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University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Doctoral Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Dynamic In Vivo Skeletal Feature Tracking Via Fluoroscopy Using A Human Gait Model, William Patrick Anderson Dec 2017

Dynamic In Vivo Skeletal Feature Tracking Via Fluoroscopy Using A Human Gait Model, William Patrick Anderson

Doctoral Dissertations

The Tracking Fluoroscope System II, a mobile robotic fluoroscopy platform, developed and built at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, presently employs a pattern matching algorithm in order to identify and track a marker placed upon a subject’s knee joint of interest. The purpose of this research is to generate a new tracking algorithm based around the human gait cycle for prediction and improving the overall accuracy of joint tracking.

This research centers around processing the acquired x-ray images of the desired knee joint obtained during standard clinical operation in order to identify and track directly through the acquired image ...


Value Of Flow Measurement Accuracy In Hydropower Plants With Short Converging Intakes, Mark Herbert Christian Aug 2017

Value Of Flow Measurement Accuracy In Hydropower Plants With Short Converging Intakes, Mark Herbert Christian

Doctoral Dissertations

This report documents research undertaken to determine the value of flow measurement accuracy in hydropower plants with short converging intakes. The motivation was to provide a suite of tools and best practices to streamline flow measurement sensor modeling in any type of hydropower plant. The Lower Granite Lock and Dam hydroplant was leveraged in development of the analysis tool. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of Lower Granite Unit 4 provided necessary information about the hydraulic structures distribution through the unit. Two different CFD models were created. The first was done using the as-built plans; the second was created through modifications ...


Correlating Long-Term Lithium Ion Battery Performance With Solid Electrolyte Interphase (Sei) Layer Properties, Seong Jin An Aug 2017

Correlating Long-Term Lithium Ion Battery Performance With Solid Electrolyte Interphase (Sei) Layer Properties, Seong Jin An

Doctoral Dissertations

This study was conducted to understand effects of some of key factors (i.e., anode surface properties, formation cycling conditions, and electrolyte conditions) on solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and the battery cycle life. The SEI layer passivates electrode surfaces and prevents electron transfer and electrolyte diffusion through it while allowing lithium ion diffusion, which is essential for stable reversible capacities. It also influences initial capacity loss, self-discharge, cycle life, rate capability and safety. Thus, SEI layer formation and electrochemical stability are primary topics in LIB development. This research involves experiments and discussions on key ...


Improving Predictive Capabilities Of Classical Cascade Theory For Nonproliferation Analysis, David Allen Vermillion May 2017

Improving Predictive Capabilities Of Classical Cascade Theory For Nonproliferation Analysis, David Allen Vermillion

Doctoral Dissertations

Uranium enrichment finds a direct and indispensable function in both peaceful and nonpeaceful nuclear applications. Today, over 99% of enriched uranium is produced by gas centrifuge technology. With the international dissemination of the Zippe archetypal design in 1960 followed by the widespread illicit centrifuge trafficking efforts of the A.Q. Khan network, traditional barriers to enrichment technologies are no longer as effective as they once were. Consequently, gas centrifuge technology is now regarded as a high-priority nuclear proliferation threat, and the international nonproliferation community seeks new avenues to effectively and efficiently respond to this emergent threat.

Effective response first requires ...


Computational Thermal-Hydraulics Modeling Of Twisted Tape Enabled High Heat Flux Components, Emily Buckman Clark May 2017

Computational Thermal-Hydraulics Modeling Of Twisted Tape Enabled High Heat Flux Components, Emily Buckman Clark

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this work was to perform a computational investigation into the thermalhydraulic performance of water-cooled, twisted tape enabled high heat flux components at fusion relevant conditions. Fusion energy is a promising option for future clean energy generation, but the community must overcome significant scientific and engineering challenges before meeting the goal of electricity generation. One such challenge is the high heat flux thermal management of components in fusion and plasma physics experiments. Plasma facing components in the magnetic confinement devices, such as ITER or W7-X, will be subjected to extreme heat loads on the order of 10-20 MW ...


Modeling, Analysis, Force Sensing And Control Of Continuum Robots For Minimally Invasive Surgery, Caroline Bryson Black May 2017

Modeling, Analysis, Force Sensing And Control Of Continuum Robots For Minimally Invasive Surgery, Caroline Bryson Black

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes design, modeling and application of continuum robotics for surgical applications, specifically parallel continuum robots (PCRs) and concentric tube manipulators (CTMs). The introduction of robotics into surgical applications has allowed for a greater degree of precision, less invasive access to more remote surgical sites, and user-intuitive interfaces with enhanced vision systems. The most recent developments have been in the space of continuum robots, whose exible structure create an inherent safety factor when in contact with fragile tissues. The design challenges that exist involve balancing size and strength of the manipulators, controlling the manipulators over long transmission pathways, and ...


Impedance-Resolved Performance And Durability In Redox Flow Batteries, Alan Michael Pezeshki Dec 2016

Impedance-Resolved Performance And Durability In Redox Flow Batteries, Alan Michael Pezeshki

Doctoral Dissertations

The realization of redox flow batteries (RFBs) as a grid-scale energy solution depends on improving the performance and lifetime of the technology to decrease the high capital costs. The electrodes are a key component in the RFB; performance enhancement is often achieved through chemical or thermal treatments of commercially available porous carbon materials.

This dissertation uses impedance spectroscopy-based methods to gain insight into performance and durability in RFBs, enabling intelligent cell design. Initial work focused on understanding the impact of improved electrode and membrane properties on system performance. An accelerated stress test was then developed that can be used to ...


Investigation Of Localized Performance And Gas Evolution In All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Via In-Situ Distributed Diagnostic Techniques, Jason Thomas Clement Dec 2016

Investigation Of Localized Performance And Gas Evolution In All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Via In-Situ Distributed Diagnostic Techniques, Jason Thomas Clement

Doctoral Dissertations

All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are an emerging grid-scale energy storage technology; however, enhancements in terms of performance, efficiency, durability, and cost are required before it can become commercially viable. These improvements are achievable through the development of advanced materials, superior architecture, and ultimately a deeper fundamental understanding of the influence of various phenomena and operational parameters on cell performance. There currently are a lack of in-situ experimental diagnostic techniques which can help in achieving this fundamental understanding.

Two separate distributed diagnostic techniques were developed in this work: in-plane current distribution, and neutron radiography. Localized current distribution measurements can identify ...


Parametric Instability And Vibration Suppression Of Planetary Gear Transmissions Supported On Boundary Struts, Peng Guan Dec 2016

Parametric Instability And Vibration Suppression Of Planetary Gear Transmissions Supported On Boundary Struts, Peng Guan

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores the effects of discrete boundary strut properties on stability and vibration of the planetary gear transmission (PGT) driveline systems. Also, a robust output feedback control law is developed to actively control the PGT system vibrations. To better obtain boundary strut properties, a light-weight boundary strut design was developed for two popular boundary strut configurations by considering yield stress, buckling, and local buckling constraints. To facilitate analysis and development of the active control law, a comprehensive analytical PGT driveline system with elastic ring model, including gyroscopic effect and rotating-frame damping, is developed. The equation of motion of the ...


Deterministic Neutron Transport And Multiphysics Experimental Safety Analyses At The High Flux Isotope Reactor, Christopher James Hurt Dec 2016

Deterministic Neutron Transport And Multiphysics Experimental Safety Analyses At The High Flux Isotope Reactor, Christopher James Hurt

Doctoral Dissertations

The computational ability to accurately predict the conditions in an experiment under irradiation is a valuable tool in the operation of a research reactor whose scientific mission includes isotope production, materials irradiation, and neutron activation analysis. Understanding of different governing physics is required to ascertain satisfactory conditions within the experiment: the neutron transport behavior throughout the reactor and the coupled behavior of heat transfer, structural mechanics and fluid flow. Computational methods and tools were developed for robust numerical analysis of experiment behavior at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), including fully-coupled thermo-mechanics in three plutonium-238 ...


Fundamental Studies Of Electrochemical Reactions And Microfluidics In Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer Cells, Jingke Mo Dec 2016

Fundamental Studies Of Electrochemical Reactions And Microfluidics In Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer Cells, Jingke Mo

Doctoral Dissertations

In electrochemical energy devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers and batteries, the electrochemical reactions occur only on triple phase boundaries (TPBs). The boundaries provide the conductors for electros and protons, the catalysts for electrochemical reactions and the effective pathways for transport of reactants and products. The interfaces have a critical impact on the overall performance and cost of the devices in which they are incorporated, and therefore could be a key feature to optimize in order to turn a prototype into a commercially viable product. For electrolysis of water, proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells (PEMECs) have several advantages compared to other ...


Turbine Engine Rotor Blade Damage Detection Through The Analysis Of Vibration Of Stationary Components, Jon Rylan Cox Dec 2016

Turbine Engine Rotor Blade Damage Detection Through The Analysis Of Vibration Of Stationary Components, Jon Rylan Cox

Doctoral Dissertations

Rotor blade fault detection and health monitoring systems are crucial for gas turbine engine testing and evaluation. The most commonly used techniques involve monitoring blades directly using strain gages, or drilling optical access holes in the engine casing for non-contact probes to monitor blade deflection and vibration. In this work, less intrusive, indirect techniques for rotor blade fault detection are developed, based on the hypotheses that the vibratory response of stationary components excited by the rotor blade dynamic pressure pulse can be used to detect the presence, location, and severity of rotor blade damage and changes in rotor blade natural ...


Lattice Boltzmann Methods For Wind Energy Analysis, Stephen Lloyd Wood Aug 2016

Lattice Boltzmann Methods For Wind Energy Analysis, Stephen Lloyd Wood

Doctoral Dissertations

An estimate of the United States wind potential conducted in 2011 found that the energy available at an altitude of 80 meters is approximately triple the wind energy available 50 meters above ground. In 2012, 43% of all new electricity generation installed in the U.S. (13.1 GW) came from wind power. The majority of this power, 79%, comes from large utility scale turbines that are being manufactured at unprecedented sizes. Existing wind plants operate with a capacity factor of only approximately 30%. Measurements have shown that the turbulent wake of a turbine persists for many rotor diameters, inducing ...


Adaptive Kernel Estimation For Enhanced Filtering And Pattern Classification Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Novel Techniques For Evaluating The Biomechanics And Pathologic Conditions Of The Lumbar Spine, Nicholas Vincent Battaglia May 2016

Adaptive Kernel Estimation For Enhanced Filtering And Pattern Classification Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Novel Techniques For Evaluating The Biomechanics And Pathologic Conditions Of The Lumbar Spine, Nicholas Vincent Battaglia

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the contribution the lumbar spine musculature has on etiological and pathogenic characteristics of low back pain and lumbar spondylosis. This endeavor necessarily required a two-step process: 1) design of an accurate post-processing method for extracting relevant information via magnetic resonance images and 2) determine pathological trends by elucidating high-dimensional datasets through multivariate pattern classification. The lumbar musculature was initially evaluated by post-processing and segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the lumbar spine, which characteristically suffer from nonlinear corruption of the signal intensity. This so called intensity inhomogeneity degrades the efficacy of traditional intensity-based segmentation algorithms. Proposed ...


Investigation Of Langmuir Probes In Non-Maxwellian Plasma Using Particle-In-Cell (Pic) Modeling, Densu Aktas Lister May 2016

Investigation Of Langmuir Probes In Non-Maxwellian Plasma Using Particle-In-Cell (Pic) Modeling, Densu Aktas Lister

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores the development of a capability for simulating the plasma dynamics of Langmuir probes (LP) in complex plasmas where the velocity distributions are non-equilibrium and the electron energy spectrum is non-Maxwellian with respect to laboratory and space experiments. The results of this investigation are interpreted to give recommendations for design and use of LPs. This work is conducted using computational techniques to create the exact plasma conditions of the experimental testing environments. The investigations address the following topics:

  • development of a technique to model non-Maxwellian physics,
  • modification of a baseline-technique and optimization of it for this application,
  • creation ...


Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi May 2016

Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation combines self-assembly phenomena of amphiphilic molecules with soft materials to create and characterize mechanoelectrical transducers and sensors whose sensing elements are thin-film bioinspired membranes comprised of phospholipids or amphiphilic polymers. We show that the structures of these amphiphilic molecules tune the mechanical and electrical properties of these membranes. We show that these properties affect the mechanoelectrical sensing characteristic and range of operation of these membrane transducers. In the experiments, we construct and characterize a membrane-based hair cell embodiment that enables the membrane to be responsive to mechanical perturbations of the hair. The resulting oscillations of membranes formed between ...


Computational Simulation Of Mass Transport And Energy Transfer In The Microbial Fuel Cell System, Shiqi Ou Dec 2015

Computational Simulation Of Mass Transport And Energy Transfer In The Microbial Fuel Cell System, Shiqi Ou

Doctoral Dissertations

This doctoral dissertation introduces the research in the computational modeling and simulation for the microbial fuel cell (MFC) system which is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. The numerical methods, research approaches and simulation comparison with the experiments in the microbial fuel cells are described; the analysis and evaluation for the model methods and results that I have achieved are presented in this dissertation.

The development of the renewable energy has been a hot topic, and scientists have been focusing on the microbial fuel cell, which is an environmentally-friendly ...


An Application Of Path-Percolation Theory And Lattice-Boltzmann Model On Mass Transfer In Inhomogeneous Porous Media, Ozgur Cekmer Aug 2015

An Application Of Path-Percolation Theory And Lattice-Boltzmann Model On Mass Transfer In Inhomogeneous Porous Media, Ozgur Cekmer

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, random inhomogeneous porous channels were generated statistically, and single- and multi-phase flow models were developed to investigate diffusion behavior of gases in porous media. Three different methods were used to simulate inhomogeneous porous flow channels. First, the path-percolation theory was adapted in diffusion studies to generate random high-tortuosity (above 1.07) porous channels with a desired porosity within a specified confidence level. Cluster labeling process was applied to simulate paths for the gas molecules, and the resulting effective porosity was investigated statistically. Second, the double-path-percolation theory was introduced to simulate low-tortuosity (between 1.0005 and 1.0700 ...


Measurements Of Methyl Radicals And Temperatures By Using Coherent Microwave Rayleigh Scattering From Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization, Yue Wu Aug 2015

Measurements Of Methyl Radicals And Temperatures By Using Coherent Microwave Rayleigh Scattering From Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization, Yue Wu

Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis includes two main parts: (I) The CH3[methyl radical] detection in methane/air flames and (II) the rotational temperature measurement of O2[molecular oxygen] in a variety of environments by using coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering from resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (Radar REMPI).

In first the part, from Chapter I to Chapter III, the methyl radical detection and quantitative measurements have been conducted in hydrocarbon flame with one-dimensional and two-dimensional spatial-resolved concentration distribution. Due to the proximity of the argon resonance state (4+1 REMPI by 332.5 nm) with the CH3 state (2+1 REMPI ...


Energy Selective Neutron Imaging For The Characterization Of Polycrystalline Materials, Robin Woracek May 2015

Energy Selective Neutron Imaging For The Characterization Of Polycrystalline Materials, Robin Woracek

Doctoral Dissertations

This multipart dissertation focuses on the development and evaluation of advanced methods for material testing and characterization using neutron diffraction and imaging techniques. A major focus is on exploiting diffraction contrast in energy selective neutron imaging (often referred to as Bragg edge imaging) for strain and phase mapping of crystalline materials. The dissertation also evaluates the use of neutron diffraction to study the effect of multi-axial loading, in particular the role of applying directly shear strains from the application of torsion. A portable tension-torsion-tomography loading system has been developed for in-situ measurements and integrated at major user facilities around the ...


Dynamic Simulation And Neuromuscular Control Of Movement: Applications For Predictive Simulations Of Balance Recovery, Misagh Mansouri Boroujeni May 2015

Dynamic Simulation And Neuromuscular Control Of Movement: Applications For Predictive Simulations Of Balance Recovery, Misagh Mansouri Boroujeni

Doctoral Dissertations

Balance is among the most challenging tasks for patients with movement disorders. Study and treatment of these disorders could greatly benefit from combined software tools that offer better insights into neuromuscular biomechanics, and predictive capabilities for optimal surgical and rehabilitation treatment planning. A platform was created to combine musculoskeletal modeling, closed-loop forward dynamic simulation, optimization techniques, and neuromuscular control system design. Spinal (stretch-reflex) and supraspinal (operational space task-based) controllers were developed to test simulation-based hypotheses related to balance recovery and movement control. A corrective procedure (rectus femoris transfer surgery) was targeted for children experiencing stiff-knee gait and how this procedure ...


Calibration And Rescaling Principles For Nonlinear Inverse Heat Conduction And Parameter Estimation Problems, Yinyuan Chen May 2015

Calibration And Rescaling Principles For Nonlinear Inverse Heat Conduction And Parameter Estimation Problems, Yinyuan Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation provides a systematic method for resolving nonlinear inverse heat conduction problems based on a calibration formulation and its accompanying principles. It is well-known that inverse heat conduction problems are ill-posed and hence subject to stability and uniqueness issues. Regularization methods are required to extract the best prediction based on a family of solutions. To date, most studies require sophisticated and combined numerical methods and regularization schemes for producing predictions. All thermophysical and geometrical properties must be provided in the simulations. The successful application of the numerical methods relies on the accuracy of the related system parameters as previously ...


The Role Of Channel-Land Architecture, Diffusion Media Transport Properties, And Aging Effects On Water Transport And Storage In Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells, Jacob Michael Lamanna Dec 2014

The Role Of Channel-Land Architecture, Diffusion Media Transport Properties, And Aging Effects On Water Transport And Storage In Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells, Jacob Michael Lamanna

Doctoral Dissertations

Thermally driven transport of water vapor in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, also known as the heat-pipe effect or phase-change-induced flow, can transport several times the generated amount of water given enough temperature differentials. Understanding this transport process is necessary to properly engineer the water balance in the fuel cell to ensure high performance and long operational life. Channel-land architecture, diffusion media heat and mass transport properties, and operational age can all have an influence on thermally driven flow. High resolution neutron imaging was used to determine the steady-state water accumulation in various cell configurations to understand the influence of these ...


Stability Analysis Of The Rotary Drill-String, Liangming Pan Dec 2014

Stability Analysis Of The Rotary Drill-String, Liangming Pan

Doctoral Dissertations

Oil and natural gas are major energy sources for modern society. A rotary drilling system is the best known technology to extract them from underground. The vibration and stability of drilling systems have been studied for decades to improve drilling efficiency and protect expensive down-hole components. It is well known that severe drill-string vibrations are caused by many different loads: axial loads such as the hook load and the self-weight of the drill-string, end torques applied by the surface motor and restrained at the bit, the inertial load caused by whirling, the fluid drag force, and the contact force between ...


Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics Of Fuel Defects In Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors, Isaac Thomas Bodey May 2014

Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics Of Fuel Defects In Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors, Isaac Thomas Bodey

Doctoral Dissertations

Turbulent flow coupled with heat transfer is investigated for a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel plate. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models are used for fluid dynamics and the transfer of heat from a thermal nuclear fuel plate using the Multi-physics code COMSOL. Simulation outcomes are compared with experimental data from the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Test Loop. The computational results for the High Flux Isotope Reactor core system provide a more physically accurate simulation of this system by modeling the turbulent flow field in conjunction with the diffusion of thermal energy within the solid and fluid phases ...


Strain-Based Design Methodology Of Large Diameter Grade X80 Linepipe, Mark D. Lower May 2014

Strain-Based Design Methodology Of Large Diameter Grade X80 Linepipe, Mark D. Lower

Doctoral Dissertations

Continuous growth in energy demand is driving oil and natural gas production to areas that are often located far from major markets where the terrain is prone to earthquakes, landslides, and other types of ground motion. Transmission pipelines that cross this type of terrain can experience large longitudinal strains and plastic circumferential elongation as the pipeline experiences alignment changes resulting from differential ground movement. Such displacements can potentially impact pipeline safety by adversely affecting structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the linepipe steel.

Planning for new long-distance transmission pipelines usually involves consideration of higher strength linepipe steels because their ...


Modeling, Analysis, And Control Of A Mobile Robot For In Vivo Fluoroscopy Of Human Joints During Natural Movements, Matthew A. Young May 2014

Modeling, Analysis, And Control Of A Mobile Robot For In Vivo Fluoroscopy Of Human Joints During Natural Movements, Matthew A. Young

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, the modeling, analysis and control of a multi-degree of freedom (mdof) robotic fluoroscope was investigated. A prototype robotic fluoroscope exists, and consists of a 3 dof mobile platform with two 2 dof Cartesian manipulators mounted symmetrically on opposite sides of the platform. One Cartesian manipulator positions the x-ray generator and the other Cartesian manipulator positions the x-ray imaging device. The robotic fluoroscope is used to x-ray skeletal joints of interest of human subjects performing natural movement activities. In order to collect the data, the Cartesian manipulators must keep the x-ray generation and imaging devices accurately aligned while ...


A Study Of Indentation Cracking In Brittle Materials Using Cohesive Zone Finite Elements, Kurt E. Johanns May 2014

A Study Of Indentation Cracking In Brittle Materials Using Cohesive Zone Finite Elements, Kurt E. Johanns

Doctoral Dissertations

Cohesive zone finite element simulations of pyramidal indentation cracking in brittle materials have been carried out in order to: (1) critically examine indentation cracking models that relate fracture toughness to indentation data; (2) determine the underlying physical mechanisms of indentation crack growth from a continuum view and their relationship to material properties; (3) explore the influence of indenter geometry on crack extension; and (4) provide a platform from which future simulations can add more complex material behavior as well as guidance for experimental measurements of fracture toughness. Standard fracture toughness geometries in addition to simplified indentation geometries were simulated in ...


Transport Resistance In Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells, Jon Patrick Owejan May 2014

Transport Resistance In Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells, Jon Patrick Owejan

Doctoral Dissertations

Fuel cells offer the potential for high efficiency energy conversion with only water and heat as significant products of the electrochemical reaction. For a cost-competitive product, fuel cell researchers are exploring the limits of the Pt catalyst loading in parallel with performance and durability trade-offs. A significant portion of the performance loss in low-cost PEMFCs is associated with the partial pressure of oxygen (for an air cathode) at the Pt surface. This dissertation explores the main components of oxygen transport resistance which are associated with diffusion through partially saturated porous media and the ionomer coating in the catalyst layer.

Under ...


Kinesthetic Haptics Sensing And Discovery With Bilateral Teleoperation Systems, Tian Qiu May 2014

Kinesthetic Haptics Sensing And Discovery With Bilateral Teleoperation Systems, Tian Qiu

Doctoral Dissertations

In the mechanical engineering field of robotics, bilateral teleoperation is a classic but still increasing research topic. In bilateral teleoperation, a human operator moves the master manipulator, and a slave manipulator is controlled to follow the motion of the master in a remote, potentially hostile environment. This dissertation focuses on kinesthetic perception analysis in teleoperation systems. Design of the controllers of the systems is studied as the influential factor of this issue. The controllers that can provide different force tracking capability are compared using the same experimental protocol. A 6 DOF teleoperation system is configured as the system testbed. An ...