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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Sensitivity Analysis For Best-Estimate Thermal Models Of Vertical Dry Cask Storage Systems, Remy R. Devoe, Kevin R. Robb, Steven Skutnik Aug 2017

Sensitivity Analysis For Best-Estimate Thermal Models Of Vertical Dry Cask Storage Systems, Remy R. Devoe, Kevin R. Robb, Steven Skutnik

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Nuclear Engineering

Loading requirements for dry cask storage of spent nuclear fuel are driven primarily by decay heat capacity limitations, which themselves are determined through recommended limits on peak cladding temperature within the cask. This study examines the relative sensitivity of peak material temperatures within the cask to parameters that influence both the stored fuel residual decay heat as well as heat removal mechanisms. These parameters include the detailed reactor operating history parameters (e.g., soluble boron concentrations and the presence of burnable poisons) as well as factors that influence heat removal, including non-dominant processes (such as conduction from the fuel basket ...


Value Of Flow Measurement Accuracy In Hydropower Plants With Short Converging Intakes, Mark Herbert Christian Aug 2017

Value Of Flow Measurement Accuracy In Hydropower Plants With Short Converging Intakes, Mark Herbert Christian

Doctoral Dissertations

This report documents research undertaken to determine the value of flow measurement accuracy in hydropower plants with short converging intakes. The motivation was to provide a suite of tools and best practices to streamline flow measurement sensor modeling in any type of hydropower plant. The Lower Granite Lock and Dam hydroplant was leveraged in development of the analysis tool. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of Lower Granite Unit 4 provided necessary information about the hydraulic structures distribution through the unit. Two different CFD models were created. The first was done using the as-built plans; the second was created through modifications ...


Correlating Long-Term Lithium Ion Battery Performance With Solid Electrolyte Interphase (Sei) Layer Properties, Seong Jin An Aug 2017

Correlating Long-Term Lithium Ion Battery Performance With Solid Electrolyte Interphase (Sei) Layer Properties, Seong Jin An

Doctoral Dissertations

This study was conducted to understand effects of some of key factors (i.e., anode surface properties, formation cycling conditions, and electrolyte conditions) on solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and the battery cycle life. The SEI layer passivates electrode surfaces and prevents electron transfer and electrolyte diffusion through it while allowing lithium ion diffusion, which is essential for stable reversible capacities. It also influences initial capacity loss, self-discharge, cycle life, rate capability and safety. Thus, SEI layer formation and electrochemical stability are primary topics in LIB development. This research involves experiments and discussions on key ...


Computational Thermal-Hydraulics Modeling Of Twisted Tape Enabled High Heat Flux Components, Emily Buckman Clark May 2017

Computational Thermal-Hydraulics Modeling Of Twisted Tape Enabled High Heat Flux Components, Emily Buckman Clark

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this work was to perform a computational investigation into the thermalhydraulic performance of water-cooled, twisted tape enabled high heat flux components at fusion relevant conditions. Fusion energy is a promising option for future clean energy generation, but the community must overcome significant scientific and engineering challenges before meeting the goal of electricity generation. One such challenge is the high heat flux thermal management of components in fusion and plasma physics experiments. Plasma facing components in the magnetic confinement devices, such as ITER or W7-X, will be subjected to extreme heat loads on the order of 10-20 MW ...


Impedance-Resolved Performance And Durability In Redox Flow Batteries, Alan Michael Pezeshki Dec 2016

Impedance-Resolved Performance And Durability In Redox Flow Batteries, Alan Michael Pezeshki

Doctoral Dissertations

The realization of redox flow batteries (RFBs) as a grid-scale energy solution depends on improving the performance and lifetime of the technology to decrease the high capital costs. The electrodes are a key component in the RFB; performance enhancement is often achieved through chemical or thermal treatments of commercially available porous carbon materials.

This dissertation uses impedance spectroscopy-based methods to gain insight into performance and durability in RFBs, enabling intelligent cell design. Initial work focused on understanding the impact of improved electrode and membrane properties on system performance. An accelerated stress test was then developed that can be used to ...


Investigation Of Localized Performance And Gas Evolution In All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Via In-Situ Distributed Diagnostic Techniques, Jason Thomas Clement Dec 2016

Investigation Of Localized Performance And Gas Evolution In All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Via In-Situ Distributed Diagnostic Techniques, Jason Thomas Clement

Doctoral Dissertations

All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are an emerging grid-scale energy storage technology; however, enhancements in terms of performance, efficiency, durability, and cost are required before it can become commercially viable. These improvements are achievable through the development of advanced materials, superior architecture, and ultimately a deeper fundamental understanding of the influence of various phenomena and operational parameters on cell performance. There currently are a lack of in-situ experimental diagnostic techniques which can help in achieving this fundamental understanding.

Two separate distributed diagnostic techniques were developed in this work: in-plane current distribution, and neutron radiography. Localized current distribution measurements can identify ...


Fundamental Studies Of Electrochemical Reactions And Microfluidics In Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer Cells, Jingke Mo Dec 2016

Fundamental Studies Of Electrochemical Reactions And Microfluidics In Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer Cells, Jingke Mo

Doctoral Dissertations

In electrochemical energy devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers and batteries, the electrochemical reactions occur only on triple phase boundaries (TPBs). The boundaries provide the conductors for electros and protons, the catalysts for electrochemical reactions and the effective pathways for transport of reactants and products. The interfaces have a critical impact on the overall performance and cost of the devices in which they are incorporated, and therefore could be a key feature to optimize in order to turn a prototype into a commercially viable product. For electrolysis of water, proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells (PEMECs) have several advantages compared to other ...


Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi May 2016

Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation combines self-assembly phenomena of amphiphilic molecules with soft materials to create and characterize mechanoelectrical transducers and sensors whose sensing elements are thin-film bioinspired membranes comprised of phospholipids or amphiphilic polymers. We show that the structures of these amphiphilic molecules tune the mechanical and electrical properties of these membranes. We show that these properties affect the mechanoelectrical sensing characteristic and range of operation of these membrane transducers. In the experiments, we construct and characterize a membrane-based hair cell embodiment that enables the membrane to be responsive to mechanical perturbations of the hair. The resulting oscillations of membranes formed between ...


Computational Simulation Of Mass Transport And Energy Transfer In The Microbial Fuel Cell System, Shiqi Ou Dec 2015

Computational Simulation Of Mass Transport And Energy Transfer In The Microbial Fuel Cell System, Shiqi Ou

Doctoral Dissertations

This doctoral dissertation introduces the research in the computational modeling and simulation for the microbial fuel cell (MFC) system which is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. The numerical methods, research approaches and simulation comparison with the experiments in the microbial fuel cells are described; the analysis and evaluation for the model methods and results that I have achieved are presented in this dissertation.

The development of the renewable energy has been a hot topic, and scientists have been focusing on the microbial fuel cell, which is an environmentally-friendly ...


Optimization Of Titanium Liquid/Gas Diffusion Layers In Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer Cells, Stuart Mccoy Steen Dec 2015

Optimization Of Titanium Liquid/Gas Diffusion Layers In Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer Cells, Stuart Mccoy Steen

Masters Theses

Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer cells (PEMECs), which are reverse PEM fuel cells (PEMFCs), are effective energy storage medium by producing hydrogen/oxygen from water using electricity from renewable energy sources. This is due in part because of its efficiency, high energy density, compact design, and large capacity. In a PEMEC, a liquid/gas diffusion layer (LGDL) is located between the catalyst layer and the current distributing flow field. The LGDL is expected to transport electrons, heat, and reactants/products to and from the catalyst layer with minimum voltage, current, thermal, interfacial, and fluidic losses. Carbon materials (carbon paper or carbon ...


Impurity Effects In All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries, Andrew William Burch Dec 2015

Impurity Effects In All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries, Andrew William Burch

Masters Theses

In this dissertation, the effects of VOSO4 [vanadyl sulfate] source and impurities on the beginning-of-life (BOL) performance of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) are explored. Battery performance was monitored at 50% state of charge (SOC) using electrolyte with VOSO4 purities of 99%, 99.9% and 99.99% by weight. At cell potentials of 1.23V, the least pure solution yielded the lowest current density of 280 mA/cm2 [square centimeter] and the most pure solution yielded the highest, 560 mA/cm2. The voltage efficiencies and charge-discharge capacities were shown to follow the same trends. Scanning ...


An Application Of Path-Percolation Theory And Lattice-Boltzmann Model On Mass Transfer In Inhomogeneous Porous Media, Ozgur Cekmer Aug 2015

An Application Of Path-Percolation Theory And Lattice-Boltzmann Model On Mass Transfer In Inhomogeneous Porous Media, Ozgur Cekmer

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, random inhomogeneous porous channels were generated statistically, and single- and multi-phase flow models were developed to investigate diffusion behavior of gases in porous media. Three different methods were used to simulate inhomogeneous porous flow channels. First, the path-percolation theory was adapted in diffusion studies to generate random high-tortuosity (above 1.07) porous channels with a desired porosity within a specified confidence level. Cluster labeling process was applied to simulate paths for the gas molecules, and the resulting effective porosity was investigated statistically. Second, the double-path-percolation theory was introduced to simulate low-tortuosity (between 1.0005 and 1.0700 ...


The Role Of Channel-Land Architecture, Diffusion Media Transport Properties, And Aging Effects On Water Transport And Storage In Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells, Jacob Michael Lamanna Dec 2014

The Role Of Channel-Land Architecture, Diffusion Media Transport Properties, And Aging Effects On Water Transport And Storage In Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells, Jacob Michael Lamanna

Doctoral Dissertations

Thermally driven transport of water vapor in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, also known as the heat-pipe effect or phase-change-induced flow, can transport several times the generated amount of water given enough temperature differentials. Understanding this transport process is necessary to properly engineer the water balance in the fuel cell to ensure high performance and long operational life. Channel-land architecture, diffusion media heat and mass transport properties, and operational age can all have an influence on thermally driven flow. High resolution neutron imaging was used to determine the steady-state water accumulation in various cell configurations to understand the influence of these ...


Transport Resistance In Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells, Jon Patrick Owejan May 2014

Transport Resistance In Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells, Jon Patrick Owejan

Doctoral Dissertations

Fuel cells offer the potential for high efficiency energy conversion with only water and heat as significant products of the electrochemical reaction. For a cost-competitive product, fuel cell researchers are exploring the limits of the Pt catalyst loading in parallel with performance and durability trade-offs. A significant portion of the performance loss in low-cost PEMFCs is associated with the partial pressure of oxygen (for an air cathode) at the Pt surface. This dissertation explores the main components of oxygen transport resistance which are associated with diffusion through partially saturated porous media and the ionomer coating in the catalyst layer.

Under ...


Characterization Techniques And Electrolyte Separator Performance Investigation For All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery, Zhijiang Tang Dec 2013

Characterization Techniques And Electrolyte Separator Performance Investigation For All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery, Zhijiang Tang

Doctoral Dissertations

The all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is an excellent prospect for large scale energy storage in an electricity grid level application. High battery performance has lately been achieved by using a novel cell configuration with advanced materials. However, more work is still required to better understand the reaction kinetics and transport behaviors in the battery to guide battery system optimization and new battery material development. The first part of my work is the characterization of the battery systems with flow-through or flow-by cell configurations. The configuration difference between two cell structures exhibit significantly different polarization behavior. The battery output can ...


Modeling And Validation Of Heat Transfer Present In A Solar Thermal Collector, Eric Ezekiel Stannard Dec 2013

Modeling And Validation Of Heat Transfer Present In A Solar Thermal Collector, Eric Ezekiel Stannard

Masters Theses

A solar absorber panel for a solar water heating system located at the College of Architecture’s New Norris House in Norris, TN was modeled and validated against field data in this work. The purpose of this modeling was to create the foundations of a tool that can be used in collector design and building energy simulations. This tool would take into account the radiometric properties of the collector materials, which are essential for an accurate model. Solar water heaters convert the shortwave energy of the Sun into usable heat for residential and industrial applications and have the potential to ...


Plasmonics Resonance Enhanced Active Photothermal Effects In Aluminum Nanoenergetics For Propulsion Applications, Jacques Abboud Aug 2013

Plasmonics Resonance Enhanced Active Photothermal Effects In Aluminum Nanoenergetics For Propulsion Applications, Jacques Abboud

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs) are shown capable to on-demand enhance and control the local photothermal energy deposition, both spatially and temporally, via active photothermal effects initiated by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon, and amplified by the Al exothermal oxidation reactions. Experiments in dry and wet environments along with computational modeling of the photothermal process are very desirable for gaining fundamental understanding, ignition optimization and parameter exploration.

Combined phenomena of motion and ignition of Al NPs are explored first in this study. Both resulting from exposing a pile of the nanoenergetics in hand to a single ...


Sustainable Design Retrofit For The Visitor Center At The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Michael A. Kerksick May 2013

Sustainable Design Retrofit For The Visitor Center At The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Michael A. Kerksick

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Water Transport In Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells: An Exploration Of Net Water Drag In Real Time, Susan Katherine Reid May 2013

Water Transport In Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells: An Exploration Of Net Water Drag In Real Time, Susan Katherine Reid

Masters Theses

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are a promising alternative energy source. One challenge preventing widespread use of this technology is water management. A balance must be reached between providing sufficient water for membrane ionic conductivity while maintaining low enough water content to mitigate the reduction of available reaction sites in the cathode catalyst layer due to liquid water build up. Much exploration of this area of fuel cell research has been conducted, but the details of water transport in an operating fuel cell are not yet fully understood. The motivation of this work was to elucidate mass transport phenomena occurring ...


Steam Reheat In Nuclear Power Plants, Paul John Marotta Dec 2012

Steam Reheat In Nuclear Power Plants, Paul John Marotta

Doctoral Dissertations

In this work, reheating steam from a commercial nuclear power plant is explored in order to increase efficiency and power output. A thermal source in the form of a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) is considered. Engineering challenges include proof-of-principle, reactor sizing, evaluation, and feasibility.

The proposed thermodynamic process modifications have been evaluated for a range of inlet steam quality conditions. The evaluation of the steam tube dimensions and number of optimal tubes have been calculated utilizing the so-called Log Mean Temperature Difference method. Subsequently, the performance of the steam tubes was further analyzed within a water vapor and liquid ...


Droplet Characterization In The Wake Of Steam Turbine Cascades, Adam Charles Plondke May 2012

Droplet Characterization In The Wake Of Steam Turbine Cascades, Adam Charles Plondke

Masters Theses

In low-pressure steam turbines, water droplet formation on the surfaces of stationary stator blades can lead to erosion on downstream turbine blades and other equipment. One property that affects the size of the droplets that are formed is the adhesive forces between the water and the surface of the stator blade. The adhesive forces hold the droplets to the surface where they may combine, forming increasingly larger droplets. Eventually, the aerodynamic forces will tear the droplets off the surface, carrying them downstream.

To study the effect of stator surface properties on the droplet size distribution, four cascades of stator blades ...


Robust Multichannel Functional-Data-Analysis Methods For Data Recovery In Complex Systems, Jian Sun Dec 2011

Robust Multichannel Functional-Data-Analysis Methods For Data Recovery In Complex Systems, Jian Sun

Doctoral Dissertations

In recent years, Condition Monitoring (CM), which can be performed via several sensor channels, has been recognized as an effective paradigm for failure prevention of operational equipment or processes. However, the complexity caused by asynchronous data collection with different and/or time-varying sampling/transmission rates has long been a hindrance in the effective use of multichannel data in constructing empirical models. The problem becomes more challenging when sensor readings are incomplete. Traditional sensor data recovery techniques are often prohibited in asynchronous CM environments, not to mention sparse datasets. The proposed Functional Principal Component Analysis (FPCA) methodologies, e.g., nonparametric FPC ...


Cross-Flow, Staggered-Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis For High Enthalpy Flows, Gary L. Hammock May 2011

Cross-Flow, Staggered-Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis For High Enthalpy Flows, Gary L. Hammock

Masters Theses

Cross flow heat exchangers are a fairly common apparatus employed throughout many industrial processes. For these types of systems, correlations have been extensively developed. However, there have been no correlations done for very high enthalpy flows as produced by Arnold Engineering Development Center’s (AEDC) H2 facility. The H2 facility uses a direct current electric arc to heat air which is then expanded through a converging-diverging nozzle to impart a supersonic velocity to the air. This high enthalpy, high temperature air must be cooled downstream by the use of a cross flow heat exchanger.

It is of interest to evaluate ...


Thermal Feasibility And Performance Characteristics Of An Air-Cooled Axial Flow Cylindrical Power Inverter By Finite Element Analysis, Jonathan Atef Tawfik May 2011

Thermal Feasibility And Performance Characteristics Of An Air-Cooled Axial Flow Cylindrical Power Inverter By Finite Element Analysis, Jonathan Atef Tawfik

Masters Theses

The purpose of the present study is to determine the thermal feasibility of an air-cooled power inverter. The inverter circuitry layout is designed in tandem with the thermal management of the devices. The cylindrical configuration of the air-cooled inverter concept accommodates a collinear axial air blower and a cylindrical capacitor with inverter cards oriented radially between them. Cooling air flows from the axial fan around the inverter cards and through the center hole of the cylindrical capacitor. The present study is a continuation of the thermal feasibility study conducted in fiscal year 2009 for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to ...


Design And Installation Of A Compressed Hydrogen Fueling System In A 2009 Chevrolet Colorado, Nick Edward Shaffer, Dean Deter, Terrance Johnson, John Pate Dec 2010

Design And Installation Of A Compressed Hydrogen Fueling System In A 2009 Chevrolet Colorado, Nick Edward Shaffer, Dean Deter, Terrance Johnson, John Pate

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.