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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Effects Of Noise, Reverberation And Foreign Accent On Native And Non-Native Listeners’ Performance Of English Speech Comprehension, Zhao Ellen Peng, Lily M. Wang May 2016

Effects Of Noise, Reverberation And Foreign Accent On Native And Non-Native Listeners’ Performance Of English Speech Comprehension, Zhao Ellen Peng, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

A large number of non-native English speakers may be found in American classrooms, both as listeners and talkers. Little is known about how this population comprehends speech in realistic adverse acoustical conditions. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of background noise level (BNL), reverberation time (RT), and talker foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' speech comprehension, while controlling for English language abilities. A total of 115 adult listeners completed comprehension tasks under 15 acoustic conditions: three BNLs (RC-30, RC-40, and RC-50) and five RTs (from 0.4 to 1.2 s). Fifty-six listeners were tested with speech ...


Assessment Of Noise-Induced Annoyance By Tones In Noise From Building Mechanical Systems, Joonhee Lee, Lily M. Wang Apr 2016

Assessment Of Noise-Induced Annoyance By Tones In Noise From Building Mechanical Systems, Joonhee Lee, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

Prominent tones in noise generated by mechanical equipment in buildings can cause complaints from occupants in buildings. The ISO 1996-2 and ANSI S1.13 standards describe methodologies and metrics to quantify tonality perception, but the influence of tones in noise on human annoyance and performance is not fully understood yet. This paper investigates annoyance responses of humans while exposed to background noise with tonal components. Twenty participants completed digit span tasks while exposed to noise signals with differing levels of tones and overall loudness. Subjects were also asked to rate their annoyance after completing tasks under each noise signal. The ...


The Impact Of Building Acoustics On Speech Comprehension And Student Achievement, Lily M. Wang Apr 2016

The Impact Of Building Acoustics On Speech Comprehension And Student Achievement, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

The movement for improved classroom acoustics has primarily been grounded on studies that show how building acoustics (i.e. background noise levels and room reverberation) affect speech intelligibility, as determined by speech recognition tests. What about actual student learning, though? If students do not understand each spoken word in the classroom perfectly, can they still manage to achieve high scholastic success? This presentation will review two recent studies conducted at the University of Nebraska – Lincoln, linking classroom acoustic conditions to student learning outcomes and speech comprehension (rather than simply recognition). In the first, acoustic measurements in two public school districts ...


Determining Annoyance Thresholds Of Tones In Noise, Jennifer M. Francis, Joonhee Lee, Lily M. Wang Apr 2016

Determining Annoyance Thresholds Of Tones In Noise, Jennifer M. Francis, Joonhee Lee, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

Building services equipment often produces noise signatures with significant tones in them that can lead to complaints in the built environment. Previous studies have investigated prominence levels of assorted tonal frequencies, but it is still unclear what prominence of the tones across varying tonal frequencies can lead to human annoyance. This project seeks to apply two different methods towards defining annoyance thresholds of tones in noise at two tonal frequencies: 125 Hz and 500 Hz. In the first, subjects are asked to perform a task, while exposed to ten minutes of a broadband noise spectrum with a specific level of ...


The Impact Of Building Acoustics On Speech Comprehension And Student Achievement, Lily M. Wang Apr 2016

The Impact Of Building Acoustics On Speech Comprehension And Student Achievement, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

The movement for improved classroom acoustics has primarily been grounded on studies that show how building acoustics (i.e. background noise levels and room reverberation) affect speech intelligibility, as determined by speech recognition tests. What about actual student learning, though? If students do not understand each spoken word in the classroom perfectly, can they still manage to achieve high scholastic success? This presentation will review two recent studies conducted at the University of Nebraska – Lincoln, linking classroom acoustic conditions to student learning outcomes and speech comprehension (rather than simply recognition). In the first, acoustic measurements in two public school districts ...


Effects Of Room Acoustics On Comprehension Of Foreign-Accented Speech By Native And Non-Native English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Kristin E. Hanna, Brenna N. Boyd, Lily M. Wang Apr 2016

Effects Of Room Acoustics On Comprehension Of Foreign-Accented Speech By Native And Non-Native English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Kristin E. Hanna, Brenna N. Boyd, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

In a previous study by the authors, reverberation time (RT) and background noise level (BNL) were both found to have negative effects on native and non-native English-speaking listeners in comprehending English speech produced by native American-English-speaking talkers. Comprehension scores were adjusted for listeners’ baseline English proficiency levels. In the present study, instead of native English-speaking talkers, two native Mandarin Chinese talkers (one male, one female) with similar English spoken proficiency were recruited to produce the same speech materials used in the previous study. A similar methodology was adopted to conduct speech comprehension tests on three groups of listeners: 1) native ...


Quantification And Subjective Perception Of Varying Reflection Densities In Measured Room Impulsed Responses, Hyun Hong, Lily M. Wang Apr 2016

Quantification And Subjective Perception Of Varying Reflection Densities In Measured Room Impulsed Responses, Hyun Hong, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

This project focuses on quantifying and testing the subjective perception of reflection densities, or the number of reflections per second, from different room impulse responses. The widely used room acoustic metric, reverberation time, is linked to the perceived reverberation in a room. Two different rooms having the same reverberation time, though, can have different reflection densities in their room impulse responses, and this difference in reflection density may affect how listeners perceive spatial impression in rooms. To investigate how sensitive humans are to a change of reflection density, this paper first reviews assorted parameters for quantifying reflection density from measured ...


Room Acoustic Effects On Speech Comprehension Of English-As-Second-Language Talkers And Listeners Versus Native-English-Speaking Talkers And Listeners, Lily M. Wang Apr 2016

Room Acoustic Effects On Speech Comprehension Of English-As-Second-Language Talkers And Listeners Versus Native-English-Speaking Talkers And Listeners, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

Approximately 21% of the children in the United States school system speak a language other than English at home, but are being taught in English at school. English is additionally being used more and more often as a common language in international settings, even though participants at these international events again are not native English speakers. How do adverse room acoustic environments, including higher background noise levels and longer reverberation times, impact English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) talkers and listeners versus native English-speaking talkers and listeners? This presentation focuses on two recent studies at the University of Nebraska that investigate how assorted room ...


Directivity Patterns Of Acoustic Radiation From Bowed Violins, Lily M. Wang, Courtney B. Burroughs Jun 2014

Directivity Patterns Of Acoustic Radiation From Bowed Violins, Lily M. Wang, Courtney B. Burroughs

Lily M Wang

Directivity patterns of acoustic radiation have been measured in the far-field of a violin, excited with an open-frame mechanical bowing machine. Analysis of the directivity patterns confirms that, at frequencies below 600 Hz, the violin radiates omnidirectionally, while above 600 Hz, certain trends are apparent as the patterns become increasingly complex. It is noted that when different strings are excited, the far-field radiation patterns observed at nearly the same frequency are similar, even in higher frequency ranges where modal overlap is high. When the difference in frequency between two directivity patterns exceeds some fraction of a semitone, though, the measured ...


Quantifying The Just Noticeable Difference Of Reverberation Time With Band-Limited Noise Centered Around 1000 Hz Using A Transformed Up-Down Adaptive Method, Matthew G. Blevins, Adam T. Buck, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

Quantifying The Just Noticeable Difference Of Reverberation Time With Band-Limited Noise Centered Around 1000 Hz Using A Transformed Up-Down Adaptive Method, Matthew G. Blevins, Adam T. Buck, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

This study seeks to quantify the just noticeable difference (JND) of reverberation time (RT) using band-limited noise. ISO 3382-1 lists the JND of reverberation metrics at 5% based on work by Seraphim (1958). However, others have found the JND of RT to be higher from 6% to 39%. Many of these studies utilized band-limited stimuli, e.g. speech, music motifs and bandlimited noise. A previous study by the authors conducted on 30 subjects using white noise demonstrated a JND of RT at 22%. To further verify these results and investigate potential upward frequency masking, the present study was conducted following ...


Rating Low Levels Of Ambient Noise In Performing Arts Facilities, Lily M. Wang, Brent A. Kraay Jun 2014

Rating Low Levels Of Ambient Noise In Performing Arts Facilities, Lily M. Wang, Brent A. Kraay

Lily M Wang

Previous studies have indicated that common indoor noise rating metrics, such as Noise Criteria NC and Room Criteria RC, do not best correlate to human perceptions of annoyance and distraction in typical office environments. Based on investigations conducted at the University of Nebraska using noise levels between 30 – 60 dBA, the author has proposed that an effective indoor noise rating method should begin with a rating of level (either dBA or sones), then an assessment of spectral quality, tones, and fluctuations. How well would such a system work at very low levels of ambient noise, though, as found in performing ...


Effects Of Reverberation And Noise On Speech Comprehension By Native And Non-Native English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang, Siu Kit Lau, Adam M. Steinbach Jun 2014

Effects Of Reverberation And Noise On Speech Comprehension By Native And Non-Native English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang, Siu Kit Lau, Adam M. Steinbach

Lily M Wang

Previous studies have demonstrated the negative impact of adverse signal-to-noise-ratios on non-native English-speaking listeners' performance on speech recognition using recall tasks, as well as implied that comprehension skills were more impaired than recognition skills under reverberation and noise. The authors have themselves previously conducted a pilot study on three native and three non-native Englishspeaking listeners to examine the effects of reverberation and noise using speech comprehension tasks. Those results suggested that speech comprehension performance is worse under longer reverberation times (RT), and that a longer RT is more detrimental to speech comprehension by non-native listeners than native listeners. This paper ...


Comparison Of Radiated Power From Structurally Different Violins, Lily M. Wang, Courtney B. Burroughs Jun 2014

Comparison Of Radiated Power From Structurally Different Violins, Lily M. Wang, Courtney B. Burroughs

Lily M Wang

The acoustic power has been determined from intensity measurements on three structurally different violins: a Scherl and Roth student violin, Hutchins' SUS29S, and Hutchins' mezzo violin SUS 100. While each violin was bowed with an open-frame mechanical bowing machine, the intensity measurements were made by scanning each side of the bowing machine with an intensity probe. One-third octave band sound power levels of the acoustic radiation from each of the three instruments as each of the four open strings is bowed show that the structurally different mezzo violin produces greater power at low frequencies when the lowest (G) string is ...


Effects Of Background Noise Alternating Between Two Levels At Varying Time Intervals On Human Perception And Performance, Andrew Hathaway, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

Effects Of Background Noise Alternating Between Two Levels At Varying Time Intervals On Human Perception And Performance, Andrew Hathaway, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

This research experiment aims to better quantify human perception and performance under increased background noise levels of varying intervals. Twenty-seven participants were tested over five 30 minute sessions where they were subjected to RC-29(H) and RC-47(RV) conditions created by broadband noise fluctuating on different time intervals. These intervals varied from two minutes to ten minutes, simulating the conditions of a noisy HVAC system turning on and off. The performance results of an arithmetic test dealing with short-term memory and a subjective questionnaire will be presented and compared to a similar test using broadband noise bursts and correlated to ...


Scattered Responses From Suspended Reflector Panels With Rounded Edges, Jonathan Rathsam, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

Scattered Responses From Suspended Reflector Panels With Rounded Edges, Jonathan Rathsam, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

Sound reflections from most finite surfaces, such as overhead reflector panels, include a component known as edge diffraction. Edge diffraction is the scattered energy required to maintain a continuous sound field despite the discontinuity in acoustical impedance presented by the scatterer. Edge diffraction can interfere with primary scattered energy to produce comb filtering at receiver locations. Several decades ago, the effect of changing the edge profile of loudspeaker boxes was investigated with the goal of producing a smoother frequency response. By rounding the edges of loudspeaker boxes, the edge diffraction could be decreased noticeably [H. F. Olson, J. Aud. Eng ...


Effects Of Noise On Productivity: Does Performance Decrease Over Time?, Jessica Errett, Erica Eileen Bowden, Marc Choiniere, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

Effects Of Noise On Productivity: Does Performance Decrease Over Time?, Jessica Errett, Erica Eileen Bowden, Marc Choiniere, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

Most people at one time or another have found themselves irritated or distracted by the background noise in a building. The irritation might have resulted in minor aggravation or may have been dramatic enough to hinder their work. This leads us to ask whether occupants are increasingly aggravated by noise the longer they are exposed to it, or if they naturally habituate to their acoustic environment. In an effort to answer this question, a study was completed in the “Indoor Environment Lab” at the University of Nebraska. This lab resembles a typical office and was specially constructed to be acoustically ...


Ab-10-C037: Effects Of Noise From Building Mechanical Systems On Elementary School Student Achievement, Lauren M Ronsse, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

Ab-10-C037: Effects Of Noise From Building Mechanical Systems On Elementary School Student Achievement, Lauren M Ronsse, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

This project seeks to determine what relationship, if any, exists betweenbackground noise levels in elementary classrooms due to the building mechanicalsystems and student performance on achievement tests. Previous research inclassroom acoustics has clearly identified that lower background noise levelsresult in higher speech intelligibility which is crucial for the learning process;however, there is a lack of data correlating lower noise levels to improved studentachievement scores. For this study, background noise level measurements were madein 14 elementary schools in a public school system in Council Bluffs, Iowa, USA.The measurements were made in unoccupied classrooms with the central buildingmechanical systems activated ...


Effects Of Changing The Amount Of Absorption In A Computer Model Of Queen’S Hall, Copenhagen, Denmark, Michelle C Vigeant, Lily M. Wang, Jens Holger Rindel Jun 2014

Effects Of Changing The Amount Of Absorption In A Computer Model Of Queen’S Hall, Copenhagen, Denmark, Michelle C Vigeant, Lily M. Wang, Jens Holger Rindel

Lily M Wang

Room acoustics modelling and auralizations are very useful tools in the design of acoustically sensitive spaces. One area of improvement for auralizations is the method of modelling the source directivity. A new method to incorporate source directivity is multi-channel auralizations. This study first evaluates the objective effects of using four and thirteen channel impulse responses in an ODEON model of Queen’s Hall, where the actual variable absorption is changed within the model. Analyses of the results reveal great differences in the objective parameters of reverberation time and sound pressure level across each channel’s impulse response. Subjective studies were ...


Binaural Room Impulse Response Database Acquired From A Variable Acoustics Classroom, Zhao Peng, Siu Kit Lau, Lily M. Wang, Sean Browne, Kenneth P. Roy Jun 2014

Binaural Room Impulse Response Database Acquired From A Variable Acoustics Classroom, Zhao Peng, Siu Kit Lau, Lily M. Wang, Sean Browne, Kenneth P. Roy

Lily M Wang

Room measurements were conducted in a variable acoustics classroom mockup space (epod) at Armstrong World Industries in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA. Binaural room impulse responses were measured in the epod using a head and torso simulator. Five reverberation time (RT) scenarios were achieved with various combinations of absorptive wall panels and acoustical ceiling tile. These provided a range of mid-frequency RTs from 0.4 to 1.1 seconds. Three of the five RT scenarios were achieved using two different material configurations to also consider material location effects. For each of the eight material configurations, two student-teacher orientations were tested. One orientation ...


Or-05-6-4: Relating Human Productivity And Annoyance To Indoor Noise Criteria Systems: A Low Frequency Analysis, Erica Eileen Bowden, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

Or-05-6-4: Relating Human Productivity And Annoyance To Indoor Noise Criteria Systems: A Low Frequency Analysis, Erica Eileen Bowden, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

A number of indoor noise criteria systems are used to quantify the background noise in a built environment, including Noise Criteria (NC), Balanced Noise Criteria (NCB), Room Criteria (RC), Room Criteria Mark II (RC Mark II), A-weighted Equivalent Sound Pressure Level (LAeq), and others. An on-going debate exists in the acoustical community over which criterion is the most appropriate to use in the variety of ambient noise situations encountered. In an effort to quantitatively support the use of individual criterion, this project subjectively correlates these various criteria with human task performance and perception. Eleven subjects participated in a pilot study ...


Investigations Of Multi-Channel Auralization Technique For Various Orchestra Arrangements, With Phase-Shifted String Sections, Michelle C Vigeant, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

Investigations Of Multi-Channel Auralization Technique For Various Orchestra Arrangements, With Phase-Shifted String Sections, Michelle C Vigeant, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

An orchestra can be simulated in room acoustics computer modelling using a variety of methods, ranging from a single omni-directional source to individual sources of all instruments. This study utilizes the method of individual sources for each instrument, but with reduced source representation for the string sections. The anechoic recordings used in this investigation are five-channel recordings, which capture the source directivity of the individual instruments. For each string section, the individual anechoic recordings were phase shifted several times, up to 23 ms, and combined to create a single recording for use in the simulations. An orchestra was simulated in ...


Scattered Responses From Suspended Reflector Panels With Rounded Edges, Jonathan Rathsam, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

Scattered Responses From Suspended Reflector Panels With Rounded Edges, Jonathan Rathsam, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

Sound reflections from most finite surfaces, such as overhead reflector panels, include a component known as edge diffraction. Edge diffraction is the scattered energy required to maintain a continuous sound field despite the discontinuity in acoustical impedance presented by the scatterer. Edge diffraction can interfere with primary scattered energy to produce comb filtering at receiver locations. Several decades ago, the effect of changing the edge profile of loudspeaker boxes was investigated with the goal of producing a smoother frequency response. By rounding the edges of loudspeaker boxes, the edge diffraction could be decreased noticeably [H. F. Olson, J. Aud. Eng ...


The Effects Of Simple Coupled Volume Geometry On The Objective And Subjective Results From Nonexponential Decay, David T. Bradley, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

The Effects Of Simple Coupled Volume Geometry On The Objective And Subjective Results From Nonexponential Decay, David T. Bradley, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

This project focuses on the individual and interactive acoustic effects of three architectural parameters on the double slope profile from a simple coupled volume system created in the computer modeling program ODEON. The three variables studied are the volume ratio between the main and secondary spaces, the absorption ratio between the two spaces, and aperture size. The resulting energy decay profiles are analyzed using T30/T15 Coupling Coefficient ratios and Bayesian analysis. Coupling Coefficient results show general trends in the effects of the three architectural parameters that match previous research results and the predominant interactive effect between the three variables ...


Room Acoustics In Coupled Volume Spaces, David T. Bradley, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

Room Acoustics In Coupled Volume Spaces, David T. Bradley, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

The study of sound in the built environment is finding more awareness in the 21st century. As this awareness has increased, and as computing power has grown, the method of computer modeling for studying room acoustics in such settings as classrooms, offices, and performances spaces has taken great strides in recent years. Of particular interest has been the study of the coupled volume space due to its unique ability to provide contrasting acoustical phenomenon. A coupled volume room is generally defined as a space consisting of a large main volume containing high levels of sound absorption connected through small sonically ...


Performance Review Of Indoor Noise Criteria, Lily M. Wang, Erica Eileen Bowden Jun 2014

Performance Review Of Indoor Noise Criteria, Lily M. Wang, Erica Eileen Bowden

Lily M Wang

Currently there are a number of indoor noise criteria used to quantify the level of background noise in rooms, including Noise Criteria (NC), Balanced Noise Criteria (NCB), Room Criteria (RC), Room Criteria Mark II (RC Mark II) and others. This paper reviews the pros and cons of each of these and then compares the values measured in existing classrooms in the Omaha area. The authors are in the process of subjectively comparing these various criteria to determine which method best correlates with human perception. The subjective testing methods and preliminary results are discussed.


Effects Of Acoustic Environments On Speech Comprehension By Native-English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang, Siu Kit Lau Jun 2014

Effects Of Acoustic Environments On Speech Comprehension By Native-English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang, Siu Kit Lau

Lily M Wang

This study investigates the effects of acoustic conditions on speech comprehension, rather than speech intelligibility as often reported in existing literature. Sets of 15-minute-long listening comprehension tests were developed based on the format of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC). Each test set includes four types of tasks: matching aural phrases to photographs, selecting appropriate responses to aural questions, and answering questions after listening to conversations (between two talkers) and talks (single talker). Within the Nebraska acoustics test chamber, native-English-speaking participants are asked to perform these tests under 15 acoustic conditions, from combinations of three background noise levels ...


Optimum Absorption And Aperture Parameters For Realistic Coupled Volume Spaces Determined From Computational Analysis And Subjective Testing Results, David T. Bradley, Lily M. Wang Jun 2014

Optimum Absorption And Aperture Parameters For Realistic Coupled Volume Spaces Determined From Computational Analysis And Subjective Testing Results, David T. Bradley, Lily M. Wang

Lily M Wang

This project utilizes computational modeling to study the effects of varying two architectural parameters, absorption ratio and aperture size, in a realistic coupled volume concert hall. Coupled volumes have been shown to exhibit non-exponential sound energy decay profiles, referred to as double slope effect. A number of objective metrics (T30/T15, LDT/T10, decay ratio, and ΔL) have been used to quantify the double slope effect of the profiles generated in the virtual hall. T30/T15 and LDT/T10 showed similar trends across all hall configurations, indicating decreasing double slope effect with increasing coupled volume absorption ratio for each aperture ...


Investigations Of Multi-Channel Auralization Technique For Solo Instruments And Orchestra, Michelle C Vigeant, Lily M. Wang, Jens Holger Rindel Jun 2014

Investigations Of Multi-Channel Auralization Technique For Solo Instruments And Orchestra, Michelle C Vigeant, Lily M. Wang, Jens Holger Rindel

Lily M Wang

Computer modeling of room acoustics is a useful tool in the design of acoustically sensitive spaces and an important outcome from these programs is auralizations. This study examined the perceived changes in realism and source width when listening to multi-channel auralizations compared to single channel auralizations for both solo instruments and a full orchestra. The first experiment, which examined subjective judgments of auralizations made from solo instruments, showed that perceived realism increased as the number of channels was increased from one to four to thirteen, while the relationship between source width and number of channels was less clear. In the ...


Reflector Responses: A Comparison Between Odeon’S Modified Ray Tracing Algorithm And A Filtered Boundary Element Method Model, Jonathan Rathsam, Lily M. Wang, Jens Holger Rindel, Claus Lynge Christensen Jun 2014

Reflector Responses: A Comparison Between Odeon’S Modified Ray Tracing Algorithm And A Filtered Boundary Element Method Model, Jonathan Rathsam, Lily M. Wang, Jens Holger Rindel, Claus Lynge Christensen

Lily M Wang

The biggest challenge for geometrical room acoustic computer models is to capture complex wave phenomena while maintaining the low computational load of the ray tracing algorithm. Special corrections must be added to the ray tracing algorithm to account for wave phenomena such as edge diffraction, which are ignored by classical geometrical acoustics. ODEON, a well-known geometrical computer model, is in the process of upgrading its ray tracing and scattering algorithm. The new algorithm allows users to specify transmission through reflector panel arrays. To aid in the development of ODEON’s new algorithm, its predictions are compared with predictions from a ...


Acoustic Communication In Panthera Tigris: A Study Of Tiger Vocalization And Auditory Receptivity, Edward J. Walsh, Lily M. Wang, Douglas L. Armstrong, Thomas Curro, Lee G. Simmons, Joann Mcgee Jun 2014

Acoustic Communication In Panthera Tigris: A Study Of Tiger Vocalization And Auditory Receptivity, Edward J. Walsh, Lily M. Wang, Douglas L. Armstrong, Thomas Curro, Lee G. Simmons, Joann Mcgee

Lily M Wang

To adults and children alike, tigers are one of the best-known members of the animal kingdom. It may be surprising, then, to learn that we have a lot to discover about their hearing and the acoustics of their vocalizations. To help fill in the gaps in our knowledge, we are in the midst of a study that is focused on the characterization of the vocal properties and hearing capabilities of a subset of surviving tiger subspecies, namely the Siberian, Bengal, Sumatran and the Indochinese tigers. We are hoping that our findings will not only add to a deeper understanding of ...