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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Real-Time Simulation Of Three-Dimensional Shoulder Girdle And Arm Dynamics, Edward K. Chadwick, Dimitra Blana, Robert F. Kirsch, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Jun 2014

Real-Time Simulation Of Three-Dimensional Shoulder Girdle And Arm Dynamics, Edward K. Chadwick, Dimitra Blana, Robert F. Kirsch, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Electrical stimulation is a promising technology for the restoration of arm function in paralyzed individuals. Control of the paralyzed arm under electrical stimulation, however, is a challenging problem that requires advanced controllers and command interfaces for the user. A real-time model describing the complex dynamics of the arm would allow user-in-the-loop type experiments where the command interface and controller could be assessed. Real-time models of the arm previously described have not included the ability to model the independently controlled scapula and clavicle, limiting their utility for clinical applications of this nature. The goal of this study therefore was to evaluate ...


Pre-Impact Lower Extremity Posture And Brake Pedal Force Predict Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Pre-Impact Lower Extremity Posture And Brake Pedal Force Predict Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine how a driver’s foot and ankle forces during a frontal vehicle collision depend on initial lower extremity posture and brake pedal force. Method of Approach: A 2D musculoskeletal model with seven segments and six right-side muscle groups was used. A simulation of a three-second braking task found 3647 sets of muscle activation levels that resulted in stable braking postures with realistic pedal force. These activation patterns were then used in impact simulations where vehicle deceleration was applied and driver movements and foot and ankle forces were simulated. Peak rearfoot ground ...


The Influence Of Orthotic Devices And Vastus Medialis Strength And Timing On Patellofemoral Loads During Running, R. R. Neptune, I. C. Wright, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

The Influence Of Orthotic Devices And Vastus Medialis Strength And Timing On Patellofemoral Loads During Running, R. R. Neptune, I. C. Wright, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Objective. To use a musculoskeletal model and simulation of running to examine: (1) the influence of two commonly prescribed treatments for patellofemoral pain (vastus medialis oblique strengthening and orthoses) and (2) the functional significance of timing differences between vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis on lateral patellofemoral joint loads. Design. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity was used to simulate running at 4 m/s. Background. Repetitive and excessive joint loading is often associated with overuse injuries that require clinical treatments to reduce pain and restore function. Affecting one in four runners, patellofemoral pain is one of the ...


Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision: The Influence Of Muscles, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Foot And Ankle Forces During An Automobile Collision: The Influence Of Muscles, Elizabeth C. Hardin, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Muscles have a potentially important effect on lower extremity injuries during an automobile collision. Computational modeling can be a powerful tool to predict these effects and develop protective interventions. Our purpose was to determine how muscles influence peak foot and ankle forces during an automobile collision. A 2-D bilateral musculoskeletal model was constructed with seven segments. Six muscle groups were included in the right lower extremity, each represented by a Hill muscle model. Vehicle deceleration data were applied as input and the resulting movements were simulated. Three models were evaluated: no muscles (NM), minimal muscle activation at a brake pedal ...


Development And Validation Of A 3-D Model To Predict Knee Joint Loading During Dynamic Movement, Scott G. Mclean, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Development And Validation Of A 3-D Model To Predict Knee Joint Loading During Dynamic Movement, Scott G. Mclean, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

The purpose of this study was to develop a subject-specific 3-D model of the lowerextremity to predict neuromuscular control effects on 3-D knee joint loading during movements that can potentially cause injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. The simulation consisted of a forward dynamic 3-D musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity, scaled to represent a specific subject. Inputs of the model were the initial position and velocity of the skeletal elements, and the muscle stimulation patterns. Outputs of the model were movement and ground reaction forces, as well as resultant 3-D forces and moments acting across ...


Sagittal Plane Biomechanics Cannot Injure The Acl During Sidestep Cutting, Scott G. Mclean, Xuemei Huang, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Sagittal Plane Biomechanics Cannot Injure The Acl During Sidestep Cutting, Scott G. Mclean, Xuemei Huang, Anne Su, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Background. Knee joint sagittal plane forces are a proposed mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injury during sport movements such as sidestep cutting. Ligament force magnitudes for these movements however, remain unknown. The need to examine injury-causing events suggests elucidation via model-based investigations is possible. Using this approach, the current study determined whether sagittal plane knee loading during sidestep cutting could in isolation injure the anterior cruciate ligament. Methods. Experiments were performed on subject-specific forward dynamic musculoskeletal models, generated from data obtained from 10 male and 10 female athletes. Models were optimized to simulate subject-specific cutting movements. Random perturbations (n=5000 ...


Adaptive Surrogate Modeling For Efficient Coupling Of Musculoskeletal Control And Tissue Deformation Models, Jason P. Halloran, Ahmet Erdemir, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Adaptive Surrogate Modeling For Efficient Coupling Of Musculoskeletal Control And Tissue Deformation Models, Jason P. Halloran, Ahmet Erdemir, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Background Finite element (FE) modeling and multibody dynamics have traditionally been applied separately to the domains of tissue mechanics and musculoskeletal movements, respectively. Simultaneous simulation of both domains is needed when interactions between tissue and movement are of interest, but this has remained largely impractical due to high computational cost. Method of Approach Here we present a method for concurrent simulation of tissue and movement, in which state of the art methods are used in each domain, and communication occurs via a surrogate modeling system based on locally weighted regression. The surrogate model only performs FE simulations when regression from ...


Model-Based Estimation Of Muscle Forces Exerted During Movements, Ahmet Erdemir, Scott Mclean, Walter Herzog, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Model-Based Estimation Of Muscle Forces Exerted During Movements, Ahmet Erdemir, Scott Mclean, Walter Herzog, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Estimation of individual muscle forces during human movement can provide insight into neural control and tissue loading and can thus contribute to improved diagnosis and management of both neurological and orthopaedic conditions. Direct measurement of muscle forces is generally not feasible in a clinical setting, and non-invasive methods based on musculoskeletal modeling should therefore be considered. The current state of the art in clinical movement analysis is that resultant joint torques can be reliably estimated from motion data and external forces (inverse dynamic analysis). Static optimization methods to transform joint torques into estimates of individual muscle forces using musculoskeletal models ...


Optimality Principles For Model-Based Prediction Of Human Gait, Marko Ackermann, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Optimality Principles For Model-Based Prediction Of Human Gait, Marko Ackermann, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Although humans have a large repertoire of potential movements, gait patterns tend to be stereotypical and appear to be selected according to optimality principles such as minimal energy. When applied to dynamic musculoskeletal models such optimality principles might be used to predict how a patient's gait adapts to mechanical interventions such as prosthetic devices or surgery. In this paper we study the effects of different performance criteria on predicted gait patterns using a 2D musculoskeletal model. The associated optimal control problem for a family of different cost functions was solved utilizing the direct collocation method. It was found that ...


Optimization And Evaluation Of A Proportional Derivative Controller For Planar Arm Movement, Kathleen M. Jagodnik, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Optimization And Evaluation Of A Proportional Derivative Controller For Planar Arm Movement, Kathleen M. Jagodnik, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

In most clinical applications of functional electrical stimulation (FES), the timing and amplitude of electrical stimuli have been controlled by open-loop pattern generators. The control of upper extremity reaching movements, however, will require feedback control to achieve the required precision. Here we present three controllers using proportional derivative (PD) feedback to stimulate six arm muscles, using two joint angle sensors. Controllers were first optimized and then evaluated on a computational arm model that includes musculoskeletal dynamics. Feedback gains were optimized by minimizing a weighted sum of position errors and muscle forces. Generalizability of the controllers was evaluated by performing movements ...


Design And Validation Of A General Purpose Robotic Testing System For Musculoskeletal Applications, Lawrence D. Noble, Robb W. Colbrunn, Dong-Gil Lee, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Brian L. Davis Dec 2013

Design And Validation Of A General Purpose Robotic Testing System For Musculoskeletal Applications, Lawrence D. Noble, Robb W. Colbrunn, Dong-Gil Lee, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Brian L. Davis

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Orthopaedic research on in vitro forces applied to bones, tendons, and ligaments during joint loading has been difficult to perform because of limitations with existing robotic simulators in applying full-physiological loading to the joint under investigation in real time. The objectives of the current work are as follows: (1) describe the design of a musculoskeletal simulator developed to support in vitro testing of cadaveric joint systems, (2) provide component and system-level validation results, and (3) demonstrate the simulator’s usefulness for specific applications of the foot-ankle complex and knee. The musculoskeletal simulator allows researchers to simulate a variety of loading ...


An Elaborate Data Set Characterizing The Mechanical Response Of The Foot, Ahmet Erdemir, Pavana A. Sirimamilla, Jason P. Halloran, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

An Elaborate Data Set Characterizing The Mechanical Response Of The Foot, Ahmet Erdemir, Pavana A. Sirimamilla, Jason P. Halloran, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Mechanical properties of the foot are responsible for its normal function and play a role in various clinical problems. Specifically, we are interested in quantification of foot mechanical properties to assist the development of computational models for movement analysis and detailed simulations of tissue deformation. Current available data are specific to a foot region and the loading scenarios are limited to a single direction. A data set that incorporates regional response, to quantify individual function of foot components, as well as the overall response, to illustrate their combined operation, does not exist. Furthermore, the combined three-dimensional loading scenarios while measuring ...


Implicit Methods For Efficient Musculoskeletal Simulation And Optimal Control, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Dimitra Blana, Dieter Heinrich Dec 2013

Implicit Methods For Efficient Musculoskeletal Simulation And Optimal Control, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Dimitra Blana, Dieter Heinrich

Antonie J. van den Bogert

The ordinary differential equations for musculoskeletal dynamics are often numerically stiff and highly nonlinear. Consequently, simulations require small time steps, and optimal control problems are slow to solve and have poor convergence. In this paper, we present an implicit formulation of musculoskeletal dynamics, which leads to new numerical methods for simulation and optimal control, with the expectation that we can mitigate some of these problems. A first order Rosenbrock method was developed for solving forward dynamic problems using the implicit formulation. It was used to perform real-time dynamic simulation of a complex shoulder arm system with extreme dynamic stiffness. Simulations ...


Predictive Musculoskeletal Simulation Using Optimal Control: Effects Of Added Limb Mass On Energy Cost And Kinematics Of Walking And Running, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Maarten Hupperets, Heiko Schlarb, Berthold Krabbe Dec 2013

Predictive Musculoskeletal Simulation Using Optimal Control: Effects Of Added Limb Mass On Energy Cost And Kinematics Of Walking And Running, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Maarten Hupperets, Heiko Schlarb, Berthold Krabbe

Antonie J. van den Bogert

When designing sports equipment, it is often desirable to predict how certain design parameters will affect human performance. In many instances, this requires a consideration of human musculoskeletal mechanics and adaptive neuromuscular control. Current computational methods do not represent these mechanisms, and design optimization typically requires several iterations of prototyping and human testing. This paper introduces a computational method based on musculoskeletal modeling and optimal control, which has the capability to predict the effect of mechanical equipment properties on human performance. The underlying assumption is that users will adapt their neuromuscular control according to an optimality principle, which balances task ...


Longitudinal Sex Differences During Landing In Knee Abduction In Young Athletes, Kevin R. Ford, Robert Shapiro, Gregory D. Meyer, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Timothy E. Hewett Dec 2013

Longitudinal Sex Differences During Landing In Knee Abduction In Young Athletes, Kevin R. Ford, Robert Shapiro, Gregory D. Meyer, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Timothy E. Hewett

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Purpose— The objective of this study was to determine if biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors related to abnormal movement patterns increased in females, but not males, during the adolescent growth spurt. Methods— 315 subjects participated in two testing sessions approximately one year apart. Male and female subjects were classified based on their maturation status as pubertal or post-pubertal.Three trials of a drop vertical jump (DVJ) were collected. Maximum knee abduction angle and external moments were calculated during the DVJ deceleration phase using a 3D motion analysis system. Changes in knee abduction from the first to second year were compared ...


Investigating Isolated Neuromuscular Control Contributions To Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Via Computer Simulation Methods, Scott G. Mclean, Xuemei Huang, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Investigating Isolated Neuromuscular Control Contributions To Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Via Computer Simulation Methods, Scott G. Mclean, Xuemei Huang, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Background Despite the ongoing evolution of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention methods, injury rates and the associated sex-disparity remain. Strategies capable of successfully countering key control parameters existent within the injury mechanism thus remain elusive. Forward dynamics model simulations afford an expedited means to study realistic injury causing scenarios, while controlling all facets of the movement control strategy. Utilizing these methods, the current study examined the potential for perturbations in key initial contact neuromuscular parameters to injure the anterior cruciate ligament during the stance phase of sidestep cutting maneuvers. Methods Controlled experiments were performed on optimized and validated subject-specific forward ...


A Real-Time, 3-D Musculoskeletal Model For Dynamic Simulation Of Arm Movements, Edward K. Chadwick, Dimitra Blana, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Robert F. Kirsch Dec 2013

A Real-Time, 3-D Musculoskeletal Model For Dynamic Simulation Of Arm Movements, Edward K. Chadwick, Dimitra Blana, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Robert F. Kirsch

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Neuroprostheses can be used to restore movement of the upper limb in individuals with high-level spinal cord injury. Development and evaluation of command and control schemes for such devices typically require real-time, ldquopatient-in-the-looprdquo experimentation. A real-time, 3-D, musculoskeletal model of the upper limb has been developed for use in a simulation environment to allow such testing to be carried out noninvasively. The model provides real-time feedback of human arm dynamics that can be displayed to the user in a virtual reality environment. The model has a 3-DOF glenohumeral joint as well as elbow flexion/extension and pronation/supination and contains ...


Helical Axes Of Skeletal Knee Joint Motion During Running, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, C. Reinschmidt, A. Lundberg Dec 2013

Helical Axes Of Skeletal Knee Joint Motion During Running, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, C. Reinschmidt, A. Lundberg

Antonie J. van den Bogert

The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the axis of rotation of the knee that occur during the stance phase of running. Using intracortical pins, the three-dimensional skeletal kinematics of three subjects were measured during the stance phase of five running trials. The stance phase was divided into equal motion increments for which the position and orientation of the finite helical axes (FHA) were calculated relative to a tibial reference frame. Results were consistent within and between subjects. At the beginning of stance, the FHA was located at the midepicondylar point and during the flexion phase ...


Concurrent Muscoskeletal Dynamics And Finite Element Analysis Predicts Altered Gait Patterns To Reduce Foot Tissue Loading, Jason P. Halloran, Marko Ackermann, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Concurrent Muscoskeletal Dynamics And Finite Element Analysis Predicts Altered Gait Patterns To Reduce Foot Tissue Loading, Jason P. Halloran, Marko Ackermann, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Current computational methods for simulating locomotion have primarily used muscle-driven multibody dynamics, in which neuromuscular control is optimized. Such simulations generally represent joints and soft tissue as simple kinematic or elastic elements for computational efficiency. These assumptions limit application in studies such as ligament injury or osteoarthritis, where local tissue loading must be predicted. Conversely, tissue can be simulated using the finite element method with assumed or measured boundary conditions, but this does not represent the effects of whole body dynamics and neuromuscular control. Coupling the two domains would overcome these limitations and allow prediction of movement strategies guided by ...


Predictive Simulation Of Gait At Low Gravity Reveals Skipping As The Preferred Locomotion Strategy, Marko Ackermann, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Dec 2013

Predictive Simulation Of Gait At Low Gravity Reveals Skipping As The Preferred Locomotion Strategy, Marko Ackermann, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

The investigation of gait strategies at low gravity environments gained momentum recently as manned missions to the Moon and to Mars are reconsidered. Although reports by astronauts of the Apollo missions indicate alternative gait strategies might be favored on the Moon, computational simulations and experimental investigations have been almost exclusively limited to the study of either walking or running, the locomotion modes preferred under Earth's gravity. In order to investigate the gait strategies likely to be favored at low gravity a series of predictive, computational simulations of gait are performed using a physiological model of the musculoskeletal system, without ...