 2012

Adsorption Of Particles On Fluid-Liquid Interfaces, Bhavin Dalal

Dissertations

Particles floating on fluid-liquid interfaces are of considerable interest because of their importance in a range of physical applications and biological processes, e.g., self-- assembly of particles at fluid-fluid interfaces resulting in novel nano structured materials, stabilization of emulsions, formation of pollen and insect egg rafts, etc. The aim of this dissertation is to explore the mechanism by which particles are adsorbed at fluid-liquid interfaces. It is shown that the inertia of a particle plays an important role in its motion in the direction normal to a fluid-liquid interface, and in determining the particles adsorption trajectory and orientation in ...


Dispersion Of Particles On Liquid Surfaces, Sathishkumar Gurupatham Aug 2011

Dispersion Of Particles On Liquid Surfaces, Sathishkumar Gurupatham

Dissertations

When small particles (e.g., flour, pollen, etc.) come in contact with a liquid surface, they immediately disperse. The dispersion can occur so quickly that it appears explosive, especially for small particles on the surface of mobile liquids like water. This explosive dispersion is the consequence of capillary force pulling particles into the interface causing them to accelerate to a relatively large velocity. The maximum velocity increases with decreasing particle size; for nanometer-sized particles (e.g., viruses and proteins), the velocity on an air-water interface can be as large as 47 m/s. They also oscillate at a relatively high ...


Modeling Of Non-Uniform Hydrodynamics And Catalytic Reaction In A Solids-Laden Riser, Rajeshkumar Patel May 2011

Modeling Of Non-Uniform Hydrodynamics And Catalytic Reaction In A Solids-Laden Riser, Rajeshkumar Patel

Dissertations

The riser reactors are widely used in a variety of industrial applications such as polymerization, coal combustion and petroleum refinery because of the strong mixing of gas and solids that yields high heat and mass transfer rates, and reaction rates. In a Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process, the performance of riser reactor is strongly dependent on the interaction between the fluid and catalysts, since the reaction takes place on the active surface of the catalysts. This is why, the local coupling between hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics is critical to the development of riser reaction models. The local gas-solids flow structure ...


Transport Mechanisms And Modeling Of Riser Reactor, Dawei Wang May 2010

Transport Mechanisms And Modeling Of Riser Reactor, Dawei Wang

Dissertations

Riser reactors are extensively employed in various industrial applications. In a riser reactor, the hydrodynamics is closely interacted with kinetic reactions. Common models for the performance prediction of riser reactors overlook this vital coupling effect, which not only miss the important reaction characteristics in the dense-phase transport regime of riser reactors but also misinterpret the kinetic properties via ad hoc adjustments. It is noted that the modeling of hydrodynamics in riser flows has major flaws in its predictability of phase transport in both dense-phase and accelerating regimes where most reactions occur. In addition, with the spray feeding of reactants at ...


Constitutive Modeling Of Glassy Memory Polymers, Mahesh Khanolkar May 2010

Constitutive Modeling Of Glassy Memory Polymers, Mahesh Khanolkar

Dissertations

The aim of this research is to develop constitutive models for non-linear materials. Here, issues related for developing constitutive model for glassy shape memory polymers are addressed in detail. Shape memory polymers are novel material that can be easily formed into complex shapes, retaining memory of their original shape even after undergoing large deformations. The temporary shape is stable and return to the original shape is triggered by a suitable mechanism such heating the polymer above a transition temperature. Glassy shape memory polymers are called glassy because the temporary shape is fixed by the formation of a glassy solid, while ...


Optimal Synthesis Of Planar Adjustable Mechanisms, Chong Peng Dec 2009

Optimal Synthesis Of Planar Adjustable Mechanisms, Chong Peng

Dissertations

Adjustable mechanisms provide degrees of flexibility while retaining desirable features of one degree of freedom close-loop mechanisms, such as simplicity, stability, and high speed capabilities. By adjusting linkage parameters, additional phases of motions can be achieved using the same hardware. However, an adjustment to the mechanism adds only one or two additional design positions and divides desired positions into "phases", each of which contains only a few positions usually insufficient for industrial applications.

In order to extend the design position limitation of adjustable mechanisms, an optimal synthesis method based on link length structural error is developed and applied to kinematic ...


Motion Coordination And Control In The Development Of A Gait Rehabilitation System, Yazan Ahmad Manna Dec 2009

Motion Coordination And Control In The Development Of A Gait Rehabilitation System, Yazan Ahmad Manna

Dissertations

While most take their ability to walk for granted, some are unable to walk due to any number of pathologies, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), and Parkinson's disease. Decreased activity has been shown to be associated with rapidly deconditioning. Rehabilitation techniques that afford patients the ability to begin reconditioning through walking sooner may ultimately enhance their return to a better quality of life. To assist the functional recovery of such patients, an appropriate afferent input to the spinal cord will help in the therapy of the patient. Manual training is labor intensive, costly, and ...


Electrohydrodynamic Manipulation Of Multiphase Fluids, Sai C. Nudurupati Aug 2009

Electrohydrodynamic Manipulation Of Multiphase Fluids, Sai C. Nudurupati

Dissertations

In microfluidic devices, the fluid can be manipulated either as continuous streams or droplets. The latter is particularly attractive as individual droplets can not only move but also split and fuse, thus offer a greater flexibility in applications such as a laboratory-on- a-chip. In this thesis, a technique is developed that uses an externally applied electric field for manipulating and removing particles trapped on the surface of a drop. The drop is assumed to be immersed in another liquid with which it is immiscible, and the electric field is generated by placing electrodes on the sides of the microdevice. Both ...


Heterogeneous Flow Structure And Gas-Solid Transport Of Riser, Jun You May 2009

Heterogeneous Flow Structure And Gas-Solid Transport Of Riser, Jun You

Dissertations

This study aims to understand physical mechanisms of gas-solid transport and riser flow, investigate heterogeneous flow structures of gas-solid transport and their formation mechanism of the in riser flows, both in axial and radial directions. It provides sound interpretation for the experimental observation and valuable suggestion to riser reactor design. Chemical reaction is also coupled with flow hydrodynamics to board the industrial applications. This study mainly focuses on mathematical modeling approach based upon physical mechanism, and endeavor to validate model prediction against available experimental data.

First of all, most important physical mechanisms including inter-particle collision force, gas/solid interfacial force ...


Experiment And Modeling : Ignition Of Aluminum Particles With A Co2 Laser, Salil Mohan Dec 2008

Experiment And Modeling : Ignition Of Aluminum Particles With A Co2 Laser, Salil Mohan

Dissertations

Aluminum is a promising ingredient for high energy density compositions used in propulsion systems, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Aluminum powder fuel additives enable one to achieve higher combustion enthalpies and reaction temperatures. Therefore, to develop aluminum based novel and customized high density energetic materials, understanding of ignition and combustion kinetics of aluminum powders is required. In most practical systems, metal ignition and combustion occur in environments with rapidly changing temperatures and gas compositions. The kinetics of exothermic reactions in related energetic materials is commonly characterized by thermal analysis, where the heating rates are very low, on the order of 1 -50 ...


Kinematic Synthesis Of Planar Four Bar And Geared Five Bar Mechanisms With Structural Constraints, Yahia Mohammad Al-Smadi Dec 2008

Kinematic Synthesis Of Planar Four Bar And Geared Five Bar Mechanisms With Structural Constraints, Yahia Mohammad Al-Smadi

Dissertations

In motion generation, the objective is to calculate the mechanism parameters required to achieve or approximate a set of prescribed rigid-body positions. This doctoral dissertation study is aimed to integrate the classical kinematic analysis of a planar four-bar and geared five-bar motion generation with three structural design constraints. These constraints consider driving link static torque, deflection of the crank and buckling of the follower for a given rigid-body load or constant external load.

This kineto-elastostatic analysis is based on the following assumptions to be considered during the analysis; the crank and the follower are elastic members and the coupler is ...


Electro Hydrodynamic Manipulation Of The Process Of Self-Assembly Of Particles At Fluid-Fluid Interfaces, Muhammad Mansoor Janjua Dec 2008

Electro Hydrodynamic Manipulation Of The Process Of Self-Assembly Of Particles At Fluid-Fluid Interfaces, Muhammad Mansoor Janjua

Dissertations

This dissertation is divided into two parts, first deals with the numerical study of motion of dielectric particles subjected to nonuniform electric fields and second deals with the process of self-assembly of particles at fluid-fluid interfaces and subjected to uniform electric field normal to the interface. In the numerical study, the particles are moved using a direct simulation scheme (DNS) in which the fundamental equations of motion of fluid and solid particles are solved without the use of models. The motion of particles is tracked using a distributed Lagrange multiplier method (DLM) and the electric force acting on the particles ...


Multi-Functional, Self-Sensing And Automated Real-Time Non-Contact Liquid Dispensing System, Qiong Shen Aug 2008

Multi-Functional, Self-Sensing And Automated Real-Time Non-Contact Liquid Dispensing System, Qiong Shen

Dissertations

Liquid dispensing in the order of pico-liter has become more and more important in biology, electronics and micro-electronic-mechanical-system (MEMS) during the past two decades due to the rapid progress of researches on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray, compact and low-cost direct write technology (DWT), organic semiconductors and nano-particles.

The existing approaches, commercialized or experimental, to liquid dispensing in minute amounts have one common shortcoming: open loop control, i.e., they have no direct control on the quality of dispensed liquid. In contrast, the SmartPin has intrinsic self-sensing capability to not only control the process of liquid dispensing, but also the ...


Density Relaxation Of Granular Matter Through Monte Carlo And Granular Dynamics Simulations, Oleksandr M. Dybenko May 2008

Density Relaxation Of Granular Matter Through Monte Carlo And Granular Dynamics Simulations, Oleksandr M. Dybenko

Dissertations

Granular materials are the principal ingredients of the industrial complex involved with the handling and processing of bulk solids including pharmaceuticals, chemicals, agricultural and mining materials. Despite the enormous importance of these materials in society, their behavior is not well-understood; in fact, there is no known model available that is capable of predicting the wide range of phenomenon that have been observed. One of the most important of these is known as density relaxation. Here, a granular material undergoes an increase in solids fraction as a result of the application of discrete taps or continuous vibrations.

In this dissertation, the ...


Micro, Meso And Macro Materials Processing Using High-Speed Liquid Projectiles, Veljko Samardzic May 2008

Micro, Meso And Macro Materials Processing Using High-Speed Liquid Projectiles, Veljko Samardzic

Dissertations

The objective of this research is developmentof aknowledge base of materials processing by the impact of high-speed liquid projectiles. The work involved experimental study of generation and applications of high-speed liquid projectiles. The projectiles were generated by the launchers, which used gunpowder as an energy source. The experiments were carried out at the low (O.35g of the powder), middle (1.2g) and high (10g to 70g) levels of energy consumptions and at several different launchers modification.

Experimental investigation of effect of gun powder mass on energy of projectile was conducted for ductile and brittle targets. An array ...


Direct Simulations Of Cells Motions And Deformations In Flow, Quan Jin May 2007

Direct Simulations Of Cells Motions And Deformations In Flow, Quan Jin

Dissertations

Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to study the motions and deformations of blood cells, especially leukocytes, in pressure driven flows in parallel plate channels with both smooth and uneven walls under adhesion force between the leukocytes and the channel wall.

Leukocytes are represented by two composite fluid models. The first model is the compound-drop model in which the cytoplasm and the nucleus are modeled as fluids, and the second one is the drop-rigid-particle model in which the cytoplasm is modeled as a fluid and the nucleus as a rigid particle. The adhesion force is computed using two adhesion force ...


Synthesis And Analysis Of Reactive Nanocomposites Prepared By Arrested Reactive Milling, Swati M. Umbrajkar May 2007

Synthesis And Analysis Of Reactive Nanocomposites Prepared By Arrested Reactive Milling, Swati M. Umbrajkar

Dissertations

Different types of reactive nanocomposites have been synthesized by Arrested Reactive Milling (ARM). The technical approach was to increase the interface area available for heterogeneous reaction between solid fuel and oxidizer components. Using aluminum as the main fuel and different metal oxides as oxidizers, highly energetic reactive nanocomposites with different degrees of structural refinement were synthesized. Specifically, stoichiometric Al-MoO3, Al-CuO, and Al-NaNO3 material systems were studied in detail.

The correlation of heterogeneous exothermic reactions occurring in the nanocomposite powders upon their heating at low rates and ignition events observed for the same powders heated rapidly was of interest ...


Investigation Of Formation And Applications Of High-Speed Liquid Projectiles, Oleg Petrenko Dec 2006

Investigation Of Formation And Applications Of High-Speed Liquid Projectiles, Oleg Petrenko

Dissertations

The work comprises experimental and numerical studies of generation and application of high-speed liquid projectiles. Numerical models were created for a projectile formation by two kinds of launchers, water extruder and water cannon. In the water extruder the kinetic energy of a fast moving piston is transferred to the water load and extrudes the load at a high speed. By contrast in the water cannon the water load itself accumulates the kinetic energy from the expanding combustion gasses. Then, in the course of water motion through the converging nozzle the energy is redistributed between head and tail of the projectile ...


Flow Characteristics And Phase Interactions Of Evaporating Sprays In Gas-Solid Suspensions, Muhammad Mushahid Rafique Qureshi Dec 2006

Flow Characteristics And Phase Interactions Of Evaporating Sprays In Gas-Solid Suspensions, Muhammad Mushahid Rafique Qureshi

Dissertations

Evaporating spray jets have a wide range of applications in many industrial processes such as fluidized catalytic cracking of crude oil in petroleum refinery, coal gasification, fluidized coking to make synthetic crude oil, and condensed mode gas polymerization. The rapid evaporation of spray jets significantly affects the gas-solids mixing, solids concentration, gas/solids temperature and gas/solids velocity acceleration. The complex interactions mechanism of phase change, three phase interaction, heat and mass transfer of gas, solids and evaporating droplets dominate the process efficiency and product quality. In such three-phase flows, the phase transport characteristics are influenced by both droplet-gas interaction ...


Nanoparticle Formation And Coating Using Supercritical Fluids, Abhijit Aniruddha Gokhale Dec 2006

Nanoparticle Formation And Coating Using Supercritical Fluids, Abhijit Aniruddha Gokhale

Dissertations

Jet breakup phenomenon and nanoparticle formation

The focus of this dissertation is to study the SAS process to manufacture nanoparticles with minimum agglomeration, controlled size and size distribution. Solution jet breakup and solvent evaporation into supercritical fluid (SC CO2) is studied using high speed charged coupled device (CCD) camera facilitated with double shot particle image veloimetry (PIV) laser and a high pressure view cell. Particles formation using SAS is studied. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) particles are formed using micron size capillary nozzles and combination of thermodynamically good and poor solvents in order to achieve nano-sized particles with reduced agglomeration and narrow ...


Constitutive Modeling Of The Thermo-Mechanics Associated With Crystallizable Shape Memory Polymers, Gautam Barot Aug 2006

Constitutive Modeling Of The Thermo-Mechanics Associated With Crystallizable Shape Memory Polymers, Gautam Barot

Dissertations

This research addresses issues central to material modeling and process simulations. Here, issues related for developing constitutive model for crystallizable shape memory polymers are addressed in details. Shape memory polymers are novel material that can be easily formed into complex shapes, retaining memory of their original shape even after undergoing large deformations. The temporary shape is stable and return to the original shape is triggered by a suitable mechanism such heating the polymer above a transition temperature. Crystallizable shape memory polymers are called crystallizable because the temporary shape is fixed by a crystalline phase, while return to the original shape ...