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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays Bonded To Solid Graphite Substrates: Thermal Analysis For Future Device Cooling Applications, Betty T. Quinton, Levi Elston, James D. Scofield, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay May 2018

Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays Bonded To Solid Graphite Substrates: Thermal Analysis For Future Device Cooling Applications, Betty T. Quinton, Levi Elston, James D. Scofield, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for high thermal conductivity and have potential use as nano-radiators or heat exchangers. This paper focuses on the thermal performance of carpet-like arrays of vertically aligned CNTs on solid graphite substrates with the idea of investigating their behavior as a function of carpet dimensions and predicting their performance as thermal interface material (TIM) for electronic device cooling. Vertically aligned CNTs were grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate, which creates a robust and durable all-carbon hierarchical structure. The multi-layer thermal analysis approach using Netzsch laser flash analysis system was used to evaluate their performance ...


In Situ Defect Detection Using Three Color Spectroscopy In Laser Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing, Andrew Drieling Apr 2018

In Situ Defect Detection Using Three Color Spectroscopy In Laser Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing, Andrew Drieling

The University Honors Program

Additive Manufacturing (AM) provides a way to create parts that would be extremely difficult or impossible with conventional manufacturing processes. However, AM also introduces defects, which are detrimental to the mechanical performance. These defects are potentially unknown until post-processing inspection and testing, wasting time and resources on an unusable part or initiating unexpected failure. Historically, spectroscopy has successfully been used for in situ monitoring of laser welding, using changing parameters in the generated plume to predict defects. In situ monitoring using a visible spectrometer for fabrication of Alloy 718 on a test bed laser powder bed fusion system is performed ...


Influence Of Fdm Build Parameters On Tensile And Compression Behaviors Of 3d Printed Polymer Lattice Structures, Sai Avinash Yadlapati Jan 2018

Influence Of Fdm Build Parameters On Tensile And Compression Behaviors Of 3d Printed Polymer Lattice Structures, Sai Avinash Yadlapati

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This research focuses on the compression and tensile behavior of three-dimensional printed polymer lattice structures with different printing parameters such as build orientation, infill density, and layer thickness. The body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice unit cell, which has been extensively investigated for energy absorption applications, is considered here to create compression and tensile specimens. Special test fixture was designed and developed to perform the tensile tests. The specimens were printed using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) polymer material on a Stratasys uPrint 3D printer. The printing parameters considered in this case are: (a) Three different build orientations (0, 45 and 90 degrees ...


Hierarchical Hybrid Architectures For Robust And Reusable Nano-Devices, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay Jan 2018

Hierarchical Hybrid Architectures For Robust And Reusable Nano-Devices, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Coupling Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis And Optimization Techniques For Scramjet Engine Design, Nathan T. Mcgillivray Jan 2018

Coupling Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis And Optimization Techniques For Scramjet Engine Design, Nathan T. Mcgillivray

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Various aspects of hypersonic vehicles are being rapidly explored for improved functionality. One of the main areas of consideration is the fueling of a Supersonic Combusting Ramjet (scramjet) engine. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), computer simulations can be performed to analyze the flow physics of a scramjet. In this research, an optimization code, Dakota, is integrated with the CFD to optimize a set of parameters to maximum thrust. In this study, the fuel injection and combustion is replaced with heat sources. This simplification greatly reduces the computational requirements. Additionally, the 3D geometry is reduced to an axisymmetric 2D geometry because ...


Design Of A Novel Tissue Culture System To Subject Aortic Tissue To Multidirectional Bicuspid Aortic Valve Wall Shear Stress, Janet Liu Jan 2018

Design Of A Novel Tissue Culture System To Subject Aortic Tissue To Multidirectional Bicuspid Aortic Valve Wall Shear Stress, Janet Liu

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Blood vessels experience complex hemodynamics marked by three-dimensionality and pulsatility. Arterial endothelial cells interact with the characteristics of the fluid wall shear stress (WSS) to maintain homeostasis or promote disease states. In particular, the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), a congenital heart valve anatomy consisting of two leaflets instead of three, is associated with aortic complications presumably promoted by hemodynamic abnormalities. While devices have been used to test this hypothesis, their capabilities are limited to the generation of time-varying WSS magnitude in one direction. However, the increased flow helicity generated by BAVs in the aorta is expected to result in increased ...


In Vitro Assessment Of The Effects Of Valvular Stenosis On Aorta Hemodynamics And Left Ventricular Function, Ashish Madan Jan 2018

In Vitro Assessment Of The Effects Of Valvular Stenosis On Aorta Hemodynamics And Left Ventricular Function, Ashish Madan

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Calcific aortic stenosis (CAS) is the most common valvular heart disease and is associated with aortopathy and ventricular dysfunction. Hemodynamic alterations due CAS could affect the aorta lining (endothelium), that is in direct contact with the blood, triggering adverse biological responses that may possibly cause aortic dilation and dissection. Also, CAS could impose excessive ventricular load leading to ventricular wall thickening, thus putting an individual at a higher risk of heart attack or stroke. These pathophysiological effects of CAS are highly dependent on the degree of calcification. However, the impact of CAS development on aorta flow and left ventricular workload ...


Design Optimization Of A Non-Axisymmetric Endwall Contour For A High-Lift Low Pressure Turbine Blade, Jacob Allen Dickel Jan 2018

Design Optimization Of A Non-Axisymmetric Endwall Contour For A High-Lift Low Pressure Turbine Blade, Jacob Allen Dickel

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Various approaches have been used to shape the geometry at the junction of the endwall and the blade profile in high-lift low-pressure turbine passages in order to reduce the endwall losses. This thesis will detail the workflow to produce an optimized non-axisymmetric endwall contour design for a front-loaded high-lift research turbine profile. Validation of the workflow was performed and included a baseline planar and test contour case for a future optimization study. Endwall contours were defined using a series of Bezier curves across the passage to create a smooth surface. A parametric based approach was used to develop the test ...


Measurement Of Unsteady Characteristics Of Endwall Vortices Using Surface-Mounted Hot-Film Sensors, Emma Michelle Veley Jan 2018

Measurement Of Unsteady Characteristics Of Endwall Vortices Using Surface-Mounted Hot-Film Sensors, Emma Michelle Veley

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High-lift low-pressure turbine blades produce significant losses at the junction with the endwall. The losses are caused by several complex three-dimensional vortical flow structures, which interact with the blade suction surface boundary layer. This study investigates the unsteady characteristics of these endwall flow structures on a highly loaded research profile and the adjacent endwall using surface-mounted hot-film sensors. Experiments were conducted in a low-speed linear cascade wind tunnel. The front-loaded blade profile was subjected to three different inlet conditions, consisting of two turbulence levels, and three incoming boundary layer thicknesses. Multiple surface-mounted hot-film sensors were installed throughout the passage. This ...


Fabrication And Characterizations Of Lagp/Peo Composite Electrolytes For All Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jeremy J. Lee Jan 2018

Fabrication And Characterizations Of Lagp/Peo Composite Electrolytes For All Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jeremy J. Lee

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With the rise of electric vehicles and increasing dependence on mobile electronics, the demands for lithium-ion batteries have followed in tandem for their high energy and power densities. However, traditional lithium-ion batteries consisting of liquid electrolytes have limited operating temperatures and are susceptible to ignition and subsequent fires. Recently, battery research has diverged into solid state chemistry to address the aforementioned issues. In this research, we systematically investigate a series of ceramic/polymer lithium-ion conducting composite electrolytes, i.e. Li1.4Al0.4Ge1.6(PO4)3 /lithiated polyethylene oxide (LAGP/PEO). Lithiated PEO was prepared with two different lithium salts, LiBF4 ...


Development And Thermal Management Of A Dynamically Efficient, Transient High Energy Pulse System Model, Nathaniel J. Butt Jan 2018

Development And Thermal Management Of A Dynamically Efficient, Transient High Energy Pulse System Model, Nathaniel J. Butt

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As technology advances, the abilities of civilian and military vehicles, both air and ground, will undoubtedly increase as well. One of the main areas of improvement is in the electronics area. The new electronics are ever smaller, use ever higher amounts of electrical power, and require ever smaller temperature tolerances. This leads to the problem of effectively managing the increasing thermal loads and temperature tolerances on these systems. One electronic system that causes concern is a high energy pulse system (HEPS). These devices have very high thermal loads (100s of kW). On an air vehicle, where thermal management by legacy ...


Wettability Tailoring Of Nanotube Carpets: Morphology-Chemistry Synergy For Hydrophobic–Hydrophilic Cycling, Lymeng He, Anil Karumuri, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay May 2017

Wettability Tailoring Of Nanotube Carpets: Morphology-Chemistry Synergy For Hydrophobic–Hydrophilic Cycling, Lymeng He, Anil Karumuri, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Carpet-like arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphitic carbon materials have been investigated in order to understand all-carbon hierarchical structures for multifunctional surface-active devices. Pure CNT carpets are seen to be super-hydrophobic as long as they are well aligned. For future applications involving aqueous environments, the ability to tailor the surface wettability and switch it on demand can be very useful, and enable unprecedented devices related to microfluidics, catalysis and sensing/detection systems. In this study, microwave plasma treatments were used to functionalize CNT carpets for a progressive increase in wettability so that they could eventually become super-hydrophilic. This change ...


Automated Impact Device, Jason Montavon Apr 2017

Automated Impact Device, Jason Montavon

The University Honors Program

This report outlines the progress and development ofan automated impact device (AID). This device was designed to be inexpensive, user-friendly, and modular. Developed with the parameters of vibration analysis. the AID can perform a variety of experimental procedures. Using simple C code and components that are both affordable and easy to obtain, the AID was designed to perform the same task as its more expensive counterparts. With this thought-process, the device was engineered to easily and quickly interchange components depending on the required task. Outlined in the report is the code used to operate the AID and the basic components ...


Engine Analysis, Thomas Gaier Apr 2017

Engine Analysis, Thomas Gaier

The University Honors Program

Engines were invented two hundred years ago but early dynamometers did not benefit from the technological advances until the last hundred years. A John Deere Model E hit-and-miss engine has a nominal power of3hp. The purpose of this project was to analyze this engine, including verifying power.

Outcomes of the analysis of this engine include brake horsepower and thermal efficiency. The first step was to put the engine under a load. This was done with a water pump system. Pressure, water flow, and rotation were measured from tests using the system.This type of system is analogous to a water ...


An Automated Controller Design Methodology For Six Degree-Of-Freedom Aircraft Models, Dominic J. Dierker Jan 2017

An Automated Controller Design Methodology For Six Degree-Of-Freedom Aircraft Models, Dominic J. Dierker

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This thesis presents an automated design methodology for development of six degree-of-freedom aircraft controllers. The essential functions required of the controller design are 1) to provide sufficient inner loop compensation to guarantee dynamic stability and acceptable handling qualities over the full flight envelope, and, 2) to enable automated mission following capabilities through implementation of outer loop trackers. A hierarchical control architecture consisting of nested nonlinear dynamic inversion control loops is proposed as a means of achieving these top level objectives. Gain tuning based on an automated linearization methodology is then suggested. Next, an automated optimal control allocation algorithm is tested ...


Four-Terminal Square Piezoresistive Sensors For Mems Pressure Sensing, Awlad Hossain, Ahsan Mian Jan 2017

Four-Terminal Square Piezoresistive Sensors For Mems Pressure Sensing, Awlad Hossain, Ahsan Mian

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The sensitivity of four-terminal piezoresistive sensors commonly referred to as van der Pauw (VDP) structure is investigated. The VDP sensor is considered to be fabricated on (100) silicon due to its potential application in MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) pressure sensors. The sensitivity of the VDP sensor may be affected by misalignment during the etching/diffusion process, the nonuniformity of piezoresistive coefficients through the sensor thickness, and pad size with respect to the sensor size. For this particular analysis, the effect of VDP stress sensitivity on variations in pad sizes and through-the-thickness -coefficient variation are studied as the effect of misalignment has ...


Defect Engineering: A Path Toward Exceeding Perfection, Hamed Attariani, Kasra Momeni, Kyle Adkins Jan 2017

Defect Engineering: A Path Toward Exceeding Perfection, Hamed Attariani, Kasra Momeni, Kyle Adkins

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Moving to nanoscale is a path to get perfect materials with superior properties. Yet defects, such as stacking faults (SFs), are still forming during the synthesis of nanomaterials and, according to common notion, degrade the properties. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of engineering defects to, surprisingly, achieve mechanical properties beyond those of the corresponding perfect structures. We show that introducing SFs with high density increases the Young’s Modulus and the critical stress under compressive loading of the nanowires above those of a perfect structure. The physics can be explained by the increase in intrinsic strain due to the presence ...


Analysis And Sensitivity Study Of Zero-Dimensional Modeling Of Human Blood Circulation Network, Roussel Rahman Jan 2017

Analysis And Sensitivity Study Of Zero-Dimensional Modeling Of Human Blood Circulation Network, Roussel Rahman

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The systemic circulation has a large number of vessels; therefore, 3-D simulation of pulse-wave propagation in the entire cardiovascular system is difficult and computationally expensive. Zero-Dimensional (Zero-D) and One-Dimensional (1-D) models are simplified representations of the cardiovascular network; they can be coupled as supplements to regional 3-D models for closed-loop multi-scale studies or be simulated as self-sufficient representations of the blood-flow network. Unlike Zero-D models, 1-D models can provide linear space-wise information for the vessels. However, Zero-D models can prove to be more useful in particular cases; as flexibility in adjusting parameters facilitate in tailoring the model to specific needs ...


An Investigation On The Stress Intensity Factor Of Surface Micro-Cracks, Sirisha Divya Arli Jan 2017

An Investigation On The Stress Intensity Factor Of Surface Micro-Cracks, Sirisha Divya Arli

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The contact fatigue failure in the form of micro or macro-scale pitting is an important failure mode for rolling mechanical elements, such as bearings and gears that are widely used in the automotive, aerospace and wind turbine fields. The micro-pitting process in some cases, gradually removes the surface material through fatigue wear, altering the geometry of the contact surfaces to alleviate the contact pressure decelerating the continued pitting rate. The propagation of the micro-cracks in other cases, goes deep into the material along a shallow angle, turns parallel to the surface at a certain depth, where the maximum shear or ...


3d Cfd Investigation Of Low Pressure Turbine Aerodynamics, Jacob Andrew Sharpe Jan 2017

3d Cfd Investigation Of Low Pressure Turbine Aerodynamics, Jacob Andrew Sharpe

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A 3-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) model of a highly-loaded blade profile has been developed using a commercial CFD code with an unstructured/structured grid and several different turbulence models. The ability of each model to predict total pressure loss performance is examined in terms of the spanwise loss distribution and the integrated total pressure loss coefficient. The flowfield predicted by each model is investigated through comparisons of isosurfaces of Q criterion to previous Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) results. The 3-equation k-kl-¿ model was shown to provide the most accurate performance predictions for a baseline 3-D LPT geometry, and ...


One Dimensional Computer Modeling Of A Lithium-Ion Battery, Ashwin S. Borakhadikar Jan 2017

One Dimensional Computer Modeling Of A Lithium-Ion Battery, Ashwin S. Borakhadikar

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Renewable energy storage is vitally important to many applications for which batteries are the finest choice. As energy storage technology may be applied to a number of areas that differ in power and energy requirements, modeling of battery performance is required. In recent years, a lot of research has been done in this area but, the earliest model was designed by Marc Doyle, T. F. Fuller, and J. Newman in 1993. This work involves the development of a one-dimensional computer model of a lithium-ion battery which consists of three domains: the negative electrode, the separator, and the positive electrode. The ...


Resilience And Toughness Behavior Of 3d-Printed Polymer Lattice Structures: Testing And Modeling, Mohammed Jamal Al Rifaie Jan 2017

Resilience And Toughness Behavior Of 3d-Printed Polymer Lattice Structures: Testing And Modeling, Mohammed Jamal Al Rifaie

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This research focuses on the energy absorption capability of additively manufactured or 3D printed polymer lattice structures of different configurations. The Body Centered Cubic (BCC) lattice structure is currently being investigated by researchers for energy absorption applications. For this thesis, the BCC structure is modified by adding vertical bars in different arrangements to create three additional configurations. Four designs or sets of the lattice structure are selected for comparison including BCC, BCC with vertical bars added to all nodes (BCCV), BCC with vertical bars added to alternate nodes (BCCA), and BCC with gradient arrangements of vertical bars (BCCG). Both experimental ...


Development Of Guidance Laws For A Reduced Order Dynamic Aircraft Model, Jack W. Brendlinger Jan 2017

Development Of Guidance Laws For A Reduced Order Dynamic Aircraft Model, Jack W. Brendlinger

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A set of guidance control laws has been developed for enabling three distinct modes of operation of a reduced order dynamic aircraft model. These include 1) a waypoint following control law, 2) a trajectory tracking control law, and 3) a set of kinematically constrained control laws for reaching a commanded altitude, speed or heading. The formulation of the reduced order model is presented so that the capabilities and limitations of the model are understood, and so that the interface architecture between the controllers and the plant is clearly defined. The controller formulations are then presented, together with sample results. The ...


Dynamic Modeling And Simulation Of A Variable Cycle Turbofan Engine With Controls, Robert W. Buettner Jan 2017

Dynamic Modeling And Simulation Of A Variable Cycle Turbofan Engine With Controls, Robert W. Buettner

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Next generation aircraft (especially combat aircraft) will include more technology and capability than ever before. This increase in technology comes at the price of higher electrical power requirements and increased waste heat that must be removed from components to avoid overheating induced shutdowns. To help combat the resulting power and thermal management problem, a vehicle level power and thermal management design and optimization toolset was developed in MATLAB®/Simulink®. A dynamic model of a three-stream variable cycle engine was desired to add to the capabilities of the power and thermal management toolset. As an intermediate step to this goal, the ...


Modeling Two Phase Flow Heat Exchangers For Next Generation Aircraft, Hayder Hasan Jaafar Al-Sarraf Jan 2017

Modeling Two Phase Flow Heat Exchangers For Next Generation Aircraft, Hayder Hasan Jaafar Al-Sarraf

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Two-phase heat exchangers offer the potential of significant energy transfer by taking advantage of the latent heat of vaporization as the working fluid changes phase. Unfortunately, the flow physics of the phase change process is very complex and there are significant gaps in the fundamental knowledge of how several key parameters are affected by the phase change process. Therefore, an initial investigation modeling a two-phase flow heat exchanger has been accomplished. Many key assumptions have been defined which are critical to modeling two-phase flows. This research lays an initial foundation on which further investigations can build upon. Two-phase heat exchangers ...


Dynamic Modeling Of Thermal Management System With Exergy Based Optimization, Marcus J. Bracey Jan 2017

Dynamic Modeling Of Thermal Management System With Exergy Based Optimization, Marcus J. Bracey

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System optimization and design of aircraft is required to achieve many of the long term objectives for future aircraft platforms. To address the necessity for system optimization a vehicle-level aircraft model has been developed in a multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment. Individual subsystem models developed exclusively in MATLAB-SimulinkTM, representing the vehicle dynamics, the propulsion, electrical power, and thermal systems, and their associated controllers, are combined to investigate the energy and thermal management issues of tactical air vehicle platforms. A thermal vehicle level tip-to-tail model allows conceptual design trade studies of various subsystems and can quantify performance gains across the aircraft ...


Low Velocity Impact And Rf Response Of 3d Printed Heterogeneous Structures, Sandeep Keerthi Jan 2017

Low Velocity Impact And Rf Response Of 3d Printed Heterogeneous Structures, Sandeep Keerthi

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Three-dimensional (3D) printing, a form of Additive manufacturing (AM), is currently being explored to design materials or structures with required Electro-Mechanical-Physical properties. Microstrip patch antennas with a tunable radio-frequency (RF) response are a great candidate for 3D printing process. Due to the nature of extrusion based layered fabrication; the processed parts are of three-layer construction having inherent heterogeneity that affects structural and functional response. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the anisotropy in dielectric properties of AM fabricated acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) substrates in the RF domain and resonant frequencies of associated patch antennas and ...


Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion System For Nasa Next Generation Aircraft, Hashim H. Abada Jan 2017

Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion System For Nasa Next Generation Aircraft, Hashim H. Abada

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Next generation aircraft, more specifically NASA aircraft concepts, will include new technologies and make many advancements in fuel economy and noise. However, there are some challenges associated with the latest technologies that NASA is planning to use for the next generation aircraft. For example, these aircraft concepts require large amounts of electrical power to generate the required thrust throughout a notional flight profile. One of the new technologies is using advanced propulsion systems, such as the Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system, which is significantly different from current aerospace high bypass turbofan based propulsion system. The TeDP propulsion system replaces the ...


A Look At The Optimum Slope Of A Fixed Solar Panel For Maximum Energy Collection For A One Year Time Frame, Salah Alhaidari Jan 2017

A Look At The Optimum Slope Of A Fixed Solar Panel For Maximum Energy Collection For A One Year Time Frame, Salah Alhaidari

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A rule-of-thumb for orientating fixed solar panels for optimum yearly collection of solar radiation that is not influenced by atmospheric effects is to face the panel due south in the Northern Hemisphere or due north in the Southern Hemisphere and to tilt the panel from the horizontal plane at an angle equal to the latitude of the location of the solar panel. The work presented in this thesis shows that this rule-of-thumb is an approximation for no-atmosphere, panel orientation; but not a precise value. This project presents a detailed method for determining the precise optimum tilt angle of a fixed ...


Design And Testing Of Scalable 3d-Printed Cellular Structures Optimized For Energy Absorption, Sagar Dilip Sangle Jan 2017

Design And Testing Of Scalable 3d-Printed Cellular Structures Optimized For Energy Absorption, Sagar Dilip Sangle

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Sandwich panel structures are widely used due to their high compressive and flexural stiffness and strength-to-weight ratios, good vibration damping, and low through-thickness thermal conductivity. These structures consist of solid face sheets and low-density cellular core structures that are often based upon honeycomb topologies. Interest in additive manufacturing (AM), popularly known as 3D printing (3DP), has rapidly grown in past few years. The 3DP method is a layer-by-layer approach for the fabrication of 3D objects. Hence, it is very easy to fabricate complex structures with complex internal features that cannot be manufactured by any other fabrication processes. Due to the ...