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Articles 1 - 30 of 216

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Coaxial Pcl/Peg-Thiol-Ene Microfiber With Tunable Physico- Chemical Properties For Regenerative Scaffolds, Monica Cristina Iglesias Echevarria Jan 2019

Coaxial Pcl/Peg-Thiol-Ene Microfiber With Tunable Physico- Chemical Properties For Regenerative Scaffolds, Monica Cristina Iglesias Echevarria

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Tissue regeneration requires scaffolds that exhibit mechanical properties similar to the tissues to be replaced while allowing cell infiltration and extracellular matrix production. Ideally, the scaffolds’ porous architecture and physico-chemical properties can be precisely defined to address regenerative needs. We thus developed techniques to produce hybrid fibers coaxially structured with a polycaprolactone core and a 4-arm, polyethylene glycol thiol-norbornene sheath. We assessed the respective effects of crosslink density and sheath polymer size on the scaffold architecture, physical and mechanical properties, as well as cell-scaffold interactions in vitro and in vivo. All scaffolds displayed high elasticity, swelling and strength, mimicking soft ...


Blebbing Of Hydrogel During Volume-Phase Transition, Jian Kan Jan 2019

Blebbing Of Hydrogel During Volume-Phase Transition, Jian Kan

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Hydrogels are networks of polymer chains that are capable of absorbing solvent to become gel-like elastomeric materials. One common observation is the formation of patterns on the stimuli-sensitive gel during the phase transition from swollen to shrunk phase. Our research investigates the mechanics behind gel blebbing; when a temperature-sensitive hydrogel encounters a sudden temperature change, multiple ballon-like bubbles can be seen forming on the gel surface during its shrinking phase. The previous researches established that the surface patterns are the result of an impermeable membrane forming on the surface, creating a surface layer which traps the solvent inside and causing ...


Standard And Inception-Based Encoder-Decoder Neural Networks For Predicting The Solution Convergence Of Design Optimization Algorithms, Nathanial James O'Neill Jan 2019

Standard And Inception-Based Encoder-Decoder Neural Networks For Predicting The Solution Convergence Of Design Optimization Algorithms, Nathanial James O'Neill

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The goal of this work is to investigate the ways in which the capabilities of machine learning algorithms, specifically those of neural networks, can be leveraged to enhance the performance of design optimization algorithms -- specifically those of topology optimization.

A recent boom of interest in design optimization has occurred, coinciding with the arrival and development of advanced manufacturing techniques (such as 3D printing and additive manufacturing) which are compatible with the designs generated by these algorithms. Neural networks have seen an even larger boom in interest and development for their ability to act as ``universal function generators;" in other words ...


Level-Set-Xfem-Density Topology Optimization Of Active Structures: Methods And Applications, Markus Josef Geiss Jan 2019

Level-Set-Xfem-Density Topology Optimization Of Active Structures: Methods And Applications, Markus Josef Geiss

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

To unlock the potential of advanced manufacturing technologies like additive manufacturing, an inherent need for sophisticated design tools exists. In this thesis, a systematic approach for designing printed active structures using a combined level-set (LS) extended finite element (XFEM) density topology optimization (TO) scheme is developed. This combined scheme alleviates the downsides of both LS and density based TO approaches while building upon the advantages of either method. Thus, a superior design optimization approach is created, which, when coupled with the XFEM, yields a highly accurate physical modeling method. The unique capabilities of this combined approach include hole nucleation and ...


Indoor Black And Brown Carbon From Cooking Activities And Outdoor Penetration: Insights From The Homechem Study, Sumit Sankhyan Jan 2019

Indoor Black And Brown Carbon From Cooking Activities And Outdoor Penetration: Insights From The Homechem Study, Sumit Sankhyan

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Particulate matter emissions from cooking activities are a major contributor to indoor air pollution in households. A major part of these emissions consists of light absorbing aerosols known as black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC). The goal of this work was to characterize the contributions of indoor and outdoor sources of BC and BrC to the indoor environment by measuring real-time concentrations of these components indoors and outdoors concurrently during the month-long HOMEChem field study in June 2018. We quantified the penetration of BC and BrC into the house from outdoor sources and characterized the impacts of cooking activities ...


Direct Numerical Simulations Of The Compressible Low Atwood Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, Scott A. Wieland Jan 2019

Direct Numerical Simulations Of The Compressible Low Atwood Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, Scott A. Wieland

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Two fluids are considered Rayleigh-Taylor unstable when the more dense fluid is suspended above the less dense fluid in the presence of a gravitational like accelerative force. When a pertur- bation is applied to the interface between the two, they begin mixing as the light fluid rises and the heavy fluid drops. The extension of this to the compressible regime leads to the densities of the fluids to not be constant, but instead the molar mass is used to define the weights. At the interface, a density jump still occurs, but away from the interface the densities can vary in ...


Thermal Conductivity Of Complex Crystals, High Temperature Materials And Two Dimensional Layered Materials, Xin Qian Jan 2019

Thermal Conductivity Of Complex Crystals, High Temperature Materials And Two Dimensional Layered Materials, Xin Qian

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Thermal conductivity is a critical property for designing novel functional materials for engineering applications. For applications demanding efficient thermal management like power electronics and batteries, thermal conductivity is a key parameter affecting thermal designs, stability and performances of the devices. Thermal conductivity is also the critical material metrics for applications like thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbines and thermoelectrics (TE). Therefore, thermal conductivities of various functional materials have been investigated in the past decade, but most of the materials are simple and isotropic crystals at low temperature. This is because the first-principles calculation is limited to simple crystals at ...


Bio-Mimetic Smart System Functioning Like Natural Skin And Muscle, Zhanan Zou Jan 2019

Bio-Mimetic Smart System Functioning Like Natural Skin And Muscle, Zhanan Zou

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Soft machines, or soft robotics, are emerging technologies bringing many exciting prospects for the coming future. Creating soft machines with biomimetic functions is of key importance for applications in bettering human life and creating more complex robotic systems. Various mechanisms have been adopted to mimic natural tactile sense, tough, muscular motion, and even artificial intelligence. Among these, developing a bio-mimetic system capable of self-healing and degradation that behaves like a muscular hydrostat is appealing for soft robotics. This thesis will mainly focus on developing both artificial skin and artificial muscles that can self-heal, be recycled, and function like biological tissue ...


A Data-Driven Toolchain For The Operational Performance Analysis And Optimization Of Buildings, Anthony Reed Florita Jan 2019

A Data-Driven Toolchain For The Operational Performance Analysis And Optimization Of Buildings, Anthony Reed Florita

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Automation has proven indispensable to advancing human endeavors. Within the built environment its evolution and sophistication are on the cusp of moving beyond automatic control into automated prediction and diagnosis. A data-driven toolchain is developed so human efforts can be focused on high-value concerns. The research examines smart buildings as a cyberphysical construct and places the Bayesian perspective as paramount. Prior knowledge is leveraged through common building energy modeling and simulation tools, which are utilized and extended. An iterative, three-step process is developed to 1) classify building energy performance scenarios, 2) forecast dynamics over a planning horizon of interest, and ...


Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk Jan 2019

Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fish scales are specialized biological structures of current interest in innovative materials design because of the combination of protective function, flexibility, and light weight they offer. This study presents a developmental and functional investigation of a particular fish scale structure, the scutes (bony external plates) of the armored Bronze Corydoras Catfish (Corydoras aeneus). Scutes in this model fish species were analyzed via three complementary approaches. First, scutes were documented throughout fish development via high-quality microscope images. These images were subsequently used to inform fabrication of synthetic models to characterize the relationship between scute overlap and overall bending stiffness of scute ...


A Thermo-Poromechanics Finite Element Model For Predicting Arterial Tissue Fusion, Douglas P. Fankell Aug 2018

A Thermo-Poromechanics Finite Element Model For Predicting Arterial Tissue Fusion, Douglas P. Fankell

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This work provides modeling efforts and supplemental experimental work performed towards the ultimate goal of modeling heat transfer, mass transfer, and deformation occurring in biological tissue, in particular during arterial fusion and cutting. Developing accurate models of these processes accomplishes two goals. First, accurate models would enable engineers to design devices to be safer and less expensive. Second, the mechanisms behind tissue fusion and cutting are widely unknown; models with the ability to accurately predict physical phenomena occurring in the tissue will allow for insight into the underlying mechanisms of the processes. This work presents three aims and the efforts ...


Assessing A Low-Cost Methane Sensor Quantification System For Use In Complex Rural And Urban Environments, Ashley Monika Collier-Oxandale, Joanna Gordon Casey, Ricardo Antonio Piedrahita, John Ortega, Hannah Halliday, Jill Johnston, Michael Hannigan Jun 2018

Assessing A Low-Cost Methane Sensor Quantification System For Use In Complex Rural And Urban Environments, Ashley Monika Collier-Oxandale, Joanna Gordon Casey, Ricardo Antonio Piedrahita, John Ortega, Hannah Halliday, Jill Johnston, Michael Hannigan

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

Low-cost sensors have the potential to facilitate the exploration of air quality issues on new temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate a low-cost sensor quantification system for methane through its use in two different deployments. The first was a 1-month deployment along the Colorado Front Range and included sites near active oil and gas operations in the Denver-Julesburg basin. The second deployment was in an urban Los Angeles neighborhood, subject to complex mixtures of air pollution sources including oil operations. Given its role as a potent greenhouse gas, new low-cost methods for detecting and monitoring methane may aid in ...


Thermal Fusion For Sutureless Closure: Devices, Composition, Methods, Eric Anthony Kramer Jan 2018

Thermal Fusion For Sutureless Closure: Devices, Composition, Methods, Eric Anthony Kramer

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

As minimally invasive surgical techniques progress, the demand for reliable ligation is pronounced. The surgical advantages of energy-based vessel sealing exceed those of traditional, compression-based ligatures in procedures sensitive to duration, foreign bodies, and recovery time alike. While the use of energy-based devices to seal or transect vasculature and connective tissue bundles is widespread, the breadth of heating strategies and energy dosimetry used between devices underscores an uncertainty as to the molecular nature of the sealing mechanism and induced tissue bond. Further, energy-based techniques (e.g., tissue “fusion” or tissue “welding”) exhibit promise for the closure, repair and functional recovery ...


Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Of Industrial Flame Systems, Torrey Rahe Schenkenberger Hayden Jan 2018

Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Of Industrial Flame Systems, Torrey Rahe Schenkenberger Hayden

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Combustion is widely used for materials processing, propulsion, and power production. Understanding the temporal and spatial variations within practical combustion systems can help to optimize their stability, uniformity, emissions, and/or efficiency. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) provides quantitative, non-intrusive, time-resolved measurements of line-of-sight thermodynamic properties in a gas sample. This dissertation describes the development and application of novel WMS sensors for measurements in industrial flame environments. After an overview of WMS, we describe the development of the first WMS sensor to measure OH radical near 1491 nm. We perform the first dual-comb spectroscopy measurement above a premixed flame in order ...


Impacts Of Energy-Efficiency Retrofits On Ventilation And Indoor Air Quality In Low-Income Households, Prateek Man Shrestha Jan 2018

Impacts Of Energy-Efficiency Retrofits On Ventilation And Indoor Air Quality In Low-Income Households, Prateek Man Shrestha

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Energy-efficiency retrofit (EER) activities can affect home ventilation rates and negatively impact occupant health in low-income households. The work discussed in this dissertation investigates in detail the impacts of EERs along with various household characteristics and environmental conditions on indoor air quality in low-income housing of Colorado. We found that the quality of EERs can vary greatly, and the distribution of annual average air exchange rates in homes with EER are not significantly different than the homes without the EERs. We also found that window weather-stripping and furnace ductwork sealing should be prioritized more than door and window caulking and ...


Fish-Scales: The Next Step In Soft Body Protection?, Zachary Windsor White Jan 2018

Fish-Scales: The Next Step In Soft Body Protection?, Zachary Windsor White

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Balancing protection with mobility is a tradeoff all levels of the food chain have made in evolutionary development. The ability to withstand threats allows for longer life, as long as it does not degrade the ability to hunt and evade. The same can be said for modern engineered protection. Analogies can be drawn between common forms of man-made personal protection and the soft-body protecting structures seen in nature. However, nature has figured out how to balance encumberment with protection through the evolution of compound armors in a way that humans have yet to do in a relevant way. Fish-skin presents ...


Bio-Inspired Robotics Based On Liquid Crystalline Elastomers(Lces) And Flexible Stimulators, Qingyang Sun Jan 2018

Bio-Inspired Robotics Based On Liquid Crystalline Elastomers(Lces) And Flexible Stimulators, Qingyang Sun

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Soft robotics are most inspired from animals harnessing soft structures to move on ground or even harsh topological surface. Soft materials are the primary composition of soft robotics. Although they are not as durable and strong as ceramics and metals, soft materials stand out for their reversibility of deformation, response to stimuli and bio-compatibility. In this dissertation, liquid crystalline elastomer(LCE) combined with patterned flexible electronics and liquid metal have been used as soft robotics that simulating different kinds of worm-like movement. Besides, the impressive bendability of LCE finds itself a lot of potential in nature-camouflage area.

First of all ...


The Impacts Of Cooking And An Assessment Of Indoor Air Quality In Colorado Passive And Tightly Constructed Homes, Ryan Edward Militello-Hourigan Jan 2018

The Impacts Of Cooking And An Assessment Of Indoor Air Quality In Colorado Passive And Tightly Constructed Homes, Ryan Edward Militello-Hourigan

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Low-energy home design is becoming more common in new and retrofitted homes, and energy-efficient designs often sell at a premium [1]. This perceived and realized value of reducing energy use in homes is important as the need to reduce fossil fuel use becomes increasingly critical. Energy efficiency measures, like tightening the envelope of a home saves energy, but can impact the indoor air quality. We monitored the indoor air quality of nine tightly constructed homes, one tightly constructed public library, and one conventionally constructed home, and performed a repeatable cooking activity to observe the impact and response to the resulting ...


Large Eddy Simulations Of Industrial Burners, Siddharth Prashant Nigam Jan 2018

Large Eddy Simulations Of Industrial Burners, Siddharth Prashant Nigam

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

During the past four years, a gift from 3M has funded a project that is at the intersection of academia and industry at the University of Colorado, Boulder (CU). The overall objective of this joint computational and experimental effort is to explore optimization and improvement of burner/chilled-roll systems for polymer film flame treatments. Using the computational and experimental tools developed in this project, existing treatment processes will be improved and new avenues of technology innovation will be explored.

In this thesis, industry-relevant heat treatment processes with catalytic and ribbon burners are studied using large eddy simulations (LES). The simulations ...


Lithium Dentrite Growth Suppression And Ionic Conductivity Of Li2s-P2s5-P2o5 Glass Solid Electrolytes Prepared By Mechanical Milling, Mazlum Cengiz Jan 2018

Lithium Dentrite Growth Suppression And Ionic Conductivity Of Li2s-P2s5-P2o5 Glass Solid Electrolytes Prepared By Mechanical Milling, Mazlum Cengiz

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Conductivity of the 77.5Li2S·22.5P2S5 (mol %) and 77.5Li2S.(22.5 – x).P2S5.xP2O5 (mol %) glassy solid state electrolytes (SSEs) and possible correlation among the conductivity, density properties, varying P2O5 substitutions, and lithium deposition in symmetric lithium metal batteries were examined. The mechanical milling method was used to prepare the glassy SSEs. The conductivity and density of the 77.5Li2S.22.5P2S5 (mol %) glassy electrolyte could be enhanced by adding a small amount of P2O ...


Computational Design Tools And Techniques For Paper Mechatronics, Hyunjoo Oh Jan 2018

Computational Design Tools And Techniques For Paper Mechatronics, Hyunjoo Oh

ATLAS Institute Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Paper Mechatronics is a new design medium that integrates traditional papercrafting with mechanical, electrical, and computational components. This multidisciplinary medium adds layers to the creative possibilities of traditional papercrafting. This dissertation presents computational design tools and techniques that I designed and developed to enable novices to build their own Paper Mechatronics. I begin with an overview to describe Paper Mechatronics as a new medium for learning by making. Then I illustrate the design considerations and development of tools and associated prototyping techniques to support novice designers. Finally, I report on Paper Mechatronics workshops as user studies, where I assess the ...


Chemical Characterization Of Natural Soiling On Solar Panel Glass Covers In An Urban Environment, Faisal Ali Alamri Jan 2018

Chemical Characterization Of Natural Soiling On Solar Panel Glass Covers In An Urban Environment, Faisal Ali Alamri

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important source of renewable energy in the United States and the world. As PV systems become more commonly used in urban environments, PV soiling by urban air pollution must be investigated. This study investigates the effects of aging and urban air pollutant deposition on multiple nanotechnology-enabled coating materials, described as “self-cleaning”, “hydrophilic”, and “hydrophobic”, applied onto glass panels that were exposed to natural soiling at different tilt angles (30°, 45°, 60°). Light meter measurements in the field showed no significant differences among samples. UV-Vis analysis showed that new self-cleaning coating started with 3.9% lower ...


In-Situ Measurements Of The Elastic Modulus Of Zirconia Polycrystals Held In A State Of Flash Induced By An Electric Field, Rushi Keshav Kathiria Jan 2018

In-Situ Measurements Of The Elastic Modulus Of Zirconia Polycrystals Held In A State Of Flash Induced By An Electric Field, Rushi Keshav Kathiria

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

A recently discovered sintering mechanism called flash sintering where densification of a green ceramic compact happens in seconds rather than hours is the interest of this work. A rather interesting result is found at the end of this work about the effect of flash on the elastic modulus of 3mol% Yttria-Partially stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) during flash. To interpret the relation between

natural frequency and elastic modulus of a cantilever beam,Euler-Bernoulli beam theory coupled with a spring mass damper system was used. Fast Fourier Transform and Finite Element Analysis were employed to analyze the material vibrations and measure the change ...


Experimental Validation For The Theory Of Blisters’ Instabilities, Hongtian Zhu Jan 2018

Experimental Validation For The Theory Of Blisters’ Instabilities, Hongtian Zhu

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Blister formation is a universal problem that can be witnessed within a wide range of contents. It is first documented as a side effect of syringomyelia and other diseases. Later on, the forming of blisters are also observed during the cell apoptosis, which leads to the hypothesis that it could have some intricate relationships with the death of living organisms. Other than biological problems, blister forming is also a common phenomenon in thin film technologies. Therefore, the research in the forming of blisters is essential and critical in both engineering and science fields.

In this thesis, we study the problem ...


Lamb Waves With Conical Dispersion At Zero Wavenumber, David M. Stobbe Jan 2018

Lamb Waves With Conical Dispersion At Zero Wavenumber, David M. Stobbe

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Lamb waves are guided elastic waves in plates. These waves are dispersive, with the frequency and wavenumber related by the well-known Rayleigh-Lamb equation. Generally, at zero wavenumber the dispersion curves are parabolic and the waves are non-propagating thickness resonances. For distinct values of Poisson’s ratio, however, degeneracy can occur between thickness resonance modes. At these coincidence frequencies the dispersion curves become linear and in a three-dimensional representation the dispersion surface is shaped like a cone. This behavior is referred to as conical dispersion. Waves excited at coincidence frequencies maintain the infinite phase velocity associated with thickness resonances but transport ...


Acceleration Feedback Control For Small Fixed-Wing Uas, Angela Christine Maio Jan 2018

Acceleration Feedback Control For Small Fixed-Wing Uas, Angela Christine Maio

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Rejection of external disturbances is crucial for small aircraft flying in environments with dynamic flow fields, especially due to their increased sensitivity to disturbances. Fixed-wing vehicles are generally controlled using successive closure of position and velocity state feedback loops. The successive loop closure method ignores aerodynamic coupling and fails in the presence of strong gusts or aircraft damage. Existing multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) control methods may include aerodynamic coupling and provide more robust performance, but still respond slowly to high speed gusts because they feed back lower order states such as position and velocity. This study aims to develop a MIMO ...


Geometrically Exact And Analysis Suitable Mesh Generation Using Rational Bernstein–Bezier Elements, Luke H. Engvall Jan 2018

Geometrically Exact And Analysis Suitable Mesh Generation Using Rational Bernstein–Bezier Elements, Luke H. Engvall

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation presents two novel contributions to the fields of isogeometric analysis and p-version finite elements. First, we present a framework for geometrically exact volumetric mesh generation. By leveraging ideas from both traditional mesh generation as well as isogeometric analysis, we develop a framework for volumetric mesh generation using rational Bernstein--Bézier discretizations. Within this framework, we provide a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions for guaranteeing that a mesh will be geometrically exact. Second, we develop a complete theory of mesh quality for these rational Bernstein--Bézier elements. From this, we derive a set of easily computable mesh quality metrics ...


Improving Low-Cost Measurement Techniques To Investigate The Connections Between Fossil Fuels And Air Quality: From Oil And Gas Production To Home Heating, Joanna Gordon Casey Jan 2018

Improving Low-Cost Measurement Techniques To Investigate The Connections Between Fossil Fuels And Air Quality: From Oil And Gas Production To Home Heating, Joanna Gordon Casey

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Natural gas, as an energy resource can exert both positive and negative influences on air quality where people live, work, and go to school. Air quality in basins where oil and gas are produced from geologic formations can be potentially degraded by industry activities, but using natural gas in place of solid fuels like wood and coal for home heating and in other applications can potentially result in improved air quality. Low- cost gas sensors have emerged recently with great potential to help inform air quality on the scales that people live in ways that traditional instrumentation is not well ...


Effects Of Multilayer Network Interactions On Neural Network Dynamics, Yogesh Virkar Jan 2017

Effects Of Multilayer Network Interactions On Neural Network Dynamics, Yogesh Virkar

Computer Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Networks of excitable units are found in varied disciplines such as social science, neuroscience, genetics, epidemiology, etc. Previous studies have shown that some aspects of network function can be optimized when the network operates in the 'critical regime', i.e., at the boundary between order and disorder where the statistics of node excitations correspond to those of a classical branching process. In this thesis, we introduce and study a mathematical model of a neural network with the goal of understanding the long-standing problem of determining the mechanisms by which a neural network regulates its activity so as to operate in ...


Implementing A Negative-Pressure Isolation Ward For A Surge In Airborne-Infectious Patients, Shelly L. Miller, Nicholas Clements, Steven A. Elliott, Shobha S. Subhash, Aaron Eagan, Lewis J. Radonovich Jan 2017

Implementing A Negative-Pressure Isolation Ward For A Surge In Airborne-Infectious Patients, Shelly L. Miller, Nicholas Clements, Steven A. Elliott, Shobha S. Subhash, Aaron Eagan, Lewis J. Radonovich

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Contributions

Background: During a large-scale airborne infectious disease outbreak, the number of patients needing hospital-based healthcare services may exceed available negative-pressure isolation room capacity.

Methods: To test one method of increasing hospital surge capacity, a temporary negative pressure isolation ward was established at a fully functioning hospital. Negative pressure was achieved in a 30-bed hospital ward by adjusting the ventilation system. Differential pressure was continuously measured at 22 locations, and ventilation airflow was characterized throughout the ward.

Results: The pressure on the test ward relative to the main hospital hallway was -29 Pa on average, approximately 10 times higher than the ...