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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Hybrid Processes In Material Removal Of Hard And Brittle Materials, Hossein Mohammadi Dec 2018

Hybrid Processes In Material Removal Of Hard And Brittle Materials, Hossein Mohammadi

Dissertations

New technologies demand new materials with better mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. Materials that are light weight, strong with high resistance to high temperatures, and compatible with a predetermined condition. Such materials usually are challenging to manufacture and process compared to widely available materials such as metals. Ceramics and semiconductors are considered extremely hard and brittle, making them very difficult to cut and manufacture. The other major and fast-growing type of materials are composites (including Ceramic Matrix Composites, CMC) that are also considered very challenging to machine. All these materials have many applications in major industries (i.e. electronics, aerospace ...


Decomposition And Ionization Of Ionic Liquids, Forrest Grady Kidd Iii Aug 2018

Decomposition And Ionization Of Ionic Liquids, Forrest Grady Kidd Iii

Dissertations

The United States Air Force is interested in developing a situationally responsive space environment. In order to achieve this, dual-mode-propulsion will be utilized. A new class of propellants is being developed for this application based on energetic ionic liquids. Two ionic liquids of current interest are Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN) and Hydroxyethylhydrazinium Nitrate (HEHN) due to their beneficial performance characteristics. The decomposition and ionization chemistry of these two species is investigated in this work. Using GAUSSIAN09 software, reactions with important radicals are explored through quantum chemistry. The energetics of reactions as well as the identity of key product complexes are given ...


Measurements Of Fluid Structures And Mass Transport In Channel With Fabric Base, Karl David Mcallister Jun 2018

Measurements Of Fluid Structures And Mass Transport In Channel With Fabric Base, Karl David Mcallister

Dissertations

This thesis studies the relationships between flow structures and mass transport (dye concentration) within a Poiseuelle water flow glass chamber using optical flow experimental techniques in turbulent conditions. Through optical flow methods, velocity, vorticity, kinetic energy, Reynolds stress and turbulent production metrics where determined by laser illuminated glass beads and Rhodamine 6G dye removing from three different fabric substrates for multiple horizontal planes and one vertical plane. From the dye intensity, mass concentration metrics were determined providing visualization of velocity and mass transport simultaneously along with kinetic energy, mass flux, and concentration fluctuations.


Electric-Field Assisted Manipulation And Self-Assembly Of Particle Suspensions, Edison Chijioke Amah Jan 2018

Electric-Field Assisted Manipulation And Self-Assembly Of Particle Suspensions, Edison Chijioke Amah

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


A Meta-Analysis Of Energy Savings From Lighting Programs In Michigan, Teryila Ephraim Amough Jun 2017

A Meta-Analysis Of Energy Savings From Lighting Programs In Michigan, Teryila Ephraim Amough

Dissertations

In order to fill the gap in aggregates savings, the challenges faced by electric utilities for the demand of lighting energy are addressed by lighting efficiency programs. The shrinking capacity and electrical grid reliability call for improved ways to evaluate energy saving programs with evaluation methods that are robust in determining the impact of lighting programs. This study employed meta-analysis as an evaluation method to determine energy savings, impact, emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), pollutants, and health effects from lighting programs in Michigan. The findings of the study showed the programs impact in Hedges’ g of 0.36 for the ...


Study On The Dispersion Of Particles At A Fluid-Liquid Interface And Its Application In Hydrophilous Pollination, Naga Aditya Musunuri Jan 2017

Study On The Dispersion Of Particles At A Fluid-Liquid Interface And Its Application In Hydrophilous Pollination, Naga Aditya Musunuri

Dissertations

This dissertation work describes the physics of particle adsorption and the spontaneous dispersion of powders that occurs when they come in contact with a fluid-liquid interface and its application in hydrophilous pollination of Ruppia Maritima, an aquatic plant. The dispersion of particles can occur so quickly that it appears explosive, especially for small particles on the surface of mobile liquids like water. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurements show that the adsorption of a spherical particle at the interface causes an axisymmetric streaming flow about the vertical line passing through the particle center. The fluid directly below the particle rises upward ...


Fast Estimation Model Of Pressure-Temperature Response For Planning Focused Ultrasound Surgery, Tariq Mohammad Arif Jan 2017

Fast Estimation Model Of Pressure-Temperature Response For Planning Focused Ultrasound Surgery, Tariq Mohammad Arif

Dissertations

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is becoming a widely accepted modality for extracorporeal non-invasive hyperthermia and surgical procedures. Since ultrasonic transducers need to operate in various challenging body locations, the arrangement of their array elements can be optimized to improve the capability of controlling focus intensity. In the first part of this dissertation, patterns of pressure field variations with several selected design variables (kerf, transducer element’s number and element’s width-height) are studied. These patterns indicate that there is a more suitable shape and arrangement of transducer elements in a specified area to achieve highest possible pressure. In order ...


Design And Validation Of An Electro-Hydraulic Pressure-Control Valve And Closed-Loop Controller, Jerry Boza Dec 2016

Design And Validation Of An Electro-Hydraulic Pressure-Control Valve And Closed-Loop Controller, Jerry Boza

Dissertations

Electro-hydraulic pressure-control valves are used in many applications, such as manufacturing equipment, agricultural machinery, and aircrafts to name a few. They are often used to actuate hydraulic clutches, such as those found in power shift transmissions. A traditional pressure-control valve with open-loop control algorithm is typically used in clutch applications. This scheme often results in inconsistent or undesirable system behavior due to the nature of open-loop control as well as the nonlinear system dynamics and uncertainties.

In this research two new electro-hydraulic pressure-control valves were designed in order to decouple the valve and control port (hydraulic) dynamics. This was achieved ...


Aerosol Transport By Coughing In A Depressurized And Air-Conditioned Chamber, Bo Zhang Jan 2016

Aerosol Transport By Coughing In A Depressurized And Air-Conditioned Chamber, Bo Zhang

Dissertations

Expiratory droplets from human coughing in an air-conditioned environment have always been considered to be potential carriers of pathogens, responsible for respiratory disease transmission. The air movement/circulation and ambient conditions such as pressure and temperature are all key factors of aerosol transport. To study the transmission of disease by human coughing in a depressurized air-conditioned chamber, there are many technical challenges, including the following: 1) the study of simulating human coughing; 2) the collection of aerosol generated by coughing; 3) the CFD simulation of coughing-induced aerosol transport in an air-conditioned chamber; 4) the validation of such a CFD simulation ...


Field Induced Assembly Of Particulate Systems, Kinnari Shah Jan 2016

Field Induced Assembly Of Particulate Systems, Kinnari Shah

Dissertations

The primary focus of the first part of this dissertation is to study the AC field-driven assembly of monodisperse silica and glass particles on liquid - liquid interface and forming a liquid film of uniform thickness having arrangement of particles on it. This liquid film with arrangement of regular particles can be converted into a solid film by curing top UV curable liquid. Here, electric field is used as a tool to facilitate AC field-driven assembly. The work describes the assembly of different size of regular particles and effective development of solid film.


Studying The Optimum Design Of Automotive Thermoelectric Air Conditioning, Alaa Attar Dec 2015

Studying The Optimum Design Of Automotive Thermoelectric Air Conditioning, Alaa Attar

Dissertations

The remarkable amount of research being conducted on thermoelectrics gives the impression that this technology will have a bright future in power generation and temperature control systems. At the present time, thermoelectrics is applied widely for temperature control, but has not yet replaced conventional air-conditioning systems due to its lower performance. Currently, approximately 10% of annual vehicle fuel consumption corresponds to the air-conditioning system used to cool the vehicle cabin. Conventional air-conditioning systems cool the entire cabin; however, about 73% of a vehicle’s mileage occurs while the driver is the only occupant. These facts indicate the need for a ...


On The Selection Of A Good Shape Parameter For Rbf Approximation And Its Application For Solving Pdes, Lei-Hsin Kuo Aug 2015

On The Selection Of A Good Shape Parameter For Rbf Approximation And Its Application For Solving Pdes, Lei-Hsin Kuo

Dissertations

Meshless methods utilizing Radial Basis Functions~(RBFs) are a numerical method that require no mesh connections within the computational domain. They are useful for solving numerous real-world engineering problems. Over the past decades, after the 1970s, several RBFs have been developed and successfully applied to recover unknown functions and to solve Partial Differential Equations (PDEs).
However, some RBFs, such as Multiquadratic (MQ), Gaussian (GA), and Matern functions, contain a free variable, the shape parameter, c. Because c exerts a strong influence on the accuracy of numerical solutions, much effort has been devoted to developing methods for determining shape parameters which ...


Analysis Of Vibroacoustic Properties Of Dimpled Beams Using A Boundary Value Model, Kyle R. Myers Jun 2015

Analysis Of Vibroacoustic Properties Of Dimpled Beams Using A Boundary Value Model, Kyle R. Myers

Dissertations

Attention has been given recently to the use of dimples as a means of passively altering the vibroacoustic properties of structures. Because of their geometric complexity, previous studies have modeled dimpled structures using the finite element method. However, the dynamics of dimpled structures are not completely understood. The goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of these structures through the development of a boundary value model (BVM) using Hamilton's Variational Principle. The focus of this study is on dimpled beams, which represent the simplest form of a dimpled structure.

A general model of a beam with ...


Modeling Of Environmentally Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior, Sree Phani Chandar Reddy May 2015

Modeling Of Environmentally Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior, Sree Phani Chandar Reddy

Dissertations

The formation of fatigue cracks and their propagation due to cyclic loading in metals have been a concern for more than hundred years. Since fatigue failure were first reported by the railroad industry in 1840s, tremendous progress has been achieved in understanding fatigue behavior of metals. But fatigue damage is still a concern due to its complex dependency on various environmental variable like humidity, temperature, time and corrosive environment. Although numerous theories and models have been proposed in the past, the effects of environment on fatigue crack growth (FCG) is not completely understood. This dissertation aims to shed light on ...


Development And Applications Of The Expanded Equivalent Fluid Method, Bharath Kumar Kandula Aug 2014

Development And Applications Of The Expanded Equivalent Fluid Method, Bharath Kumar Kandula

Dissertations

Ocean acoustics is the study of sound in the oceans. Electromagnetic waves attenuate rapidly in the water medium. Sound is the best means to transmit information underwater. Computational numerical simulations play an important role in ocean acoustics. Simulations of acoustic propagation in the oceans are challenging due to the complexities involved in the ocean environment. Different methods have been developed to simulate underwater sound propagation. The Parabolic-Equation (PE) method is the best choice in several ocean acoustic problems. In shallow water acoustic experiments, sound loses some of its energy when it interacts with the bottom. An equivalent fluid technique was ...


Pbs Quantum Dot-Based Hetrojunction Solar Cells, Sawsan Khader Dagher Jun 2014

Pbs Quantum Dot-Based Hetrojunction Solar Cells, Sawsan Khader Dagher

Dissertations

This study investigates the influence of nanoparticles (NPs) size on their optical properties, and the effect of combination of lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs), with n-type and p-type NPs, on the photogenerated charge carriers transport across the heterojunction solar cell structure. PbS QDs, of a range of sizes, were synthesized using a co-precipitation process. In this study, p-type NPs, which are poly [3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene] –poly [styrenesulfonate] (PEDOT: PSS), copper oxide (CuO) and graphene oxide (GO); and n-type NPs which are zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2), cadmium sulfide (CdS) and bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3), were synthesized and characterized by SEM ...


Gas-Solid Transport And Reaction Via Intervened Evaporating Sprays, Pengfei He May 2014

Gas-Solid Transport And Reaction Via Intervened Evaporating Sprays, Pengfei He

Dissertations

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a major process used for converting heavy oils to transportation fuels and light olefins. The gas-solid transport with reaction via intervened evaporating sprays in the FCC riser is specially important but complicated, with coupled mechanisms of chemical reaction and heat, momentum and mass transfer among multiple phases (liquid, solid and gas) in the restriction of wall boundary. Recent developments in FCC process models have progressed along two lines. One aims to develop composition-based kinetic models derived from molecular characterization of petroleum fractions while overlooking the hydrodynamic effect on local catalyst to oil ratio (CTO). The ...


Dynamics Of 1d Granular Column, Luo Zuo May 2014

Dynamics Of 1d Granular Column, Luo Zuo

Dissertations

This dissertation is focused on a discrete element study of the dynamics of a one- dimensional column of inelastic spheres that it subjected to taps by prescribing a half sine wave pulse to supporting floor. Contact interactions obey the Walton-Braun soft-sphere model in which the loading (unloading) path is governing by linear springs of stiffness K1, thereby producing col lisional energy loss through a constant restitution coefficient e. Over a ‘short time scale’, computations are done to examine the floor pulse wave as it propagates through the column contact network. Comparisons of the simulated findings are made with experimental measurements ...


Numerical And Experimental Investigation Of Orthopaedic Fracture Fixation, Bipinchandra Patel Apr 2014

Numerical And Experimental Investigation Of Orthopaedic Fracture Fixation, Bipinchandra Patel

Dissertations

Poor bone fracture fixation leads to malunion, delayed union, non-union, or infection. These malunited fractures affect a bone’s ability to carry loads. Patient outcomes regarding fixation quality can be affected by the healing environment and human factors such as bone quality and surgeons’ perception. Furthermore, the stiffness and strength of the screw-plate construct affect the healing environment. Therefore, this dissertation investigates the stiffness and strength of the non-locking (conventional) and locking (fixed angle) type screw-plate constructs and the factors that contribute to them, such as screw-plate interface, screw design, bone density, cortical bone thickness and load orientation. Additionally, the ...


A Metaevaluation Of Energy Efficiency Evaluations, Brandy Brown Apr 2014

A Metaevaluation Of Energy Efficiency Evaluations, Brandy Brown

Dissertations

This study systematically reviews the methodological characteristics of energy efficiency evaluations and uses metaevaluation to assess its quality. Metaevaluation is used to systematically assess the quality of evaluation products, confirm that evaluations deliver sound findings and conclusions, are useful to the client, are credible, are ethically conducted, and are done as cost-effective as possible. The results of this study show that the ability to accurately assess evaluation for methodological quality using evaluations reports as a primary data source depends on the presence of detailed descriptions of evaluation methods. Furthermore, the study suggests that methodological variations of energy efficiency evaluations coalesce ...


Computational Optimization Methods For Modeling The Effect Of Muscle Forces On Bone Strength Adaptation, Catherine Siena Florio Dec 2013

Computational Optimization Methods For Modeling The Effect Of Muscle Forces On Bone Strength Adaptation, Catherine Siena Florio

Dissertations

An improved understanding of the mechanical influences that alter the strength of a bone can aid in the refinement of the wide array of currently available techniques to counteract the losses of bone strength that occur due to age or disuse both on Earth and in Space. To address this need, computational modeling methods to quantitatively analyze and compare the effects of mechanical factors on the strength of a targeted bone within a multibone, multimuscle system are developed and implemented in this work. Through a more detailed representation of the system in which the bone acts and the creation of ...


Organic Solar Cells Based On High Dielectric Constant Materials: An Approach To Increase Efficiency, Khalil Jumah Tawfiq Hamam Jun 2013

Organic Solar Cells Based On High Dielectric Constant Materials: An Approach To Increase Efficiency, Khalil Jumah Tawfiq Hamam

Dissertations

The efficiency of organic solar cells still lags behind inorganic solar cells due to their low dielectric constant which results in a weakly screened columbic attraction between the photogenerated electron-hole system, therefore the probability of charge separating is low. Having an organic material with a high dielectric constant could be the solution to get separated charges or at least weakly bounded electron-hole pairs. Therefore, high dielectric constant materials have been investigated and studied by measuring modified metal-phthalocyanine (MePc) and polyaniline in pellets and thin films. The dielectric constant was investigated as a function of temperature and frequency in the range ...


Design And Automated Operation Of A Condensation-Induced Depressurization System, Fen Du May 2012

Design And Automated Operation Of A Condensation-Induced Depressurization System, Fen Du

Dissertations

Typical examples of the use of the vacuum environments in industry include vacuum coating, vacuum drying, vacuum packing, vacuum casting, vacuum heat treatment, vacuum cooling for food storage and leakage detection. Most of these applications require a comparatively small volume of vacuum environment. However, there are also many applications where enormous vacuum chambers are needed. For example, a large vacuum chamber is used to simulate the conditions of space.

This study investigates the design and the automated operation of a vacuum generation system based on the idea of the condensation-induced depressurization with prefilled condensable medium in a confined, adiabatic chamber ...


Adsorption Of Particles On Fluid-Liquid Interfaces, Bhavin Dalal May 2012

Adsorption Of Particles On Fluid-Liquid Interfaces, Bhavin Dalal

Dissertations

Particles floating on fluid-liquid interfaces are of considerable interest because of their importance in a range of physical applications and biological processes, e.g., self-- assembly of particles at fluid-fluid interfaces resulting in novel nano structured materials, stabilization of emulsions, formation of pollen and insect egg rafts, etc. The aim of this dissertation is to explore the mechanism by which particles are adsorbed at fluid-liquid interfaces. It is shown that the inertia of a particle plays an important role in its motion in the direction normal to a fluid-liquid interface, and in determining the particles adsorption trajectory and orientation in ...


Dispersion Of Particles On Liquid Surfaces, Sathishkumar Gurupatham Aug 2011

Dispersion Of Particles On Liquid Surfaces, Sathishkumar Gurupatham

Dissertations

When small particles (e.g., flour, pollen, etc.) come in contact with a liquid surface, they immediately disperse. The dispersion can occur so quickly that it appears explosive, especially for small particles on the surface of mobile liquids like water. This explosive dispersion is the consequence of capillary force pulling particles into the interface causing them to accelerate to a relatively large velocity. The maximum velocity increases with decreasing particle size; for nanometer-sized particles (e.g., viruses and proteins), the velocity on an air-water interface can be as large as 47 m/s. They also oscillate at a relatively high ...


Modeling Of Non-Uniform Hydrodynamics And Catalytic Reaction In A Solids-Laden Riser, Rajeshkumar Patel May 2011

Modeling Of Non-Uniform Hydrodynamics And Catalytic Reaction In A Solids-Laden Riser, Rajeshkumar Patel

Dissertations

The riser reactors are widely used in a variety of industrial applications such as polymerization, coal combustion and petroleum refinery because of the strong mixing of gas and solids that yields high heat and mass transfer rates, and reaction rates. In a Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process, the performance of riser reactor is strongly dependent on the interaction between the fluid and catalysts, since the reaction takes place on the active surface of the catalysts. This is why, the local coupling between hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics is critical to the development of riser reaction models. The local gas-solids flow structure ...


Benefits Of Cpfr And Vmi Collaboration Strategies In A Variable Demand Environment, Dattaraj Kamalapurkar Jan 2011

Benefits Of Cpfr And Vmi Collaboration Strategies In A Variable Demand Environment, Dattaraj Kamalapurkar

Dissertations

In recent years, practitioners and academic researchers have emphasized that organizations need to collaborate with suppliers and customers to improve their competitive advantage. The availability of cost efficient information technologies like EDI, XML, etc. have made it possible to develop and implement many forms of collaboration strategies. Among them, Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) and Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR) are most popular, which are considered for this study. While many studies have identified the benefits of demand information sharing in supply chains; however the benefits gained by implementing collaboration strategies like VMI and CPFR in a variable demand environment ...


Beading And Dimpling Techniques To Improve The Vibration And Acoustic Characteristics Of Plate Structures, Nabeel Taiseer Alshabtat Jan 2011

Beading And Dimpling Techniques To Improve The Vibration And Acoustic Characteristics Of Plate Structures, Nabeel Taiseer Alshabtat

Dissertations

A method of improving the vibroacoustic characteristics of beams and plates is presented. This method is based on creating dimples or beads on the surface of the structures. The proposed method couples the finite element method with an optimization technique based on the genetic algorithm (GA). The improvement of the vibroacoustic characteristics of beams and plates is achieved by two separate strategies. The first strategy is optimizing the natural frequencies of beams and plates. The second strategy is minimizing the sound radiation from such vibrating structures. Optimizing the natural frequencies of some types of beams and simply supported plates by ...


Ductile Mode Material Removal Of Ceramics And Semiconductors, Deepak Ravindra Jan 2011

Ductile Mode Material Removal Of Ceramics And Semiconductors, Deepak Ravindra

Dissertations

Ceramics and semiconductors are hard, strong, inert and lightweight. They also have good optical properties, wide energy bandgap and high maximum current density. This combination of properties makes them ideal candidates for tribological, semiconductor, MEMS and optoelectronic applications respectively. Manufacturing these materials without causing surface and subsurface damage is extremely challenging due to their high hardness, brittle characteristics and poor machinability. However, ductile regime machining of these materials is possible due to the high-pressure phase transformation occurring in the material caused by the high compressive stresses induced by the single point diamond tool tip. In this study, to further augment ...


Development Of A Task Assignment Tool To Customize Job Descriptions And Close Person-Job Fit Gaps, Bryan W. Booker Aug 2010

Development Of A Task Assignment Tool To Customize Job Descriptions And Close Person-Job Fit Gaps, Bryan W. Booker

Dissertations

Does the knowledge worker fit the job or should the job fit the knowledge worker? This research developed a methodology and a tool to customize a knowledge worker’s job design to better fit their knowledge, skills, abilities and characteristics. The research outcomes support the customization of the job design to improve person-job fit, the documentation of the customized job design as a position description, and the use of a structured person-task assignment process. The recommended task assignment process includes a job aid that uses multivariate equations to predict expected task performance. Data were collected from two knowledge worker sub-groups ...