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Articles 31 - 60 of 251

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Non-Destructive Evaluation Of Composites: Predictive Ultrasonic Guided-Waves Modeling, Non-Destructive Material Characterization, And The Application To Aerospace Structures, Darun Barazanchy Jan 2017

Non-Destructive Evaluation Of Composites: Predictive Ultrasonic Guided-Waves Modeling, Non-Destructive Material Characterization, And The Application To Aerospace Structures, Darun Barazanchy

Theses and Dissertations

To predict guided wave dispersion curves, it is common to use different solution approaches depending on the material type (isotropic or anisotropic) of the medium in which the wave propagates. The two different solution methods are defined in different domains, frequency-phase velocity domain for isotropic materials and wavenumber-phase velocity domain for anisotropic materials. This may lead to difficulties and unsatisfying results when predicting the dispersion curves for hybrid laminates which contain both isotropic and anisotropic materials. Therefore, a unified formulation defined in the wavenumber-phase velocity domain to accomodate both isotropic and anisotropic materials, as well as hybrid combinations, is desired ...


Multi-Axis Multi-Material Fused Filament Fabrication With Continuous Fiber Reinforcement, Wout De Backer Jan 2017

Multi-Axis Multi-Material Fused Filament Fabrication With Continuous Fiber Reinforcement, Wout De Backer

Theses and Dissertations

Additive Manufacturing (AM) has become a well-recognized method of manufacturing and has steadily become more accessible as it allows designers to prototype ideas, products and structures unconceivable with subtractive manufacturing techniques for both consumer grade and industrial grade applications. Commonly used thermoplastics for 3D printing have properties that may not be sufficient to comply with the application’s certification requirements, or their performance is less than desirable for aerospace and other high performance applications. Additionally, additively manufactured parts have reduced mechanical properties in the build direction of the print, and are generally weaker than their equivalent injection-molded parts. Furthermore, Computer ...


Fiber Optic Guided Wave Sensors For Structural Health Monitoring, Erik Frankforter Jan 2017

Fiber Optic Guided Wave Sensors For Structural Health Monitoring, Erik Frankforter

Theses and Dissertations

Risks and costs associated with aging infrastructure have been mounting, presenting a clear need for innovative damage monitoring solutions. One of the more powerful damage monitoring approaches involves using ultrasonic guided waves which propagate through a structure and carry damage-related information to permanently bonded sensors. Ultrasonic fiber-optic sensors are one of the most promising technologies for this application: they are immune to electromagnetic interference, present no ignition hazard, and transmit their data over tens of kilometers. However, before they can be widely employed, several limitations need to be overcome: poor sensitivity, unidirectional sensing, and loss of ultrasonic functionality due to ...


Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of Pressure Drop In Silicon Carbide Fuel Rod For Application In Pressurized Water Reactors, Ahmed Musafi Abir Jan 2017

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of Pressure Drop In Silicon Carbide Fuel Rod For Application In Pressurized Water Reactors, Ahmed Musafi Abir

Theses and Dissertations

Spacer grids are used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) fuel assemblies which enhances heat transfer from fuel rods. However, there remain regions of low turbulence in between the spacer grids which contributes to lower heat transfer. To enhance turbulence in these regions surface roughness is applied on the fuel rod walls. Meyer et al [1] used empirical correlations to predict heat transfer and friction factor for artificially roughened fuel rod bundles at high performance light water reactors (LWRs). At present, several types of materials are being used for fuel rod cladding including zircaloy, uranium oxide, etc. But researchers are actively ...


A Comprehensive Evaluation Of Hybrid Wetting Configurations On Dropwise Condensation, Karim Khazal Egab Jan 2017

A Comprehensive Evaluation Of Hybrid Wetting Configurations On Dropwise Condensation, Karim Khazal Egab

Theses and Dissertations

The heat transfer during condensation on a surface depends on the pattern design of the surface, which can highly influence hydrophobic/hydrophilic wettability. In this study hybrid pattern designs were studied. The relationship between the droplet dynamic and the hybrid pattern design can alter the drainage rates, droplet departure frequencies, and the condensation heat transfer rates. Therefore, two series of hybrid patterned surfaces have been designed, developed, and tested during condensation of water vapor on horizontal copper tubes, and compared to complete dropwise and complete filmwise condensation samples. This is to investigate the design that provides the maximum improvement in ...


Progressive Failure Analysis Of Composite Materials Using The Puck Failure Criteria, Karan Kodagali Jan 2017

Progressive Failure Analysis Of Composite Materials Using The Puck Failure Criteria, Karan Kodagali

Theses and Dissertations

Fiber reinforced composites have been used in various engineering structures and applications especially in naval, automotive, aeronautical and sports industries. These composite materials generally exhibit brittle damage behavior. The anisotropy in the material and different kinds of failure mechanisms make it difficult to accurately characterize the behavior of composite materials. The present work aims to verify and apply the Puck Failure Criteria using the commercially available finite element package ABAQUS by writing a user-material subroutine in FORTRAN. The model is implemented with different post failure degradation schemes.

In the present work, the progressive failure on composite materials in analyzed using ...


Instability In Nonequilibrium And Nonthermal Plasma Discharges, Rajib Mahamud Jan 2017

Instability In Nonequilibrium And Nonthermal Plasma Discharges, Rajib Mahamud

Theses and Dissertations

Microplasma, or plasma in micron scale interelectrode separation, is an effective way to attain nonthermal plasma operation at atmospheric and higher pressure. However, the small size causes the effect of other operating parameters to be crucial in stable operation and make the microplasma discharge system to be susceptible to instabilities. The two major instabilities that are commonly observed are the instability in the negative differential resistance (NDR) region and the Striations or the ionization waves. The physics and reaction kinetics of NDR instability for high pressure system is not well understood. This study pursues both experimental characterization and development of ...


Promotional Effect Of Molten Carbonates On Proton Conductivity And Oxygen Reduction Reaction – An Experimental And Computational Study, Xiaolei Xiong Jan 2017

Promotional Effect Of Molten Carbonates On Proton Conductivity And Oxygen Reduction Reaction – An Experimental And Computational Study, Xiaolei Xiong

Theses and Dissertations

Recent research of Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is aimed to lower the operating temperature to an intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500 to 700oC, while maintaining a proper performance. This Ph.D. research project investigates the promotional effects of alkaline carbonate eutectics on the proton conductivity of proton conducting electrolytes and cathodic ORR reactivity in SOFCs by both experimental and computational methods. The ionic conductivity of the MC-BZY composite above 500oC increases with the higher loading of MC. The sample exhibited nearly a factor of two higher conductivity in H2-containing atmosphere than in ...


Computational Wave Field Modeling Using Sequential Mapping Of Poly-Crepitus Green’S Function In Anisotropic Media, Sajan Shrestha Jan 2017

Computational Wave Field Modeling Using Sequential Mapping Of Poly-Crepitus Green’S Function In Anisotropic Media, Sajan Shrestha

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, a meshless semi-analytical computational method is presented to compute the ultrasonic wave field in the generalized anisotropic material while understanding the physics of wave propagation in detail. To understand the wave-damage interaction in an anisotropic material, it is neither feasible nor cost-effective to perform multiple experiments in the laboratory. Hence, recently the computational nondestructive evaluation (CNDE) received much attention to performing the NDE experiments in a virtual environment. In this thesis, a fundamental framework is constructed to perform the CNDE experiment of a thick composite specimen in a Pulse-Echo (PE) mode. To achieve the target, the following ...


On The Microstructural Behavior Of Pure Magnesium Under Various Strain Rates, Peter Malchow Jan 2017

On The Microstructural Behavior Of Pure Magnesium Under Various Strain Rates, Peter Malchow

Theses and Dissertations

An investigation into the localized microstructural response of pure magnesium under both quasi-static and dynamic loading is presented in the form of several experimental works. The meso-scale events were examined using Digital Image Correlation techniques, which provide a methodology for mapping the in-situ full-field material strain behavior.

Firstly, an analysis of the grain boundary activity specifically under dynamic conditions at high magnification is discussed. An area of interest in the region of multiple grain boundaries and triple junctions is selected for characterizing the evolution of the strain and local rotation. This is followed by a study experimentally verifying the causes ...


Nondestructive Evaluation And Health Monitoring Of Adhesively Bonded Composite Structures, William Walker Roth Jan 2017

Nondestructive Evaluation And Health Monitoring Of Adhesively Bonded Composite Structures, William Walker Roth

Theses and Dissertations

As the growth of fiber reinforced composite materials continues in many industries, structural designers will have to look to new methods of joining components. In order to take full advantage of composite materials, such as increased stiffness, decreased weight, tailored material properties and increased fatigue life, mechanical fasteners will need to be replaced by adhesive bonding or welding, when possible. Mechanical fasteners require the drilling of holes, which damages the laminate and becomes the source of further fatigue damage. Also, an increase in laminate thickness or inclusion of other features is required for the material to withstand the bearing stress ...


Numerical Analysis Of Phase Change, Heat Transfer And Fluid Flow Within Miniature Heat Pipes, Mehdi Famouri Jan 2017

Numerical Analysis Of Phase Change, Heat Transfer And Fluid Flow Within Miniature Heat Pipes, Mehdi Famouri

Theses and Dissertations

Heat pipes with broad applications in thermal systems have the ability to provide effective heat transport with minimal losses in over reasonable distances due to their passive nature. Their exceptional flexibility, simple fabrication, and easy control, not to mention, all without any external pumping power make them especially attractive in electronics cooling. Heat pipe development is motivated to overcome the need to presumably manage thermal dissipation in progressively compressed and higher-density microelectronic components, while preserving the components temperatures to specification.

Computation of flow and heat transfer in a heat pipe is complicated by the strong coupling among the velocity, pressure ...


Using The Gauge Condition To Simplify The Elastodynamic Analysis Of Guided Wave Propagation, Bhuiyan Yeasin Md, Victor Giurgiutiu Sep 2016

Using The Gauge Condition To Simplify The Elastodynamic Analysis Of Guided Wave Propagation, Bhuiyan Yeasin Md, Victor Giurgiutiu

Faculty Publications

In this article, gauge condition in elastodynamics is explored more to revive its potential capability of simplifying wave propagation problems in elastic medium. The inception of gauge condition in elastodynamics happens from the Navier-Lame equations upon application of Helmholtz theorem. In order to solve the elastic wave problems by potential function approach, the gauge condition provides the necessary conditions for the potential functions. The gauge condition may be considered as the superposition of the separate gauge conditions of Lamb waves and shear horizontal (SH) guided waves respectively, and thus, it may be resolved into corresponding gauges of Lamb waves and ...


Guided Wave Based Crack Detection In The Rivet Hole Using Global Analytical With Local Fem Approach, Bhuiyan Yeasin Md, Yanfeng Shen, Victor Giurgiutiu Jul 2016

Guided Wave Based Crack Detection In The Rivet Hole Using Global Analytical With Local Fem Approach, Bhuiyan Yeasin Md, Yanfeng Shen, Victor Giurgiutiu

Faculty Publications

In this article, ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with the rivet hole cracks has been formulated using closed-form analytical solution while the local damage interaction, scattering, and mode conversion have been obtained from finite element analysis. The rivet hole cracks (damage) in the plate structure gives rise to the non-axisymmetric scattering of Lamb wave, as well as shear horizontal (SH) wave, although the incident Lamb wave source (primary source) is axisymmetric. The damage in the plate acts as a non-axisymmetric secondary source of Lamb wave and SH wave. The scattering of Lamb and SH waves are captured using wave ...


Numerical Modeling Of Heat Transfer And Material Flow During Friction Extrusion Process, Hongsheng Zhang Jun 2016

Numerical Modeling Of Heat Transfer And Material Flow During Friction Extrusion Process, Hongsheng Zhang

Theses and Dissertations

Friction extrusion process is a novel manufacturing process that converts low-cost metal precursors (e.g. powders and machining chips) into high-value wires with potential applications in 3D printing of metallic products. However, there is little existing scientific literature involving friction extrusion process until recently. The present work is to study the heat transfer and material flow phenomena during the friction extrusion process on aluminum alloy 6061 through numerical models validated by experimental measurements.

The first part is a study of a simplified process in which flow of a transparent Newtonian fluid in a cylindrical chamber caused by frictional contact with ...


Study Of Friction Extrusion And Consolidation, Xiao Li Jun 2016

Study Of Friction Extrusion And Consolidation, Xiao Li

Theses and Dissertations

Friction extrusion and consolidation was invented by The Welding Institute (Cambridge, UK) in the early 1990’s. It is related to simple extrusion processes with the primary difference being that the extrusion die rotates about the extrusion axis and the die is required to impart substantial deformation to the initially, finely divided charge (like metal waste or chips) in order to consolidate it prior to extrusion. It can produce high quality wire and fully consolidated bulk material from low-cost precursors like metal chips or powders. The advantages lie in that it is a direct method to recycle metal chips or ...


Ubisol-Q10 Prevents Glutamate-Induced Cell Death By Blocking Mitochondrial Fragmentation And Permeability Transition Pore Opening, Santosh Kumari, Suresh L. Mehta, Gaolin Z. Milledge, Xinyu Huang, P Andy Li Apr 2016

Ubisol-Q10 Prevents Glutamate-Induced Cell Death By Blocking Mitochondrial Fragmentation And Permeability Transition Pore Opening, Santosh Kumari, Suresh L. Mehta, Gaolin Z. Milledge, Xinyu Huang, P Andy Li

Faculty Publications

Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are the major events that lead to the formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) during glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and cell death. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has widely been used for the treatment of mitochondrial disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Comparing to traditional lipid-soluble CoQ10, water soluble CoQ10 (Ubisol-Q10) has high intracellular and intra-mitochondrial distribution. The aims of the present study are to determine the neuroprotective effects of Ubisol-Q10 on glutamate-induced cell death and to explore its functional mechanisms. HT22 neuronal cells were exposed to glutamate. Cell viability was measured and mitochondrial fragmentation was assessed by mitochondrial imaging ...


Automated Tool Selection And Tool Path Planning For Free-Form Surfaces In 3-Axis Cnc Milling Using Highly Parallel Computing Architecture, Andrey Balabokhin Jan 2016

Automated Tool Selection And Tool Path Planning For Free-Form Surfaces In 3-Axis Cnc Milling Using Highly Parallel Computing Architecture, Andrey Balabokhin

Theses and Dissertations

This research presents a methodology to automatically select cutters and generate tool paths for all stages in 3-axis CNC Milling of free-form surfaces. Tools are selected and tool paths are planned in order to minimize the total machining time. A generalized cutter geometry model is used to define available cutters and an arbitrary milling surface is initially defined by a triangular mesh.

The decisions made by process engineers in selecting cutting geometry and generating tool paths for milling dramatically influence the final result. Often, the resulting tool path is non-optimal, because the engineers cannot consider all the available information. However ...


Effects Of Process Variants On Metallurgical And Mechanical Properties In Friction Stir Welding Of Aluminum Alloys, Xiaomin Huang Jan 2016

Effects Of Process Variants On Metallurgical And Mechanical Properties In Friction Stir Welding Of Aluminum Alloys, Xiaomin Huang

Theses and Dissertations

Conventional shoulder friction stir welding (CSFSW) produces uneven heat input through welded material thickness: higher close to the top and lower close to the bottom. When CSFSW is applied on certain aluminum alloys, such as 7xxx and 2xxx series high strength aluminum alloys which contain low melting point intermetallic, overheating and local melting may happen close to weld crown. Stationary shoulder friction stir welding (SSFSW) may generate much more uniform heat input through plate thickness than CSFSW due to the non-rotating shoulder and rotating pin. Therefore, overheating and local melting are expected to be avoided in SSFSW. Furthermore, local properties ...


Detection Of Periodic Error And Structure Change Using Wavelet Analysis, Chao Lu Jan 2016

Detection Of Periodic Error And Structure Change Using Wavelet Analysis, Chao Lu

Theses and Dissertations

Heterodyne displacement measuring interferometry provides important metrology for applications requiring high resolution and accuracy. Heterodyne Michelson interferometers use a two-frequency laser source and separate the two optical frequencies into one fixed length and one variable length path via polarization. Ideally these two beams are linearly polarized and orthogonal so that only one frequency is directed toward each path. An interference signal is obtained by recombining the light from the two paths; this results in a measurement signal at the heterodyne (split) frequency of the laser source. This measurement signal is compared to the optical reference signal. Motion in the measurement ...


Friction Stir Welding And Processing On Titanium Alloys, Dawei Li Jan 2016

Friction Stir Welding And Processing On Titanium Alloys, Dawei Li

Theses and Dissertations

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process that utilizes a non-consumable, rotating tool to plunge into abutting faces and transverse along the weld path. Material nearby the tool is softened by frictional heat generated via local friction and plastic deformation. Severe plastic deformation of the interface along with a state of hydrostatic pressure results in creation of a joint by metallurgical bonding. Because the temperature of the material during the welding process is below that of the melting point, FSW has numerous advantages over conventional fusion welding. Friction consolidation (FC) is also a solid-state process that uses a ...


Physics Based Modeling Of Guided Waves For Detection And Characterization Of Structural Damage In Nde And Shm, Banibrata Poddar Jan 2016

Physics Based Modeling Of Guided Waves For Detection And Characterization Of Structural Damage In Nde And Shm, Banibrata Poddar

Theses and Dissertations

Guided waves based damage detection techniques are popular for their ease of generation and detection along with their ability to travel long distances. Accurate and efficient modeling is a key for successful implementation of guided waves for NDE/SHM. However, efficient prediction of scattering from various damage is challenging due to the complex nature of these guided waves.

This dissertation presents as physics based efficient and accurate modeling techniques to predict ultrasonic wave propagation and their interaction with various damage. Detection and characterization of damage in structures can typically be divided into two categories, active and passive. This research is ...


Ndt And Shm Methods Of Damage Detection In Welded Structures, Saad Mohammed Jan 2016

Ndt And Shm Methods Of Damage Detection In Welded Structures, Saad Mohammed

Theses and Dissertations

There has been an increasing demand for Nondestructive Testing (NDT) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques to continuously monitor during all processes of a structure to prevent catastrophic failure and reduce maintenance costs. NDT and SHM are inspection processes which form part of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) scheme. Among NDT and SHM methods, ultrasonic and guided wave techniques are the most commonly and widely used in industry. Ultrasonic methods provide the advantage of accurately locating and dimensioning defects within structures. Most of these structures consist of welded joints because welding is an economical and efficient method for ...


Nano Oil Additives And Their Effect On Uh-60 Auxiliary Power Unit Performance, James Patrick Folk Jan 2016

Nano Oil Additives And Their Effect On Uh-60 Auxiliary Power Unit Performance, James Patrick Folk

Theses and Dissertations

This study is designed to research the tribological properties of nano oils developed by NanoPro MT and to determine their effects on fuel consumption in an UH-60 Blackhawk Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). For this work, two different nano oils were tested and compared against the performance of conventional oil. The first nano oil mixture contains proprietary nanodiamond particles and the second nano oil contains a mix of zinc sulfide, boron nitride, and graphene particles. Aeroshell 560 was used as the conventional oil and was blended with the nano particles to create both nano oils. This oil meets the military specifications ...


Estimation Of Basic And Mission Benefit Of Condition-Based Maintenance Deployment In Hums Equipped Ah-64 Aircraft Using Nlp And Regression Analysis, Tanzina Zaman Jan 2016

Estimation Of Basic And Mission Benefit Of Condition-Based Maintenance Deployment In Hums Equipped Ah-64 Aircraft Using Nlp And Regression Analysis, Tanzina Zaman

Theses and Dissertations

Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is a maintenance practice that involves regular monitoring of the mechanical condition of components of interest, processing of information collected, and then decision-making to ensure both maximizing the time interval between repairs and minimizing the number of unscheduled failures. CBM also offers early detection of failure which can prevent major breakdowns and repairs. Vibration monitoring is one of the effective techniques for condition monitoring. Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) is a powerful tool for aviation industry which monitors health status and trending data. Vibration Monitoring Unit (VMU) and Modernized Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) are two forms ...


Anisotropic Electrical Response Of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials, Mohammad Faisal Haider Jan 2016

Anisotropic Electrical Response Of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials, Mohammad Faisal Haider

Theses and Dissertations

Composites materials are often subjected to multi-physical conditions in different applications where, in addition to mechanical loads, they also need to sustain other types of loads such as electrical currents. The multi-physical behavior of composites needs to be understood and analyzed to facilitate new multi-functional material design. An essential first step towards this goal is to understand how multi-physics properties depend on local details (e.g. micro-structure). Composite materials have heterogeneous electrical properties (carbon/epoxy) at the local level that can be different at the global level. To conduct the multi-physics study, the electrical signal is employed to the composite ...


Mechanical Characterization Of Sicf-Sicm Nuclear Fuel Cladding By A Novel Hydraulic Internal Pressurization Method, Kirill Shapovalov Jan 2016

Mechanical Characterization Of Sicf-Sicm Nuclear Fuel Cladding By A Novel Hydraulic Internal Pressurization Method, Kirill Shapovalov

Theses and Dissertations

Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have been actively researched for applications requiring high temperature strength and damage tolerance. Examples are turbine engine hot section components, leading edges for hypersonic vehicles, nuclear fusion reactor first wall and blanket, and recently nuclear fuel claddings. Predictable material damage behavior is desirable for these applications so early damage accumulation can be detected before a catastrophic failure occurs. Many ceramic materials can withstand high temperature environments, but due to inherent brittleness of ceramics the high damage tolerance and the predictable damage behavior are difficult to achieve. Ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCC) have demonstrated the above ...


Deformation Of Multifunctional Materials At Various Time And Length Scales: A Dic-Based Study, Behrad Koohbor Jan 2016

Deformation Of Multifunctional Materials At Various Time And Length Scales: A Dic-Based Study, Behrad Koohbor

Theses and Dissertations

The focus in the present work is to explore and characterize the underlying deformation and failure mechanisms in multifunctional materials including woven composites and polymeric foams, using full-field measurements. Attention has been especially drawn towards the challenges associated with characterizing these materials at extreme length and time scales, and investigating the advantages of full-field measurements to resolve the existing limitations. Accordingly, the current limitations in the study of dynamic deformation response of low-impedance materials are identified. An approach based on the general stress equilibrium is presented and successfully implemented to include the concurrent effects of inertia and material compressibility into ...


Modeling Radionuclide Diffusion Using Moose A Multiscale, Multiphysics Platform, Jonathon Gardner Jan 2016

Modeling Radionuclide Diffusion Using Moose A Multiscale, Multiphysics Platform, Jonathon Gardner

Theses and Dissertations

Very durable ceramic waste forms have been proposed which offer longterm stability by binding certain radionuclides in their specific crystalline network. Moreover, multiple such ceramic phases can be tailored to contain specific radionuclides generated in the fuel cycle. Many such candidate ceramic forms are in the early stages of development with limited data. Modeling and simulation including modeling of diffusion can inform and provide direction to ongoing fabrication and experimental efforts. Material properties important in modeling can be obtained through laboratory measurement where available and atomistic simulation. Since diffusion occurs over multiple scales and follows multiple pathways, multiscale modeling is ...


Techno Economical Analysis Of Solid Oxide Iron-Air Redox Battery For Power Generation And Energy Storage, Farzana Yasmeen Jan 2016

Techno Economical Analysis Of Solid Oxide Iron-Air Redox Battery For Power Generation And Energy Storage, Farzana Yasmeen

Theses and Dissertations

The largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States is from burning fossil fuels for electricity, heat, and transportation. Due to increasing environmental constraints associated with greenhouse gas emissions and uncertainty in the supply of fossil fuels, power systems of the future will become more reliable on renewable power source. To overcome the intermittency issue of renewable power, a promising cost effective electricity-storage systems is vital. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established detailed cost targets for energy storage system. One of the targets is capital cost which should be under $150/kWh for new technology ...