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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Design And Testing Of A Motion Controlled Gait Enhancing Mobile Shoe (Gems) For Rehabilitation, Ismet Handzic Jan 2011

Design And Testing Of A Motion Controlled Gait Enhancing Mobile Shoe (Gems) For Rehabilitation, Ismet Handzic

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Persons suffering central nervous system damage, such as a stroke, coma patients, or individuals that have suffered damage to the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, and motor cortex, sometimes develop an asymmetric walking pattern where one leg does not fully swing backward. This uneven gait hinders these individuals in properly and efficiently moving through everyday life.

Previous research in humans and various animals has introduced a split belt treadmill to analyze possible rehabilitation, which can recreate a correct gait pattern by altering the speed of each track. Gait adaptation was achieved by having the split belt treadmill move each leg at ...


Minimal And Symmetric Global Partition Polynomials For Reproducing Kernel Elements, Mario Jesus Juha Jan 2011

Minimal And Symmetric Global Partition Polynomials For Reproducing Kernel Elements, Mario Jesus Juha

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Reproducing Kernel Element Method is a numerical technique that combines finite element and meshless methods to construct shape functions of arbitrary order and continuity, yet retains the Kronecker-d property. Central to constructing these shape functions is the construction of global partition polynomials on an element. This dissertation shows that asymmetric interpolations may arise due to such things as changes in the local to global

node numbering and that may adversely affect the interpolation capability of the method. This issue arises due to the use in previous formulations of incomplete polynomials that are subsequently non-affine invariant. This dissertation lays out ...


Analyses Of Variable Refrigerant Flow And Exergy In Air Conditioning Systems, Rashid Ali Alshatti Jan 2011

Analyses Of Variable Refrigerant Flow And Exergy In Air Conditioning Systems, Rashid Ali Alshatti

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis consists of two research problems in the air conditioning (A/C) area. For the first problem, the aim is to model and simulate a variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air conditioning system. The coefficient of performance (COP) for refrigeration or heat pump system is one of the critical parameters for designing an air conditioning system. The modeling of the system components for a VRF cycle under different cooling conditions using R-134a and R-22 as refrigerants was carried out. Calculations were performed by varying different parameters such as condenser and evaporator temperatures, and refrigerant type. The R-134a refrigerant shows a ...


A Remotely Operated Multi-Tracked Vehicle For Subterranean Exploration Of Gopher Tortoise Burrows, William Keese Jan 2011

A Remotely Operated Multi-Tracked Vehicle For Subterranean Exploration Of Gopher Tortoise Burrows, William Keese

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The gopher tortoise is a land tortoise living in the southeastern United States. It is a species in decline and is listed as threatened or endangered in six different states. The gopher (as commonly referred) digs burrows that it uses for many reasons and spends most of its time underground. Problems occur when trying to estimate a population because a gopher tortoise digs more than one burrow. This thesis demonstrates an innovative way to survey and investigate a gopher tortoise burrow hole by using a multi-tracked remotely operated vehicle. The vehicle carried two cameras (fore and aft) and was equipped ...


Modeling Of Solar-Powered Single-Effect Absorption Cooling System And Supermarket Refrigeration/Hvac System, Ammar Bahman Jan 2011

Modeling Of Solar-Powered Single-Effect Absorption Cooling System And Supermarket Refrigeration/Hvac System, Ammar Bahman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis consists of two different research problems. In the first one, the aim is to model and simulate a solar-powered, single-effect, absorption refrigeration system using a flat-plate solar collector and LiBr-H2O mixture as the working fluid. The cooling capacity and the coefficient of performance of the system are analyzed by varying all independent parameters, namely: evaporator pressure, condenser pressure, mass flow rate, LiBr concentration, and inlet generator temperature. The cooling performance of the system is compared with conventional vapor-compression systems for different refrigerants (R-134a, R-32, and R-22). The cooling performance is also assessed for a typical year ...


Theoretical And Experimental Analysis Of Power And Cooling Cogeneration Utilizing Low Temperature Heat Sources, Gökmen Demirkaya Jan 2011

Theoretical And Experimental Analysis Of Power And Cooling Cogeneration Utilizing Low Temperature Heat Sources, Gökmen Demirkaya

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Development of innovative thermodynamic cycles is important for the efficient utilization of low-temperature heat sources such as solar, geothermal, and waste heat sources. Binary mixtures exhibit variable boiling temperatures during the boiling process, which leads to a good thermal match between the heating fluid and working fluid for efficient heat source utilization. This study presents a theoretical and an experimental analysis of a combined power/cooling cycle, which combines the Rankine and absorption refrigeration cycles, uses ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid and produces power and refrigeration, while power is the primary goal. This cycle, also known as the Goswami ...


Physically Meaningful Harmonization Of Tire/Pavement Friction Measurement Devices, Madhura Priyanga Nishshanke Rajapakshe Jan 2011

Physically Meaningful Harmonization Of Tire/Pavement Friction Measurement Devices, Madhura Priyanga Nishshanke Rajapakshe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Accurate characterization and evaluation of tire/pavement friction is critical in assuring runway and highway safety. Historically, Pavement Friction Measurement Devices (PFMDs) employing different measuring mechanisms have been used to evaluate tire/pavement friction. They yield significantly disparate friction coefficients under the same contact conditions. Currently, an empirically developed data harmonization method based on a reference device (Dynamic Friction Tester (DFT)) is used in an attempt to overcome the disparities between the measurements using various different PFMDs. However, this method, which has been standardized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM E1960), has been criticized for its inconsistency ...


Energy Recovery Devices In Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants With Emphasis On Efficiency And Economical Analysis Of Isobaric Versus Centrifugal Devices, Mageed Jean Guirguis Jan 2011

Energy Recovery Devices In Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants With Emphasis On Efficiency And Economical Analysis Of Isobaric Versus Centrifugal Devices, Mageed Jean Guirguis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With huge demands for potable water in regions lacking fresh water sources such as surface or ground water, various potential technologies have been explored for eliminating water shortage. Seawater emerged as a potential source and a major lifeline for such water-deprived areas. The development of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) technology proved to be a groundbreaking innovation, making it easier to extract pure water from seawater. Ever since its inception, SWRO technology has taken many leaps towards the development of energy efficient and high yielding systems. The reduction in energy consumption of desalination plants that were based on the SWRO technology ...


Thermophysical Characterization Of Nanofluids Through Molecular Dynamic Simulations, John Shelton Jan 2011

Thermophysical Characterization Of Nanofluids Through Molecular Dynamic Simulations, John Shelton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, an analysis of the key thermophysical properties critical to heat transfer processes is performed. Replication of thermal conductivity and shear viscosity observations found in experimental investigations were performed using a theoretical nanopthesis-fluid system and a novel colloid-fluid interaction potential to investigate the key nanofluid parameters. Analysis of both the heat current (thermal conductivity) and stress (shear viscosity) autocorrelation functions have suggested that the dominant physical mechanisms for thermal and momentum transport arises from enhancements to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes energy transfer brought about by the increased mass ratio of the nanopthesis to the ...


Thermal Response Of Lithium Tantalate For Temperature Measurement, Ardit Agastra Jan 2011

Thermal Response Of Lithium Tantalate For Temperature Measurement, Ardit Agastra

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the study of the thermal response of the pyroelectric material named lithium tantalate or LT (LiTaO3) in aid of this material's possible use for temperature measurement. The temperature range studied was between 5-99oC. The sensor was excited using a silicon rubber heater. The lithium tantalate sensor and the rubber heater were enclosed such that the temperature would reach steady state faster. The enclosure was a small insulated box in order to reduce any extraneous effects on the sensor. The output signal of the lithium tantalate sensor was then amplified by using four different amplifying circuits and ...


Thermo-Mechanical Beam Element For Analyzing Stresses In Functionally Graded Materials, Simon Caraballo Jan 2011

Thermo-Mechanical Beam Element For Analyzing Stresses In Functionally Graded Materials, Simon Caraballo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Modeling at the structural scale most often requires the use of beam and shell elements. This simplification reduces modeling complexity and computation requirements but sacrifices the accuracy of through-the-thickness information. Several studies have reported various design approaches for analyzing functionally graded material structures. One of these studies proposed a two-node beam element for functionally graded materials (FGMs) based on first order shear deformable (FOSD) theory. The derivation of governing equations included spatial temperature variation. However, only the constant temperature case was carried through in the element formulation. This investigation explore the effects of spatial temperature variation in the axial and ...


Numerical Simulations Of Heat Transfer Processes In A Dehumidifying Wavy Fin And A Confined Liquid Jet Impingement On Various Surfaces, Mutasim Mohamed Sarour Elsheikh Jan 2011

Numerical Simulations Of Heat Transfer Processes In A Dehumidifying Wavy Fin And A Confined Liquid Jet Impingement On Various Surfaces, Mutasim Mohamed Sarour Elsheikh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis consists of two different research problems. In the first one, the heat transfer characteristic of wavy fin assembly with dehumidification is carried out. In general, fin tube heat exchangers are employed in a wide variety of engineering applications, such as cooling coils for air conditioning, air pre-heaters in power plants and for heat dissipation from engine coolants in automobile radiators. In these heat exchangers, a heat transfer fluid such as water, oil, or refrigerant, flows through a parallel tube bank, while a second heat transfer fluid, such as air, is directed across the tubes. Since the principal resistance ...


Interface Engineered Diamond Coatings For Dry Machining Applications, Humberto Arturo Gomez Vega Jan 2011

Interface Engineered Diamond Coatings For Dry Machining Applications, Humberto Arturo Gomez Vega

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Several studies have been propose to improve the adhesion of diamond films on cemented carbide tool materials, however a systematic study in identifying the role of the factors that affect the final diamond adhesion and the resulting machining performance of the tool under real manufacturing conditions is still unexplored. CVD diamond film's extraordinary qualities bring little benefit if the film fails to adhere sufficiently to the substrate. Inadequate adhesion undermines tool performance and longevity, causing unpredictable behavior under load and possibly leading to unexpected failure of the tool in the production line. This dissertation investigates the effects of different ...


Utilizing A Computational Model For The Design Of A Passive Dynamic Walker, Craig Alan Honeycutt Jan 2011

Utilizing A Computational Model For The Design Of A Passive Dynamic Walker, Craig Alan Honeycutt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recent interest in using passive dynamic walkers (PDWs) for gait rehabilitation studies has presented a need for a robust, easily built mechanism. Unfortunately, these passive robots are hypersensitive to many variables outside of the usual design considerations that are studied when constructing them. By accentuating previous failures instead of suppressing them, this thesis presents a number of problematic situations commonly experienced when testing and tuning a PDW.

Further, through a complete design of a 4-legged PDW with knees, simple design axioms brought about by myself and others are put into a practical context and applied directly to design. This thesis ...


Diamond Based-Materials: Synthesis, Characterization And Applications, Qiang Hu Jan 2011

Diamond Based-Materials: Synthesis, Characterization And Applications, Qiang Hu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The studies covered in this dissertation concentrate on the various forms of diamond films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, including microwave CVD and hot filament CVD. According to crystallinity and grain size, a variety of diamond forms primarily including microcrystalline (most commonly referred to as polycrystalline) and nanocrystalline diamond films, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were successfully synthesized. The as-grown diamond films were optimized by changing deposition pressure, volume of reactant gas hydrogen (H2) and carrier gas argon (Ar) in order to get high-quality diamond films with a smooth surface, low roughness, preferred growth orientation and high sp3 bond ...


Polydimethylsiloxane Mechanical Properties Measured By Macroscopic Compression And Nanoindentation Techniques, Zhixin Wang Jan 2011

Polydimethylsiloxane Mechanical Properties Measured By Macroscopic Compression And Nanoindentation Techniques, Zhixin Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, the relationship between the elastic modulus of PDMS and the base/agent ratio (the amount of crosslinking) is studied. Reliable macroscopic compression test instrument was developed. Preload method was applied for the nanoindentation flat punch test to develop full contact.

In chapter 2, an easy instrument setup for macroscopic compression test is described. A series of PDMS samples with different base/agent ratios were tested using the macroscopic compression method. The relationship between PDMS elastic modulus and its base/agent ratio was established.

In chapter 3, PDMS nanoindentation DMA tests provide stable data with different test control ...


Modeling And Parameter Study Of Bistable Spherical Compliant Mechanisms, Chester Smith Jan 2011

Modeling And Parameter Study Of Bistable Spherical Compliant Mechanisms, Chester Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The bistable spherical compliant mechanism (BSCM) is a novel device capable of large, repeatable, out-of-plane motion, characteristics that are somewhat difficult to achieve with surface micromachined microelectromechanical systems. An improved pseudo-rigid-body model (PRBM) to predict the behavior of the BSCM is presented. The new model was used to analyze seven different versions of the device, each with a different compliant joint length. The new model, which adds torsion, is compared with a finite element analysis (FEA) beam model. The new model more closely approximates the results yielded by FEA than previous models used to analyze the BSCM. Future work is ...


Design And Analysis Of An Innovative Semi-Flexible Hybrid Personal-Body-Armor System, Daniel Jeffrey Miller Jan 2011

Design And Analysis Of An Innovative Semi-Flexible Hybrid Personal-Body-Armor System, Daniel Jeffrey Miller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current military-grade rifle body armor technology uses hard ballistic plates positioned on top of flexible materials, such as woven Kevlar® to stop projectiles and absorb the energy of the impact. However, absorbing the impact energy and stopping a rifle projectile comes at a cost to the wearer - mobility. In this thesis, a new concept for personal body armor is proposed - a semi-flexible hybrid body armor. This hybrid armor is comprised of two components that work as a system to effectively balance the flexibility offered by a soft fabric based armor with the protection level of hard plated armor. This work ...


Self-Alignment Of Silicon Microparts On A Hexadecane-Water Interface By Surface Tension, Caroline Elizabeth Liberti Jan 2011

Self-Alignment Of Silicon Microparts On A Hexadecane-Water Interface By Surface Tension, Caroline Elizabeth Liberti

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mechanical assembly of systems and structures on the micro-scale can be inefficient as pthesiss of sub-millimeter dimensions are difficult to manipulate. Cutting edge manufacturing methods implement self-assembly as an approach to ordering micro and nano-sized parts into a desired arrangement. This thesis studies a technique utilizing surface tension as a method of actuating microparts on a liquid-liquid interface via lateral capillary interactions. Preliminary experimentation is conducted to investigate the feasibility of developing a new method for self-alignment of microparts by observing the influence of interfacial geometry on the movement of silicon tiles along a hexadecane-water interface. Different surface geometries are ...


Steady And Transient Heat Transfer For Jet Impingement On Patterned Surfaces, Mark Michael Dobbertean Jan 2011

Steady And Transient Heat Transfer For Jet Impingement On Patterned Surfaces, Mark Michael Dobbertean

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Free liquid-jet impingement is well researched due to its high heat transfer ability and ease of implementation. This study considers both the steady state and transient heating of a patterned plate under slot-free-liquid jet impingement. The primary working fluid was water (H2O) and the plate material considered was silicon. Calculations were done for Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 500 to 1000 and indentation depths from 0.000125 to 0.0005 m for three different surface configurations. The effect of using different plate materials and R-134a as the working fluid were explored for the rectangular step case. The distributions of the ...


Regulation Of Cell Adhesion Strength By Spatial Organization Of Focal Adhesions, Kranthi Kumar Elineni Jan 2011

Regulation Of Cell Adhesion Strength By Spatial Organization Of Focal Adhesions, Kranthi Kumar Elineni

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical to various cellular processes like cell spreading, migration, growth and apoptosis. At the tissue level, cell adhesion is important in the pathological and physiological processes that regulate the tissue morphogenesis. Cell adhesion to the ECM is primarily mediated by the integrin family of receptors. The receptors that are recruited to the surface are reinforced by structural and signaling proteins at the adhesive sites forming focal adhesions that connect the cytoskeleton to further stabilize the adhesions. The functional roles of these focal adhesions extend beyond stabilizing adhesions and transduce mechanical signals at the ...


Sub-Cooled Pool Boiling Enhancement With Nanofluids, Elliott Charles Rice Jan 2011

Sub-Cooled Pool Boiling Enhancement With Nanofluids, Elliott Charles Rice

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phase-change heat transfer is an important process used in many engineering thermal designs. Boiling is an important phase change phenomena as it is a common heat transfer process in many thermal systems. Phase change processes are critical to thermodynamic cycles as most closed loop systems have an evaporator, in which the phase change process occurs. There are many applications/processes in which engineers employ the advantages of boiling heat transfer, as they seek to improve heat transfer performance. Recent research efforts have experimentally shown that nanofluids can have significantly better heat transfer properties than those of the pure base fluids ...


Autonomous Mobility And Manipulation Of A 9-Dof Wmra, William Garrett Pence Jan 2011

Autonomous Mobility And Manipulation Of A 9-Dof Wmra, William Garrett Pence

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The wheelchair-mounted robotic arm (WMRA) is a 9-degree of freedom (DoF) assistive system that consists of a 2-DoF modified commercial power wheelchair and a custom 7-DoF robotic arm. Kinematics and control methodology for the 9-DoF system that combine mobility and manipulation have been previously developed and implemented. This combined control allows the wheelchair and robotic arm to follow a single trajectory based on weighted optimizations. However, for the execution of activities of daily living (ADL) in the real-world environment, modified control techniques have been implemented.

In order to execute macro ADL tasks, such as a "go to and pick up ...