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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Gnygrens18.Pdf, Garrett Nygren Aug 2018

Gnygrens18.Pdf, Garrett Nygren

Garrett Nygren

The finite element method was used to evaluate microstructural strengthening and toughening effects in nanoparticulate reinforced polymer composites (nanocomposites) and in short aligned discontinuous fiber reinforced polymer composites. Nanoparticulate reinforcement is a well-known method of polymer toughening which can greatly expand the range of engineering applications for polymers. However, the mechanisms of nanoparticulate toughening, as well as complementary sub-micron fracture processes, are not well understood. Short, aligned, discontinuous carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics show promise as a versatile, inexpensive material system with favorable manufacturability, but failure of the associated morphologies is also not yet well explored.
In nanocomposites, two microstructural effects ...


Computational Modeling And Experimental Study On Optical Microresonators Using Optimal Spherical Structure For Chemical Sensing, Hanzheng Wang, Lei Yuan, Jie Huang, Xinwei Lan, Cheol-Woon Kim, Lan Jiang, Hai Xiao Jul 2018

Computational Modeling And Experimental Study On Optical Microresonators Using Optimal Spherical Structure For Chemical Sensing, Hanzheng Wang, Lei Yuan, Jie Huang, Xinwei Lan, Cheol-Woon Kim, Lan Jiang, Hai Xiao

Jie Huang

Chemical sensors based on optical microresonators have been demonstrated highly sensitive by monitoring the refractive index (RI) changes in the surrounding area near the resonator surface. In an optical resonator, the Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) with high quality (Q) factor supported by the spherical symmetric structure interacts with the contiguous background through evanescent field. Highly sensitive detection can be realized because of the long lifetime of the photons. The computational models of solid glass microspheres and hollow glass spheres with porous wall (PW-HGM) were established. These two types of microresonators were studied through simulations. The PWHGM resonator was proved as ...


Simulation Of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines With Variable Pitch Foils, L. Damon Woods, John F. Gardner, Kurt S. Myers Dec 2015

Simulation Of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines With Variable Pitch Foils, L. Damon Woods, John F. Gardner, Kurt S. Myers

John Gardner

A dynamic computer model of a turbine was developed in MATLAB in order to study the behavior of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) with variable pitch (articulating) foils. The simulation results corroborated the findings of several empirical studies on VAWTs. The model was used to analyze theories of pitch articulation and to inform the discussion on turbine design. Simulations of various models showed that pitch articulation allowed Darrieus-style vertical axis wind turbines to start from rest. Once in motion, the rotor was found to accelerate rapidly to very high rotational velocities. The simulations revealed a plateau region of high efficiency ...


Laser Assisted Embedding Of Nanoparticles Into Metallic Materials, Dong Lin, Sergey Suslov, Chang Ye, Yiliang Liao, C. Liu, Gary Cheng Apr 2015

Laser Assisted Embedding Of Nanoparticles Into Metallic Materials, Dong Lin, Sergey Suslov, Chang Ye, Yiliang Liao, C. Liu, Gary Cheng

Dr. Chang Ye

This paper reports a methodology of half-embedding nanoparticles into metallic materials. Transparent and opaque nanoparticles are chosen to demonstrate the process of laser assisted nanoparticle embedding. Dip coating method is used to coat transparent or opaque nanoparticle on the surface of metallic material. Nanoparticles are embedded into substrate by laser irradiation. In this study, the mechanism and process of nanoparticle embedding are investigated. It is found both transparent and opaque nanoparticles embedding are with high densities and good uniformities.


An Intelligent Systems Approach For An Ultrasonic Based Neuro-Navigation System, Jennifer Akers, Sanjeevi Chitikeshi, Ajay Mahajan, Tsuchin Chu, Etienne Witte, Sumeer Lal Apr 2015

An Intelligent Systems Approach For An Ultrasonic Based Neuro-Navigation System, Jennifer Akers, Sanjeevi Chitikeshi, Ajay Mahajan, Tsuchin Chu, Etienne Witte, Sumeer Lal

Dr. Ajay Mahajan

This paper shows the feasibility of using an intelligent systems approach to increase the accuracy of a 3D ultrasonic position estimation system for real-time image guided neurosurgery. Current image guided systems use camera based technology that is space-intensive, have an accuracy of about 1.0–2.0 mm, and are prone to occasional failures. The 3D system presented in this paper eliminates the space intensive camera, has an accuracy of around 1.0 mm in the operating range of about 200–400 mm, makes the system independent of line-of-sight occlusion problems, and is expected to pave the way for accurate ...


Optimizing The Robot Arm Movement Time Using Virtual Reality Robotic Teaching System Feb 2015

Optimizing The Robot Arm Movement Time Using Virtual Reality Robotic Teaching System

Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya

Robots play an important role in performing operations such as welding, drilling and screwing parts in manufacturing. Optimizing the robot arm movement time between different points is an important task which will minimize the make-span and maximize the production rate. But robot programming is a complex task whereby the user needs to teach and control the robot in order to perform a desired action. In order to address the above problem, an integrated 3-dimensional (3D) simulation software and virtual reality (VR) system is developed to simplify and speed up tasks and therefore enhance the quality of manufacturing processes. This system ...


Real-Time Simulation Of Three-Dimensional Shoulder Girdle And Arm Dynamics, Edward K. Chadwick, Dimitra Blana, Robert F. Kirsch, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Jun 2014

Real-Time Simulation Of Three-Dimensional Shoulder Girdle And Arm Dynamics, Edward K. Chadwick, Dimitra Blana, Robert F. Kirsch, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Electrical stimulation is a promising technology for the restoration of arm function in paralyzed individuals. Control of the paralyzed arm under electrical stimulation, however, is a challenging problem that requires advanced controllers and command interfaces for the user. A real-time model describing the complex dynamics of the arm would allow user-in-the-loop type experiments where the command interface and controller could be assessed. Real-time models of the arm previously described have not included the ability to model the independently controlled scapula and clavicle, limiting their utility for clinical applications of this nature. The goal of this study therefore was to evaluate ...


Pre-Impact Lower Extremity Posture And Brake Pedal Force Predict Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Mar 2014

Pre-Impact Lower Extremity Posture And Brake Pedal Force Predict Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Anne Su Ph.D.

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine how a driver’s foot and ankle forces during a frontal vehicle collision depend on initial lower extremity posture and brake pedal force. Method of Approach: A 2D musculoskeletal model with seven segments and six right-side muscle groups was used. A simulation of a three-second braking task found 3647 sets of muscle activation levels that resulted in stable braking postures with realistic pedal force. These activation patterns were then used in impact simulations where vehicle deceleration was applied and driver movements and foot and ankle forces were simulated. Peak rearfoot ground ...


Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision: The Influence Of Muscles, Elizabeth Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie Van Den Bogert Mar 2014

Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision: The Influence Of Muscles, Elizabeth Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie Van Den Bogert

Anne Su Ph.D.

Muscles have a potentially important effect on lower extremity injuries during an automobile collision. Computational modeling can be a powerful tool to predict these effects and develop protective interventions. Our purpose was to determine how muscles influence peak foot and ankle forces during an automobile collision. A 2-D bilateral musculoskeletal model was constructed with seven segments. Six muscle groups were included in the right lower extremity, each represented by a Hill muscle model. Vehicle deceleration data were applied as input and the resulting movements were simulated. Three models were evaluated: no muscles (NM), minimal muscle activation at a brake pedal ...


Pre-Impact Lower Extremity Posture And Brake Pedal Force Predict Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Pre-Impact Lower Extremity Posture And Brake Pedal Force Predict Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine how a driver’s foot and ankle forces during a frontal vehicle collision depend on initial lower extremity posture and brake pedal force. Method of Approach: A 2D musculoskeletal model with seven segments and six right-side muscle groups was used. A simulation of a three-second braking task found 3647 sets of muscle activation levels that resulted in stable braking postures with realistic pedal force. These activation patterns were then used in impact simulations where vehicle deceleration was applied and driver movements and foot and ankle forces were simulated. Peak rearfoot ground ...


Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision: The Influence Of Muscles, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision: The Influence Of Muscles, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Muscles have a potentially important effect on lower extremity injuries during an automobile collision. Computational modeling can be a powerful tool to predict these effects and develop protective interventions. Our purpose was to determine how muscles influence peak foot and ankle forces during an automobile collision. A 2-D bilateral musculoskeletal model was constructed with seven segments. Six muscle groups were included in the right lower extremity, each represented by a Hill muscle model. Vehicle deceleration data were applied as input and the resulting movements were simulated. Three models were evaluated: no muscles (NM), minimal muscle activation at a brake pedal ...


Optimality Principles For Model-Based Prediction Of Human Gait, Marko Ackermann, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Optimality Principles For Model-Based Prediction Of Human Gait, Marko Ackermann, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Although humans have a large repertoire of potential movements, gait patterns tend to be stereotypical and appear to be selected according to optimality principles such as minimal energy. When applied to dynamic musculoskeletal models such optimality principles might be used to predict how a patient's gait adapts to mechanical interventions such as prosthetic devices or surgery. In this paper we study the effects of different performance criteria on predicted gait patterns using a 2D musculoskeletal model. The associated optimal control problem for a family of different cost functions was solved utilizing the direct collocation method. It was found that ...


Design And Validation Of A General Purpose Robotic Testing System For Musculoskeletal Applications, Lawrence D. Noble, Robb W. Colbrunn, Dong-Gil Lee, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Brian L. Davis Dec 2013

Design And Validation Of A General Purpose Robotic Testing System For Musculoskeletal Applications, Lawrence D. Noble, Robb W. Colbrunn, Dong-Gil Lee, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Brian L. Davis

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Orthopaedic research on in vitro forces applied to bones, tendons, and ligaments during joint loading has been difficult to perform because of limitations with existing robotic simulators in applying full-physiological loading to the joint under investigation in real time. The objectives of the current work are as follows: (1) describe the design of a musculoskeletal simulator developed to support in vitro testing of cadaveric joint systems, (2) provide component and system-level validation results, and (3) demonstrate the simulator’s usefulness for specific applications of the foot-ankle complex and knee. The musculoskeletal simulator allows researchers to simulate a variety of loading ...


Predictive Musculoskeletal Simulation Using Optimal Control: Effects Of Added Limb Mass On Energy Cost And Kinematics Of Walking And Running, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Maarten Hupperets, Heiko Schlarb, Berthold Krabbe Dec 2013

Predictive Musculoskeletal Simulation Using Optimal Control: Effects Of Added Limb Mass On Energy Cost And Kinematics Of Walking And Running, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Maarten Hupperets, Heiko Schlarb, Berthold Krabbe

Antonie J. van den Bogert

When designing sports equipment, it is often desirable to predict how certain design parameters will affect human performance. In many instances, this requires a consideration of human musculoskeletal mechanics and adaptive neuromuscular control. Current computational methods do not represent these mechanisms, and design optimization typically requires several iterations of prototyping and human testing. This paper introduces a computational method based on musculoskeletal modeling and optimal control, which has the capability to predict the effect of mechanical equipment properties on human performance. The underlying assumption is that users will adapt their neuromuscular control according to an optimality principle, which balances task ...


A Real-Time, 3-D Musculoskeletal Model For Dynamic Simulation Of Arm Movements, Edward K. Chadwick, Dimitra Blana, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Robert F. Kirsch Dec 2013

A Real-Time, 3-D Musculoskeletal Model For Dynamic Simulation Of Arm Movements, Edward K. Chadwick, Dimitra Blana, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Robert F. Kirsch

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Neuroprostheses can be used to restore movement of the upper limb in individuals with high-level spinal cord injury. Development and evaluation of command and control schemes for such devices typically require real-time, ldquopatient-in-the-looprdquo experimentation. A real-time, 3-D, musculoskeletal model of the upper limb has been developed for use in a simulation environment to allow such testing to be carried out noninvasively. The model provides real-time feedback of human arm dynamics that can be displayed to the user in a virtual reality environment. The model has a 3-DOF glenohumeral joint as well as elbow flexion/extension and pronation/supination and contains ...


Simulations Of Machines Using Matlab And Simulink, John Gardner Dec 2000

Simulations Of Machines Using Matlab And Simulink, John Gardner

John Gardner

No abstract provided.