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Western Michigan University

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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Hybrid Processes In Material Removal Of Hard And Brittle Materials, Hossein Mohammadi Dec 2018

Hybrid Processes In Material Removal Of Hard And Brittle Materials, Hossein Mohammadi

Dissertations

New technologies demand new materials with better mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. Materials that are light weight, strong with high resistance to high temperatures, and compatible with a predetermined condition. Such materials usually are challenging to manufacture and process compared to widely available materials such as metals. Ceramics and semiconductors are considered extremely hard and brittle, making them very difficult to cut and manufacture. The other major and fast-growing type of materials are composites (including Ceramic Matrix Composites, CMC) that are also considered very challenging to machine. All these materials have many applications in major industries (i.e. electronics, aerospace ...


Decomposition And Ionization Of Ionic Liquids, Forrest Grady Kidd Iii Aug 2018

Decomposition And Ionization Of Ionic Liquids, Forrest Grady Kidd Iii

Dissertations

The United States Air Force is interested in developing a situationally responsive space environment. In order to achieve this, dual-mode-propulsion will be utilized. A new class of propellants is being developed for this application based on energetic ionic liquids. Two ionic liquids of current interest are Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN) and Hydroxyethylhydrazinium Nitrate (HEHN) due to their beneficial performance characteristics. The decomposition and ionization chemistry of these two species is investigated in this work. Using GAUSSIAN09 software, reactions with important radicals are explored through quantum chemistry. The energetics of reactions as well as the identity of key product complexes are given ...


Measurements Of Fluid Structures And Mass Transport In Channel With Fabric Base, Karl David Mcallister Jun 2018

Measurements Of Fluid Structures And Mass Transport In Channel With Fabric Base, Karl David Mcallister

Dissertations

This thesis studies the relationships between flow structures and mass transport (dye concentration) within a Poiseuelle water flow glass chamber using optical flow experimental techniques in turbulent conditions. Through optical flow methods, velocity, vorticity, kinetic energy, Reynolds stress and turbulent production metrics where determined by laser illuminated glass beads and Rhodamine 6G dye removing from three different fabric substrates for multiple horizontal planes and one vertical plane. From the dye intensity, mass concentration metrics were determined providing visualization of velocity and mass transport simultaneously along with kinetic energy, mass flux, and concentration fluctuations.


A Meta-Analysis Of Energy Savings From Lighting Programs In Michigan, Teryila Ephraim Amough Jun 2017

A Meta-Analysis Of Energy Savings From Lighting Programs In Michigan, Teryila Ephraim Amough

Dissertations

In order to fill the gap in aggregates savings, the challenges faced by electric utilities for the demand of lighting energy are addressed by lighting efficiency programs. The shrinking capacity and electrical grid reliability call for improved ways to evaluate energy saving programs with evaluation methods that are robust in determining the impact of lighting programs. This study employed meta-analysis as an evaluation method to determine energy savings, impact, emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), pollutants, and health effects from lighting programs in Michigan. The findings of the study showed the programs impact in Hedges’ g of 0.36 for the ...


Design And Validation Of An Electro-Hydraulic Pressure-Control Valve And Closed-Loop Controller, Jerry Boza Dec 2016

Design And Validation Of An Electro-Hydraulic Pressure-Control Valve And Closed-Loop Controller, Jerry Boza

Dissertations

Electro-hydraulic pressure-control valves are used in many applications, such as manufacturing equipment, agricultural machinery, and aircrafts to name a few. They are often used to actuate hydraulic clutches, such as those found in power shift transmissions. A traditional pressure-control valve with open-loop control algorithm is typically used in clutch applications. This scheme often results in inconsistent or undesirable system behavior due to the nature of open-loop control as well as the nonlinear system dynamics and uncertainties.

In this research two new electro-hydraulic pressure-control valves were designed in order to decouple the valve and control port (hydraulic) dynamics. This was achieved ...


Studying The Optimum Design Of Automotive Thermoelectric Air Conditioning, Alaa Attar Dec 2015

Studying The Optimum Design Of Automotive Thermoelectric Air Conditioning, Alaa Attar

Dissertations

The remarkable amount of research being conducted on thermoelectrics gives the impression that this technology will have a bright future in power generation and temperature control systems. At the present time, thermoelectrics is applied widely for temperature control, but has not yet replaced conventional air-conditioning systems due to its lower performance. Currently, approximately 10% of annual vehicle fuel consumption corresponds to the air-conditioning system used to cool the vehicle cabin. Conventional air-conditioning systems cool the entire cabin; however, about 73% of a vehicle’s mileage occurs while the driver is the only occupant. These facts indicate the need for a ...


Analysis Of Vibroacoustic Properties Of Dimpled Beams Using A Boundary Value Model, Kyle R. Myers Jun 2015

Analysis Of Vibroacoustic Properties Of Dimpled Beams Using A Boundary Value Model, Kyle R. Myers

Dissertations

Attention has been given recently to the use of dimples as a means of passively altering the vibroacoustic properties of structures. Because of their geometric complexity, previous studies have modeled dimpled structures using the finite element method. However, the dynamics of dimpled structures are not completely understood. The goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of these structures through the development of a boundary value model (BVM) using Hamilton's Variational Principle. The focus of this study is on dimpled beams, which represent the simplest form of a dimpled structure.

A general model of a beam with ...


Modeling Of Environmentally Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior, Sree Phani Chandar Reddy May 2015

Modeling Of Environmentally Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior, Sree Phani Chandar Reddy

Dissertations

The formation of fatigue cracks and their propagation due to cyclic loading in metals have been a concern for more than hundred years. Since fatigue failure were first reported by the railroad industry in 1840s, tremendous progress has been achieved in understanding fatigue behavior of metals. But fatigue damage is still a concern due to its complex dependency on various environmental variable like humidity, temperature, time and corrosive environment. Although numerous theories and models have been proposed in the past, the effects of environment on fatigue crack growth (FCG) is not completely understood. This dissertation aims to shed light on ...


A Metaevaluation Of Energy Efficiency Evaluations, Brandy Brown Apr 2014

A Metaevaluation Of Energy Efficiency Evaluations, Brandy Brown

Dissertations

This study systematically reviews the methodological characteristics of energy efficiency evaluations and uses metaevaluation to assess its quality. Metaevaluation is used to systematically assess the quality of evaluation products, confirm that evaluations deliver sound findings and conclusions, are useful to the client, are credible, are ethically conducted, and are done as cost-effective as possible. The results of this study show that the ability to accurately assess evaluation for methodological quality using evaluations reports as a primary data source depends on the presence of detailed descriptions of evaluation methods. Furthermore, the study suggests that methodological variations of energy efficiency evaluations coalesce ...


Numerical And Experimental Investigation Of Orthopaedic Fracture Fixation, Bipinchandra Patel Apr 2014

Numerical And Experimental Investigation Of Orthopaedic Fracture Fixation, Bipinchandra Patel

Dissertations

Poor bone fracture fixation leads to malunion, delayed union, non-union, or infection. These malunited fractures affect a bone’s ability to carry loads. Patient outcomes regarding fixation quality can be affected by the healing environment and human factors such as bone quality and surgeons’ perception. Furthermore, the stiffness and strength of the screw-plate construct affect the healing environment. Therefore, this dissertation investigates the stiffness and strength of the non-locking (conventional) and locking (fixed angle) type screw-plate constructs and the factors that contribute to them, such as screw-plate interface, screw design, bone density, cortical bone thickness and load orientation. Additionally, the ...


Organic Solar Cells Based On High Dielectric Constant Materials: An Approach To Increase Efficiency, Khalil Jumah Tawfiq Hamam Jun 2013

Organic Solar Cells Based On High Dielectric Constant Materials: An Approach To Increase Efficiency, Khalil Jumah Tawfiq Hamam

Dissertations

The efficiency of organic solar cells still lags behind inorganic solar cells due to their low dielectric constant which results in a weakly screened columbic attraction between the photogenerated electron-hole system, therefore the probability of charge separating is low. Having an organic material with a high dielectric constant could be the solution to get separated charges or at least weakly bounded electron-hole pairs. Therefore, high dielectric constant materials have been investigated and studied by measuring modified metal-phthalocyanine (MePc) and polyaniline in pellets and thin films. The dielectric constant was investigated as a function of temperature and frequency in the range ...


Ductile Mode Material Removal Of Ceramics And Semiconductors, Deepak Ravindra Jan 2011

Ductile Mode Material Removal Of Ceramics And Semiconductors, Deepak Ravindra

Dissertations

Ceramics and semiconductors are hard, strong, inert and lightweight. They also have good optical properties, wide energy bandgap and high maximum current density. This combination of properties makes them ideal candidates for tribological, semiconductor, MEMS and optoelectronic applications respectively. Manufacturing these materials without causing surface and subsurface damage is extremely challenging due to their high hardness, brittle characteristics and poor machinability. However, ductile regime machining of these materials is possible due to the high-pressure phase transformation occurring in the material caused by the high compressive stresses induced by the single point diamond tool tip. In this study, to further augment ...


Benefits Of Cpfr And Vmi Collaboration Strategies In A Variable Demand Environment, Dattaraj Kamalapurkar Jan 2011

Benefits Of Cpfr And Vmi Collaboration Strategies In A Variable Demand Environment, Dattaraj Kamalapurkar

Dissertations

In recent years, practitioners and academic researchers have emphasized that organizations need to collaborate with suppliers and customers to improve their competitive advantage. The availability of cost efficient information technologies like EDI, XML, etc. have made it possible to develop and implement many forms of collaboration strategies. Among them, Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) and Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR) are most popular, which are considered for this study. While many studies have identified the benefits of demand information sharing in supply chains; however the benefits gained by implementing collaboration strategies like VMI and CPFR in a variable demand environment ...


Beading And Dimpling Techniques To Improve The Vibration And Acoustic Characteristics Of Plate Structures, Nabeel Taiseer Alshabtat Jan 2011

Beading And Dimpling Techniques To Improve The Vibration And Acoustic Characteristics Of Plate Structures, Nabeel Taiseer Alshabtat

Dissertations

A method of improving the vibroacoustic characteristics of beams and plates is presented. This method is based on creating dimples or beads on the surface of the structures. The proposed method couples the finite element method with an optimization technique based on the genetic algorithm (GA). The improvement of the vibroacoustic characteristics of beams and plates is achieved by two separate strategies. The first strategy is optimizing the natural frequencies of beams and plates. The second strategy is minimizing the sound radiation from such vibrating structures. Optimizing the natural frequencies of some types of beams and simply supported plates by ...


Development Of A Task Assignment Tool To Customize Job Descriptions And Close Person-Job Fit Gaps, Bryan W. Booker Aug 2010

Development Of A Task Assignment Tool To Customize Job Descriptions And Close Person-Job Fit Gaps, Bryan W. Booker

Dissertations

Does the knowledge worker fit the job or should the job fit the knowledge worker? This research developed a methodology and a tool to customize a knowledge worker’s job design to better fit their knowledge, skills, abilities and characteristics. The research outcomes support the customization of the job design to improve person-job fit, the documentation of the customized job design as a position description, and the use of a structured person-task assignment process. The recommended task assignment process includes a job aid that uses multivariate equations to predict expected task performance. Data were collected from two knowledge worker sub-groups ...


Modeling The Momentum And Mass Transfer Within A Micro-Scale Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell For Flows Within The Slip Flow Regime, Sean Tamarun Goudy May 2010

Modeling The Momentum And Mass Transfer Within A Micro-Scale Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell For Flows Within The Slip Flow Regime, Sean Tamarun Goudy

Dissertations

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are heterogeneous catalytic systems. Although there are many computational models that describe the behavior of PEM fuel cells, few simulate the catalyst surface concentration of reactant gases at the catalyst layer-membrane layer inteface. Most PEM fuel cell models make no distinction between the bulk concentration of reactants and the catalyst surface concentration of reactants. It is the surface concentration that is key when studying PEM fuel cell systems: the reactions occur at the surface of the catalyst.

In addition, few model the dynamics within the non-continuum flow region near the solid surfaces of ...


Optimum Failure Truncated Testing Strategies, Erik Kostandyan May 2010

Optimum Failure Truncated Testing Strategies, Erik Kostandyan

Dissertations

Accumulated fatigue damage on mechanical components due to random stress loads eventually causes failure. Therefore products with lower failure rates are more desirable. Testing mechanical components for their intended purpose under predetermined working conditions is a common practice used by industries to prevent failures. Fatigue tests are categorized as Time Truncated or Failure Truncated, known in the literature as Type I and Type II tests, respectively. In failure truncated tests, the mechanical components are tested until the desired number of results is obtained. The parameters of a typical failure truncated test include the capacity of the test facility, the actual ...


Simulation, Synthesis, And Characterization Of Hydrogels And Nanocomposite Gels., Kamleshkumar J. Suthar Dec 2009

Simulation, Synthesis, And Characterization Of Hydrogels And Nanocomposite Gels., Kamleshkumar J. Suthar

Dissertations

Stimuli-responsive gels are three-dimensional, cross-linked polymeric materials that undergo large physical change in response to the environmental stimuli, like temperature, pH, electrical potential, and irradiation. Ferrogels are colloidaldispersion of magnetic nanoparticles in the hydrogel network. The magnetic nanoparticles are attached to the polymeric network by different adhesive forces; as a result, it becomes sensitive to the applied magnetic field.

The main objective of this research is the simulation, synthesis, and characterization of the hydrogel and ferrogel. Simulation of the hydrogel response was performed for various environmental stimuli using a multiphysics finite element analysis software, COMSOL. The pH and electrical response ...


Analytical, Computational And Experimental Studies Of Capillary Flow In Complex Geometries, Yongqing Peng Aug 2009

Analytical, Computational And Experimental Studies Of Capillary Flow In Complex Geometries, Yongqing Peng

Dissertations

The dynamic processes of capillary flow in complex geometries have been studied analytically, computationally and experimentally in this research. A general approach for modeling the capillary flow in arbitrary irregular geometries with straight axis of symmetry is proposed. Using this approach, the governing equation to describe the dynamic capillary rising motion in capillaries with nonuniform elliptical cross-section is first derived under the assumptions of parabolic distribution of the axial velocity and constant contact angle. The calculation results for the capillary flow in different tubes with irregular wall show that, in comparison with existing models that have been tested, the present ...


Atomistic-Based Finite Element Simulation Of Carbon Nanotubes, Yang Yang Dec 2008

Atomistic-Based Finite Element Simulation Of Carbon Nanotubes, Yang Yang

Dissertations

Since first found in the form of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by Iijima(1991), carbon nanotube (CNT) for its outstanding and unique properties have gained overwhelming attentions from across the spectrum of the science and engineering fields. CNTs are structurally perfect, small size, low density, high stiffness, high strength (Qian et al., 2002), and their electronic properties depend on the particular distortion as well as the initial tube diameter and chirality, ranging from narrow-gap or moderate-gap semiconducting to metallic (Pantano et al., 2004b), which can be utilized in nanoscale sensors and devices. These appealing characteristics provide strong drives for the ...


Load Interaction Effects On Fatigue Crack Growth, Stoyan Ivanov Stoychev Jun 2005

Load Interaction Effects On Fatigue Crack Growth, Stoyan Ivanov Stoychev

Dissertations

Load excursions, in the form of tensile and compressive overloads are known to produce interaction effects during subsequent constant amplitude loading. In this work, the fatigue crack growth and crack closure levels, under both constant amplitude and variable amplitude loading, are investigated in the aluminium-lithium alloy 2090-T84, and the aluminium alloys 2024-T351 and 7150-T651. The crack closure measurements were obtained using both a crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) gauge and a crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) gauge.

Fatigue crack growth tests were performed on specimens of thickness 1.6mm, 3mm, 6mm and 14mm. Tests were performed at load ratios of ...


Investigation Of The Iced Flowfield Characteristics Related To The Stall Margin Instrumentation Used In Icing Conditions, Erik Pederson Jun 2003

Investigation Of The Iced Flowfield Characteristics Related To The Stall Margin Instrumentation Used In Icing Conditions, Erik Pederson

Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the relationship between the flowfield surrounding an iced airfoil and the stall margin instrumentation developed for use in icing conditions. The stall margin system indicates to the pilot the change in available lift due to ice accretions on the leading edge of an airfoil. This system displays the change in the form of a normalized lift coefficient. Four pressure ports are chosen to specifically maintain a constant calibration curve, for pressure versus normalized lift coefficient, regardless of ice shape. This allows these pressures to be used to determine the change in maximum ...


Study Of Automotive Hydromount Mechanism, Min Lu Apr 2001

Study Of Automotive Hydromount Mechanism, Min Lu

Dissertations

The hydromount mechanism is studied. It was determined that the dynamic characteristics of the hydromounts are related to the rubber static stiffness, rubber damping coefficient, volumetric stiffness, and effectiveness of the oscillating fluid in the inertia track. At high frequencies the motion of the fluid in the inertia track diminishes so that its effect is negligible and may be ignored. It is also concluded that the rubber damping has a minimal effect on the hydromount dynamic properties and may be neglected. The maximum loss angle, which corresponds to the maximum damping coefficient of the hydromount, occurs near the inertia track ...


Active Local Volume Displacement Cancellation Of A Vibrating Baffled Beam, Marcellin Zahui Aug 1999

Active Local Volume Displacement Cancellation Of A Vibrating Baffled Beam, Marcellin Zahui

Dissertations

An active noise control apparatus is developed. The device reduces the sound radiated from a vibrating clamped beam. The attenuation of the sound field is obtained through minimization of local volume displacements of the vibrating beam. Two single-input/single-output cancellation devices are used. Each device employs a motion sensor and an acoustic actuator. The actuator is a loudspeaker equipped with a pressure sensor to detect its volume displacement. The motion sensor signal is related to the local volume displacement of the structure which is then reduced by a loudspeaker driven with an equal but opposing volume displacement. The volume displacement ...