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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Promoting Electrocatalytic Activity Of A Composite Sofc Cathode La0.8Sr0.2Mno3+Δ/Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-Δ With Molten Carbonates, Yunhui Gong, Xue Li, Lingling Zhang, Whitney Tharp, Changyong Qin, Kevin Huang Dec 2013

Promoting Electrocatalytic Activity Of A Composite Sofc Cathode La0.8Sr0.2Mno3+Δ/Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-Δ With Molten Carbonates, Yunhui Gong, Xue Li, Lingling Zhang, Whitney Tharp, Changyong Qin, Kevin Huang

Faculty Publications

The effect of molten carbonates (MCs) on polarization resistance (RP), a direct measure of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, of a composite La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ/Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-δ (LSM/GDC) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode has been systematically investigated in this study over a temperature range of 550–650°C and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) span of 10−3 ∼ 1 atm. It is shown that the LSM/GDC cathode, either in the pristine or MC-modified states, can be generally modeled by two consecutive parallel circuits ...


Fundamental Experimental Studies In Scaling, Blast Mitigation And Material Processing, Xing Zhao Dec 2013

Fundamental Experimental Studies In Scaling, Blast Mitigation And Material Processing, Xing Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

In this work, two separate research efforts are discussed. They include experimental studies in (1) Scaling and Blast Mitigation and (2) Scaling in Friction Stir Extrusion. In both studies, the primary experimental measurement method is three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC), a non-contacting full-field measurement method that is applicable for both high-rate loading and quasi-static loading conditions.

Scaling and Blast Mitigation Studies:

A series of properly scaled structures was subjected to buried blast loading conditions via detonation of a small explosive buried in saturated sand. Using high speed stereo-vision systems to record the deformations of selected regions on the upper surface ...


Enhanced Reversibility And Durability Of A Solid Oxide Fe–Air Redox Battery By Carbothermic Reaction Derived Energy Storage Materials, Xuan Zhao, Xue Li, Yunhui Gong, Kevin Huang Oct 2013

Enhanced Reversibility And Durability Of A Solid Oxide Fe–Air Redox Battery By Carbothermic Reaction Derived Energy Storage Materials, Xuan Zhao, Xue Li, Yunhui Gong, Kevin Huang

Faculty Publications

The recently developed solid oxide metal–air redox battery is a new technology capable of high-rate chemistry. Here we report that the performance, reversibility and stability of a solid oxide iron–air redox battery can be significantly improved by nanostructuring energy storage materials from a carbothermic reaction.


A New Solid Oxide Molybdenum–Air Redox Battery, Xuan Zhao, Yunhui Gong, Xue Li, Nansheng Xu, Kevin Huang Oct 2013

A New Solid Oxide Molybdenum–Air Redox Battery, Xuan Zhao, Yunhui Gong, Xue Li, Nansheng Xu, Kevin Huang

Faculty Publications

A new type of rechargeable molybdenum–air battery based on the technologies of reversible solid oxide fuel cells and chemical looping is reported in this study. The reversible solid oxide fuel cell serves as the electrical unit to realize the charging and discharging cycles while a pair of Mo/MoO2 redox couple integrated with the reversible solid oxide fuel cell stores electrical energy via an H2–H2O oxygen shuttle. The specific charge of the new battery reaches 1117 A h per kg-Mo at 550°C, which is 45% higher than the non-rechargeable Mo–air battery. The corresponding discharge specific energy ...


Enhanced Reducibility And Conductivity Of Na/K-Doped Srti0.8Nb0.2O3, Guoliang Xiao, Sirikanda Nuansaeng, Lei Zhang, Suwit Suthirakun, Andreas Heyden, Hans-Conrad Zur Loye, Fanglin Chen Sep 2013

Enhanced Reducibility And Conductivity Of Na/K-Doped Srti0.8Nb0.2O3, Guoliang Xiao, Sirikanda Nuansaeng, Lei Zhang, Suwit Suthirakun, Andreas Heyden, Hans-Conrad Zur Loye, Fanglin Chen

Faculty Publications

Donor and acceptor co-doped SrTiO3 materials have shown interesting features in their conductivity and reducibility. In this work, 10 mol% Na+ or K+ as acceptor dopants have been introduced into the A-site of donor-doped strontium titanate, SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3, and the doping impact on their properties has been studied. By doping with Na or K, the sinterability of SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3 in reducing atmospheres has been improved. Na0.1Sr0.9Ti0.8Nb0.2O3 and K0.1Sr0.9Ti ...


Cyclic Durability Of A Solid Oxide Fe-Air Redox Battery Operated At 650°C, Xuan Zhao, Yunhui Gong, Xue Li, Nansheng Xu, Kevin Huang Aug 2013

Cyclic Durability Of A Solid Oxide Fe-Air Redox Battery Operated At 650°C, Xuan Zhao, Yunhui Gong, Xue Li, Nansheng Xu, Kevin Huang

Faculty Publications

The recently developed rechargeable solid oxide metal-air redox battery has shown a great potential for applications in mid- to large-scale stationary energy storage. Cyclic durability is one of the most important requirements for stationary energy storage. In this study, we report the cyclic durability of a solid oxide Fe-air redox battery operated at 650°C. The battery was continuously cycled 100 times under a current density of 50 mA/cm2 with rather flat performance, producing an average specific energy of 760 Wh/kg-Fe at a round-trip efficiency of 55.5%. The post-test examination indicated that the performance losses could ...


Cyclic Durability Of A Solid Oxide Fe-Air Redox Battery Operated At 650°C, Xuan Zhao, Yunhui Gong, Xue Li, Nansheng Xu, Kevin Huang Aug 2013

Cyclic Durability Of A Solid Oxide Fe-Air Redox Battery Operated At 650°C, Xuan Zhao, Yunhui Gong, Xue Li, Nansheng Xu, Kevin Huang

Faculty Publications

The recently developed rechargeable solid oxide metal-air redox battery has shown a great potential for applications in mid- to large-scale stationary energy storage. Cyclic durability is one of the most important requirements for stationary energy storage. In this study, we report the cyclic durability of a solid oxide Fe-air redox battery operated at 650◦C. The battery was continuously cycled 100 times under a current density of 50 mA/cm2 with rather flat performance, producing an average specific energy of 760 Wh/kg-Fe at a round-trip efficiency of 55.5%. The post-test examination indicated that the performance losses could arise ...


Computer Vision Based, Non-Contacting Deformation And Shape Measurements: A Revolution In Progress, Michael A. Sutton Jul 2013

Computer Vision Based, Non-Contacting Deformation And Shape Measurements: A Revolution In Progress, Michael A. Sutton

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

The rapid expansion of computer technology in the past thirty years has impacted society in innumerable ways. Of interest for this discussion is the breath-taking change in measurement sciences that has occurred as the digital age dawned and has now become part of our daily lives. In particular, the effect on image-based, non-contacting measurements will be described and the continuing revolutionary impact that the resulting technology has engendered will be reviewed. Additionally, the unprecedented expansion of capabilities will be highlighted by presenting a set of illustrative example studies.


Unveiling The Roles Of Binder In The Mechanical Integrity Of Electrodes For Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jianchao Chen, Jianyong Liu, Yue Qi, Tao Sun, Xiaodong Li Jul 2013

Unveiling The Roles Of Binder In The Mechanical Integrity Of Electrodes For Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jianchao Chen, Jianyong Liu, Yue Qi, Tao Sun, Xiaodong Li

Faculty Publications

In lithium-ion secondary batteries research, binders have received the least attention, although the electrochemical performance of Li-ion batteries such as specific capacity and cycle life cannot be achieved if the adhesion strengths between electrode particles and between electrode films and current collectors are insufficient to endure charge-discharge cycling. In this paper, the roles of binders in the mechanical integrity of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries were studied by coupled microscratch and digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. A microscratch based composite model was developed to decouple the carbon particle/particle cohesion strength from the electrode-film/copper-current-collector adhesion strength. The dependences of microscratch ...


First Spectroscopic Identification Of Pyrocarbonate For High Co2 Flux Membranes Containing Highly Interconnected Three Dimensional Ionic Channels, Lingling Zhang, Xinyu Huang, Changyong Qin, Kyle Brinkman, Yunhui Gong, Siwei Wang, Kevin Huang Jun 2013

First Spectroscopic Identification Of Pyrocarbonate For High Co2 Flux Membranes Containing Highly Interconnected Three Dimensional Ionic Channels, Lingling Zhang, Xinyu Huang, Changyong Qin, Kyle Brinkman, Yunhui Gong, Siwei Wang, Kevin Huang

Faculty Publications

Identification of the existence of pyrocarbonate ion C2O52− in molten carbonates exposed to a CO2 atmosphere provides key support for a newly established bi-ionic transport model that explains the mechanisms of high CO2 permeation flux observed in mixed oxide-ion andcarbonate-ion conducting (MOCC) membranes containing highly interconnected three dimensional ionic channels. Here we report the first Raman spectroscopic evidence of C2O52− as an active species involved in the CO2-transport process of MOCC membranes exposed to a CO2atmosphere. The two new broad peaks centered at 1317 cm−1 ...


Performance Of Solid Oxide Iron-Air Battery Operated At 550°C, Xuan Zhao, Yunhui Gong, Xue Li, Nansheng Xu, Kevin Huang May 2013

Performance Of Solid Oxide Iron-Air Battery Operated At 550°C, Xuan Zhao, Yunhui Gong, Xue Li, Nansheng Xu, Kevin Huang

Faculty Publications

“Metal-air” batteries have garnered much attention in recent years due to their high intrinsic specific energy and use of inexhaustible and storage-free oxygen source -air- for the “metal-oxygen” reaction. In this study, we report theperformance of a new type of all solid-state “iron-air” battery operated at 550°C. The results show that CeO2 nanoparticles incorporated into the Fe-Fe3O4 redox-couple can improve the specific energy (Wh/kg) and round trip efficiency by 15% and 29%, respectively, over the baseline Fe-Fe3O4 battery. Use of supported Fe-Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the redox couple can ...


Micro Modeling Study Of Cathode/Electrolyte Interfacial Stresses For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Xinfang Jin, Xingjian Xue May 2013

Micro Modeling Study Of Cathode/Electrolyte Interfacial Stresses For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Xinfang Jin, Xingjian Xue

Faculty Publications

Delamination of the cathode/electrolyte interface is an important degradation phenomenon in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). While the thermal stress has been widely recognized as one of the major reasons for such delamination failures, the role of chemical stress does not receive too much attention. In this paper, a micro-model is developed to study the cathode/electrolyte interfacial stresses, coupling oxygen ion transport process with structural mechanics. Results indicate that the distributions of chemical stress are very complicated at the cathode/electrolyte interface and show different patterns from those of thermal stress. The maximum principal stresses take place at ...


A High Energy Density All Solid-State Tungsten-Air Battery, Xuan Zhao, Xue Li, Yunhui Gong, Nansheng Xu, Kevin Gregory Romito, Kevin Huang Apr 2013

A High Energy Density All Solid-State Tungsten-Air Battery, Xuan Zhao, Xue Li, Yunhui Gong, Nansheng Xu, Kevin Gregory Romito, Kevin Huang

Faculty Publications

An all solid-state tungsten–air battery using solid oxide–ion electrolyte is demonstrated as a new chemistry for advanced energy storage. The unique design of separated energy storage from the electrodes allows for free volume expansion–contraction during electrical cycles and new metal–air chemistry to be explored conveniently.


Enhanced Nucleate Boiling On Horizontal Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Carbon Nanotube Coatings, Xianming Dai, Xinyu Huang, Fanghao Yang, Xiaodong Li, Joshua Sightler, Yingchao Yang, Chen Li Apr 2013

Enhanced Nucleate Boiling On Horizontal Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Carbon Nanotube Coatings, Xianming Dai, Xinyu Huang, Fanghao Yang, Xiaodong Li, Joshua Sightler, Yingchao Yang, Chen Li

Faculty Publications

Ideal hydrophobic-hydrophilic composite cavities are highly desired to enhance nucleate boiling. However, it is challenging and costly to fabricate these types of cavities by conventional micro/nano fabrication techniques. In this study, a type of hydrophobic-hydrophilic composite interfaces were synthesized from functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes by introducing hydrophilic functional groups on the pristine multiwall carbon nanotubes. This type of carbon nanotube enabled hydrophobic-hydrophilic composite interfaces were systematically characterized. Ideal cavities created by the interfaces were experimentally demonstrated to be the primary reason to substantially enhance nucleate boiling


Hydrophobic Hydrogel Caged H3Po4 As A New Class Of High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membranes With Enhanced Acid Retention, Qunwei Tang, Guoging Qian, Kevin Huang Jan 2013

Hydrophobic Hydrogel Caged H3Po4 As A New Class Of High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membranes With Enhanced Acid Retention, Qunwei Tang, Guoging Qian, Kevin Huang

Faculty Publications

We herein report a new class of high-temperature proton exchange membranes comprised of poly(acrylic acid-graft-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) (PAA-g-CTAB) or poly(acrylic acid)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PAA-g-PEG) hydrophobic hydrogel caged H3PO4. The membranes exhibit reasonable proton conductivity, enhanced H3PO4 retention ability and low solubility in water, making them promising as potential high performance and robust electrolytes for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Although the proton conductivity is still lower than that of H3PO4 doped PBI membranes, the new concept provides a different approach to proton exchange membranes for acid retention.


Improved Limits And Portability Over Currently Employed Cadmium Monitoring Systems Through Preconcentration For Detection By Way Of Micro-/Nanofluidic Mechanisms, Paul F. Wach Jan 2013

Improved Limits And Portability Over Currently Employed Cadmium Monitoring Systems Through Preconcentration For Detection By Way Of Micro-/Nanofluidic Mechanisms, Paul F. Wach

Theses and Dissertations

Due to risk of environmental and biological accumulation of Cadmium (Cd), improved methods of early detection and monitoring must be explored as a preventative measure. Listed as one of the top three toxic heavy metals by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the effects on ecological and human systems have well documented side-effects of physical mutation, reproductive sterility, kidney failure, liver disease, bone loss, and death. Found in batteries, metal plating, pigments, plastics, and cigarettes, Cd is also used as a neutron absorber in the nuclear industry as well as having 3 known radioactive isotopes. Urine Cd levels, which have been ...


A New Class Of Solid Oxide Metal-Air Redox Batteries For Advanced Stationary Energy Storage, Xuan Zhao Jan 2013

A New Class Of Solid Oxide Metal-Air Redox Batteries For Advanced Stationary Energy Storage, Xuan Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Cost-effective and large-scale energy storage technologies are a key enabler of grid modernization. Among energy storage technologies currently being researched, developed and deployed, rechargeable batteries are unique and important that can offer a myriad of advantages over the conventional large scale siting- and geography- constrained pumped-hydro and compressed-air energy storage systems. However, current rechargeable batteries still need many breakthroughs in material optimization and system design to become commercially viable for stationary energy storage.

This PhD research project investigates the energy storage characteristics of a new class of rechargeable solid oxide metal-air redox batteries (SOMARBs) that combines a regenerative solid oxide ...


Environmental Effects On Mechanical And Thermal Behaviors Of Zinc Oxide Nanobelts And Dispersion Of Carbon Nanostructures, Yingchao Yang Jan 2013

Environmental Effects On Mechanical And Thermal Behaviors Of Zinc Oxide Nanobelts And Dispersion Of Carbon Nanostructures, Yingchao Yang

Theses and Dissertations

One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts, and nanotubes of different materials, have significant applications as nanoscale interconnects and active/functional components of electronic and optoelectronic devices, sensors, actuators, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and energy generation/conversion systems. The thermal and mechanical stabilities of those nanodevices and nanoenabled energy systems are of both theoretical and practical interests. Thermodynamic properties of nanomaterials are different from those of bulk materials. As the size of a solid particle reduces to the nanometer scale, the surface-to-volume ratio increases and the melting temperature may remarkably decrease. The functionality and/or reliability of those nanodevices and nanoenabled ...


Experimental And Simulation Predicted Crack Paths For Al-2024-T351 Under Mixed-Mode I/Ii Fatigue Loading Using An Arcan Fixture, Eileen Miller Jan 2013

Experimental And Simulation Predicted Crack Paths For Al-2024-T351 Under Mixed-Mode I/Ii Fatigue Loading Using An Arcan Fixture, Eileen Miller

Theses and Dissertations

Mixed mode I/II fatigue experiments and simulations are performed for an Arcan fixture and a 6.35mm thick Al-2024-T351 specimen. Experiments were performed for Arcan loading angles that gave rise to a range of Mode I/II crack tip conditions from 0 ¡Ü ¦¤KII/¦¤KI ¡Ü ¡Þ. Measurements include the crack paths, loading cycles and maximum and minimum loads for each loading angle. Simulations were performed using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA) with 10-noded tetrahedral elements via CRACK3D. While modeling the entire fixture-specimen geometry, a modified version of VCCT with automatic crack tip re-meshing and a maximum normal stress ...


Modeling Ultrasonic Field Emanating From Scanning Acoustic Microscope For Reliable Characterization Of Pathogens (Biological Materials), Rowshan Ara Rima Jan 2013

Modeling Ultrasonic Field Emanating From Scanning Acoustic Microscope For Reliable Characterization Of Pathogens (Biological Materials), Rowshan Ara Rima

Theses and Dissertations

Acoustic microscopy provides extraordinary advantages over state-of-the-art invasive imaging techniques to determine the mechanical properties of living colonies of pathogens and micro-organisms. It is possible to obtain the morphomechanical parameters of the pathogenic colonies e.g. variation of thickness, stiffness and the coefficients of attenuation, using scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). However, the process requires an expert with extensive understanding of SAM and ultrasonic signals which is very time consuming and expensive for complex form of analysis. Due to lack of a suitable computational tool, presently the ultrasonic wave scattering, reflection and transmission through the biological specimens cannot be properly visualized ...


Three-Dimensional Evolution Of Mechanical Percolation In Nanocomposites With Random Microstructures, Bethany Suzanne Fralick Jan 2013

Three-Dimensional Evolution Of Mechanical Percolation In Nanocomposites With Random Microstructures, Bethany Suzanne Fralick

Theses and Dissertations

One mechanism that is expected to play a large role in the enhanced, and sometimes novel, mechanical properties of nanocomposites is the probabilistic formation of percolated or connected microstructures. The majority of the models used to describe mechanical percolation have the functional form of a power law and depend on prior knowledge of a percolation threshold or critical volume fraction. While these models have been fairly accurate predictors of electrical conductivity in composites, they do not take any microstructural mechanisms, other than connectivity, into consideration. Classic mean-field micromechanics models, however, do not capture the variability in effective properties due to ...


Boiling And Evaporation On Micro/Nanoengineered Surfaces, Xianming Dai Jan 2013

Boiling And Evaporation On Micro/Nanoengineered Surfaces, Xianming Dai

Theses and Dissertations

Two-phase transport is widely used in energy conversion and storage, energy efficiency and thermal management. Surface roughness and interfacial wettability are two major impact factors for two-phase transport. Micro/nanostructures play important roles in varying the surface roughness and improving interfacial wettability. In this doctoral study, five types of micro/nanoengineered surfaces were developed to systematically study the impacts of interfacial wettability and flow structures on nucleate boiling and capillary evaporation. These surfaces include: 1) superhydrophilic atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings; 2) partially hydrophobic and partially hydrophilic composite interfaces; 3) micromembrane-enhanced hybrid wicks; 4) superhydrophilic micromembrane-enhnaced hybrid wicks, and 5 ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of New Ionic And Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductors, Kevin Gregory Romito Jan 2013

Synthesis And Characterization Of New Ionic And Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductors, Kevin Gregory Romito

Theses and Dissertations

In a constantly growing and developing world, there is a great need to develop new forms of clean energy generation. Many solutions have been proposed to ameliorate these global concerns, which include fuel cell technology and new processes for reducing polluting chemicals in the atmosphere. These technologies are still in their infancy and require further development before becoming viable options.

In the case of fuel cells, particularly solid oxide fuel cells, and CO2 separation membranes, there is a need to develop ion conducting materials that are highly efficient, less costly to synthesize, and can perform strongly under many real-world conditions ...


Modeling And Simulation Study Of A Dynamic Gas Turbine System In A Virtual Test Bed Environment, Eshwarprasad Thirunavukarasu Jan 2013

Modeling And Simulation Study Of A Dynamic Gas Turbine System In A Virtual Test Bed Environment, Eshwarprasad Thirunavukarasu

Theses and Dissertations

Gas Turbine is a complex system and highly non linear in its overall performance. For power generation applications, it is essential to develop a reliable gas turbine model for simulating the impact on electric power generated under various load conditions. This research focuses on development of a dynamic gas turbine model to simulate both single shaft and twin shaft engines. The model is developed on a virtual test bed platform which is an advanced dynamic multidisciplinary simulation environment. The modeling approach starts by developing mathematical models for individual components of gas turbines based on the thermodynamic laws and is coupled ...


Multi-Physicochemical Modeling Of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells And Electrolyzer Cells, Yuanyuan Xie Jan 2013

Multi-Physicochemical Modeling Of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells And Electrolyzer Cells, Yuanyuan Xie

Theses and Dissertations

Multi-physicochemical models are developed for solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysis cells. The models describe the complicated transport processes of charge (electron/ion) conservation, mass/species conservation, momentum conservation, and energy conservation. Transport processes are coherently coupled with chemical reforming processes, surface elementary reaction processes, as well as electro-oxidation processes of both hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The models are validated with experimental data and utilized for fundamental mechanism studies of SOFCs fueled with different type of fuels, such as hydrogen, hydrocarbon, e.g., methane, H2S, and their mixtures. The fundamental mechanisms associated with syngas generation using electrolysis cell are also ...


Electrokinetic Mixing And Separation In Microfluidic Systems, Fang Yang Jan 2013

Electrokinetic Mixing And Separation In Microfluidic Systems, Fang Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Electrokinetics involves the study of liquid or particle motion under the action of an electric field; it includes electroosmosis, electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis, and electrowetting, etc. The applications of electrokinetics in the development of microfluidic devices have been widely attractive in the past decade. Electrokinetic devices generally require no external mechanical moving parts and can be made portable by replacing the power supply by small battery. Therefore, electrokinetic based microfluidic systems can serve as a viable tool in creating a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) for use in biological and chemical assays. Here we present our works of electrokenitic based mixing and separation in microfluidics ...


Microstructural-Based Modeling Of Electrical Percolation In Polymer Nanocomposites, Neelima Yellepeddi Jan 2013

Microstructural-Based Modeling Of Electrical Percolation In Polymer Nanocomposites, Neelima Yellepeddi

Theses and Dissertations

Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) represent a radical alternative to conventional filled polymers or polymer blends. In contrast to conventional composites, where the included phase is on the order of micrometers, PNCs are defined as those that have discrete constituents on the order of a few hundred nanometers. The value of PNCs is not solely based on tailoring mechanical properties, as in traditional composite design and manufacture, but rather on the potential for the design and optimization of multi-functional properties. There is major interest in these polymeric materials embedded with a conductive nanoscale filler. This is due to the possibility of designing ...


Welding Parameters, Distortion And Mechanical Properties Of Aa7075 Lap Joints In Ssfsw, Hejun Yu Jan 2013

Welding Parameters, Distortion And Mechanical Properties Of Aa7075 Lap Joints In Ssfsw, Hejun Yu

Theses and Dissertations

Friction Stir Welding (FSW), first invented by The Welding Institute of UK (TWI) in 1991, is a solid state welding process which was initially applied to welding Aluminum Alloy. FSW has wide application in industrial sectors. Stationary shoulder friction stir welding (SSFSW) was first developed to weld low thermal conductivity Ti-based alloys, which are hard to weld using conventional friction stir welding. Previous literatures showed SSFSW can produce uniform temperature distribution through thickness during the welding process. Since SSFSW is still under study phase, its advantages and disadvantages are not yet well defined. It is important to study the characteristics ...


Structural Health Monitoring Of Composite Laminates Using Piezoelectric And Fiber Optics Sensors, Catalin Roman Jan 2013

Structural Health Monitoring Of Composite Laminates Using Piezoelectric And Fiber Optics Sensors, Catalin Roman

Theses and Dissertations

This research proposes a new approach to structural health monitoring (SHM) for composite laminates using piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) and fiber optic bragg grating sensors (FBG). One major focus of this research was directed towards extending the theory of laminates to composite beams by combining the global matrix method (GMM) with the stiffness transfer matrix method (STMM). The STMM approach, developed by Rokhlin et al (2002), is unconditionally stable and is more computationally efficient than the transfer matrix method (TMM). Starting from theory, we developed different configurations for composite beams and validated the results from the developed analytical method ...


Toward Sophisticated Controls Of Two-Phase Transport At Micro/Nano-Scale, Fanghao Yang Jan 2013

Toward Sophisticated Controls Of Two-Phase Transport At Micro/Nano-Scale, Fanghao Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Through the use of latent heat evaporating, flow boiling in microchannels offers new opportunities to enable high efficient heat and mass transport for a wide range of emerging applications such as high power electric/electronic/optical cooling, compact heat exchangers and reactors. However, flow boiling in microchannels is hampered by several severe constraints such as bubble confinement (e.g., slug flow), viscosity and surface tension force-dominated flows, which result in unpredictable flow pattern transitions and tend to induce severe flow boiling instabilities (i.e. low-frequency and large magnitude flows) and suppress evaporation and convection.

In this dissertation, three novel micro ...