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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Two-Stage Microfluidic Device For Acoustic Particle Manipulation And Methods Of Separation, Rasim Guldiken, Myeong Jo, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Two-Stage Microfluidic Device For Acoustic Particle Manipulation And Methods Of Separation, Rasim Guldiken, Myeong Jo, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

Exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure provide for two-stagemicrofluidic devices using surface acoustic waves, methods of use thereof,methods of making, methods of focusing and separating particles, and the like.


Coulter Counter Having A Plurality Of Channels, Jun Hu, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Coulter Counter Having A Plurality Of Channels, Jun Hu, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

The present invention generally relates to a method for rapidly counting micron and/or submicron particles by passing such particles through any of a pluralityof orifices simultaneously with an ion current and measuring the signal generated thereby. The present invention also generally relates to a device for practicing the method of the present invention. Some embodiments can include methods and/or devices for distinguishing between and counting particles in mixtures. Still other embodiments can include methods and/or devices for identifying and/or counting bioparticles and/or bioactive particles such as pollen.


High Schmidt Mass Transfer Using Chapman-Khun’S Near Wall Coherent Structure Model, Mingyong Chen, Qian Chen, Jiang Zhe, Vijay Modi Apr 2015

High Schmidt Mass Transfer Using Chapman-Khun’S Near Wall Coherent Structure Model, Mingyong Chen, Qian Chen, Jiang Zhe, Vijay Modi

Dr. Jiang Zhe

High Schmidt number mass transfer in a fully developed turbulent flow is examined using a near wall coherent structure model. The computational approach relies on specification of idealized boundary conditions in the form of a two eddy structure imposed at a distance of y+=40 away from the wall. The parameters describing the spatial and temporal eddy behavior are obtained from a combination of experimental observation, analysis and computer trials as described by D.R. Chapman, G.D. Kuhn (AIAA Paper 81-1024 (1981) 306–316). Among these parameters, those describing the root mean square (rms) velocities in normal and spanwise ...


Near-Wall Measurements For A Turbulent Impinging Slot Jet System, Jiang Zhe, Vijay Modi Apr 2015

Near-Wall Measurements For A Turbulent Impinging Slot Jet System, Jiang Zhe, Vijay Modi

Dr. Jiang Zhe

The velocity field in the vicinity of a target surface with a turbulent slot jet impinging normally on it is examined. The impingement region is confined by means of a confinement plate that is flush with the slot and parallel to the impingement plate. The distance H of the impingement wall from the slot is varied from 2 to 9.2 slot widths. Jet Reynolds numbers (based on slot width B) of 10,000–30,000 are considered. Mean velocity and root mean square velocity measurements are carried out using hot-wire anemometry. A boundary layer probe is utilized in order ...


Electrostatic Micromembrane Actuator Arrays As Motion Generator, X. Wu, J. Hui, M. Young, P. Kayatta, J. Wong, D. Kennith, Jiang Zhe, C. Warde Apr 2015

Electrostatic Micromembrane Actuator Arrays As Motion Generator, X. Wu, J. Hui, M. Young, P. Kayatta, J. Wong, D. Kennith, Jiang Zhe, C. Warde

Dr. Jiang Zhe

A rigid-body motion generator based on an array of micromembrane actuators is described. Unlike previous microelectromechanical systems(MEMS) techniques, the architecture employs a large number (typically greater than 1000) of micron-sized (10–200 μm) membrane actuators to simultaneously generate the displacement of a large rigid body, such as a conventional optical mirror. For optical applications, the approach provides optical design freedom of MEMSmirrors by enabling large-aperture mirrors to be driven electrostatically by MEMS actuators. The micromembrane actuator arrays have been built using a stacked architecture similar to that employed in the Multiuser MEMS Process (MUMPS), and the motion transfer from ...


Analytical And Fem Pull-In Study On Rigid And Deformable Electrostatic Micro Actuators, Jin Cheng, Jiang Zhe, Xingtao Wu Apr 2015

Analytical And Fem Pull-In Study On Rigid And Deformable Electrostatic Micro Actuators, Jin Cheng, Jiang Zhe, Xingtao Wu

Dr. Jiang Zhe

A general theory and method are presented and employed to analyze the static behaviors of rigid and deformable electrostatic actuator systems with various electrode configurations. This method utilizes capacitance-based generalized equations and provides an easy and time-saving platform over complicated coupled finite element method (FEM) simulations for pull-in analysis of a complex system. Analytical results show that the travel range of rigid electrostatic actuators can be extended by manipulating the shape of the electrode. Even a full travel range (100%) can be realized by a general power function shaped electrode. It is found that the partial actuation can avoid pull-in ...


Metal Wear Detection Apparatus And Method Employing Microfluidic Electronic Device, Jiang Zhe, Li Du, Joan Carletta, Robert Veillette Apr 2015

Metal Wear Detection Apparatus And Method Employing Microfluidic Electronic Device, Jiang Zhe, Li Du, Joan Carletta, Robert Veillette

Dr. Jiang Zhe

An apparatus and a method for detection of wear particles in a lubricant are disclosed. The apparatus includes a microfluidic device including a microchannel sized for a lubricant containing wear particles to pass therethrough and first and second electrodes extending into the microchannel. A detection system is coupled with the electrodes for detection of wear particles passing through the microchannel, based on a change in capacitance of the electrodes.


A Multiplexed Microfluidic Impedance Sensor For High Throughput Analysis Of Microparticles, Ashish Jagtiani, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

A Multiplexed Microfluidic Impedance Sensor For High Throughput Analysis Of Microparticles, Ashish Jagtiani, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

A micromachined eight-channel Coulter counting device to achieve high throughput detection and counting of microparticles is reported. The design, fabrication and testing of the multichannel device is presented. The detection was implemented by measuring the resistance change of each individual microfluidic channel. The use of grounded isolation electrodes eliminates crosstalk among channels and thus allows simultaneous particle detection without crosstalk. Preliminary testing results using Juniperus Scopulorum (Rocky Mountain Juniper) pollen particles demonstrated the throughput of the device was significantly improved by simultaneously detecting particles through its parallel channels. This detection principle can be extended to a larger number of channels ...


A Label-Free High Throughput Resistive-Pulse Sensor For Simultaneous Differentiation And Measurement Of Multiple Particle-Laden Analytes, Ashish Jagtiani, Rupesh Sawant, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

A Label-Free High Throughput Resistive-Pulse Sensor For Simultaneous Differentiation And Measurement Of Multiple Particle-Laden Analytes, Ashish Jagtiani, Rupesh Sawant, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

We describe an all-electronic, label-free, resistive-pulse sensor that utilizes multiple microchannels for parallel detection, counting and differentiation of multiple biological particles simultaneously. Four particle solutions, including 20 µm and 40 µm polymethacrylate particles, Juniper Scopulorum (Rocky Mountain Juniper) pollen and Populus deltidoes (Eastern Cottonwood) pollen, were loaded to the four peripheral reservoirs, respectively, and were driven to the central reservoir through four microchannels, all operating simultaneously for particle detection and counting. Experiments demonstrated that this sensor was able to differentiate and count multiple particle solutions simultaneously through its four microchannels fabricated on polymer membranes. Thus the sensing throughput has been ...


Electrowetting Of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (Rtils) For Capillary Force Manipulation, Abhay Vasudev, Ashish Jagtiani, Li Du, Jun Hu, Yanan Gao, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Electrowetting Of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (Rtils) For Capillary Force Manipulation, Abhay Vasudev, Ashish Jagtiani, Li Du, Jun Hu, Yanan Gao, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

The feasibility of using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as the electrowetting liquid for capillary force microgrippers was studied. The non-volatility and thermal stability of ionic liquids make them suitable for droplet based microgripping application in high temperature and vacuum environments. Electrowetting on co-planar electrodes was utilized to dynamically change the contact angle of a 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmimPF6 ) liquid bridge to control the capillary lifting forces. The lifting force generated by the liquid bridge was experimentally characterized. The maximum capillary force was 146μN. The dynamic response of the BmimPF6 liquid bridge was also characterized.


Ac Measurements And Multiplexed Detection Of Microparticles Using Parallel Channel Coulter Counter, Ashish Jagtiani, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Ac Measurements And Multiplexed Detection Of Microparticles Using Parallel Channel Coulter Counter, Ashish Jagtiani, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

A micromachined 4-channel Coulter counting device is reported to achieve high throughput counting of microparticles. The design, fabrication and testing of this device is presented. Multiplexed detection was implemented by amplitude modulation of signals from individual channels to obtain a single combined response for all four channels, requiring only one set of detection electronics. Testing results using 30μm polystyrene particles demonstrated the throughput of the multiplexed device was improved 300% by simultaneously detecting particles through its parallel 4 channels. The multiplexed detection principle can be extended to a larger number of channels is to further improve the throughput.


Apparatus And Method For Manipulating Micro Component, Jiang Zhe, Abhay Vasudev Apr 2015

Apparatus And Method For Manipulating Micro Component, Jiang Zhe, Abhay Vasudev

Dr. Jiang Zhe

In one embodiment, a system for manipulation of a micro component includes a gripper subsystem for lifting, holding, and releasing a micro component. The gripper subsystem includes a base substrate having a work side and an opposing side, a positive electrode secured to the work side of the base substrate, a negative electrode suitably spaced from the positive electrode andsecured to the work side of the base substrate, a dielectric layer formed over the work side of the base substrate and the positive and negative electrodes,and a hydrophobic layer comprising a hydrophobic material with predictable electrowetting behavior formed over ...


A Microfabricated Wall Shear-Stress Sensor With Capacitative Sensing, Jiang Zhe, Vijay Modi, K. Farmer Apr 2015

A Microfabricated Wall Shear-Stress Sensor With Capacitative Sensing, Jiang Zhe, Vijay Modi, K. Farmer

Dr. Jiang Zhe

A silicon-based micromachined, floating-element sensor for low-magnitude wall shear-stress measurement has been developed. Sensors over a range of element sizes and sensitivities have been fabricated by thin-wafer bonding and deep-reactive ion-etching techniques. Detailed design, fabrication, and testing issues are described in this paper. Detection of the floating-element motion is accomplished using either direct or differential capacitance measurement. The design objective is to measure the shear-stress distribution at levels of O(0.10 Pa) with a spatial resolution of approximately O(100 μm). It is assumed that the flow direction is known, permitting one to align the sensor appropriately so that ...


A Magnetic Coulter Counting Device For Wear Debris Detection In Lubrication, Li Du, Joan Carletta, Robert Veillette, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

A Magnetic Coulter Counting Device For Wear Debris Detection In Lubrication, Li Du, Joan Carletta, Robert Veillette, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

A device based on a magnetic Coulter counting principle to detect metal particles in lubrication oil is presented. The device detects the passage of ferrous and non ferrous particles by monitoring inductance change in a coil. First, the sensing principle is demonstrated at the mesoscale using a solenoid. Next, a microscale device is developed using a planar coil. The device is tested using iron and aluminum particles ranging from 100μm to 500μm. The testing results show the device is capable of detecting and distinguishing ferrous and non-ferrous metal particles in lubrication oil. The design concept demonstrated here can be extended ...


Instrumentation Circuitry For An Inductive Wear Debris Sensor, J. Davies, J. Carletta, R. Veillette, Li Du, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Instrumentation Circuitry For An Inductive Wear Debris Sensor, J. Davies, J. Carletta, R. Veillette, Li Du, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

The design of instrumentation circuitry for an inductive sensor to detect small metal particles is presented. The sensor, designed for counting and characterizing wear debris particles in lubrication oil, detects changes in the inductance of a small coil as metal particles pass through it. A change in inductance produces a differential voltage at the output of a Maxwell-Wien bridge, which is then amplified and rectified to produce a DC voltage pulse detectable using standard data acquisition components. For iron particles approximately 75μm and 150μm in diameter, the circuit produces output voltage pulses of 381mV and 693mV, respectively.


A Microfluidic Inductive Pulse Sensor For Real Time Detection Of Machine Wear, Li Du, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

A Microfluidic Inductive Pulse Sensor For Real Time Detection Of Machine Wear, Li Du, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

We demonstrate a microfluidic device based on the inductive Coulter counting principle for detection of metallic wear debris in lubrication oil; such debris particles can be indicative of potential machine faults in rotating and reciprocating machinery. The device detects the passage of individual ferrous and non-ferrous debris particles by monitoring inductance change of a planar coil embedded in a microchannel. Testing results show the device is capable of detecting and distinguishing ferrous and non-ferrous metal particles in lubrication oil as small as 50 μm. This development could lead to real-time debris monitoring devices for real-time detection of machine component wear ...


Frequency Division Multiplexing Of A Multi-Channel Resistive Pulse Sensor, Ashish Jagtiani, Jiang Zhe, Joan Carletta Apr 2015

Frequency Division Multiplexing Of A Multi-Channel Resistive Pulse Sensor, Ashish Jagtiani, Jiang Zhe, Joan Carletta

Dr. Jiang Zhe

We present the design, fabrication and testing of a microfluidic multichannel resistive pulse sensor for high throughput counting of microparticles. The high throughput counting results from using multiple parallel microfluidic channels to analyze the sample. Detection is achieved by using frequency division multiplexing where a known and unique frequency is applied to modulate each microchannel and a combined measurement is made across a single pair of electrodes. Testing results using 30μm polystyrene particles demonstrate that the throughput of the multiplexed device is improved 300% over a single channel device. In addition, the AC modulation method reduces the polarization effect on ...


An Electronic Pollen Detection Method Using Coulter Counting Principle, Zheng Zhang, Jiang Zhe, Santanu Chandra, Jun Hu Apr 2015

An Electronic Pollen Detection Method Using Coulter Counting Principle, Zheng Zhang, Jiang Zhe, Santanu Chandra, Jun Hu

Dr. Jiang Zhe

A method for detecting and counting pollen particles based on Coulter counting principle is presented. This approach also provides information on the size and surface charges of the micro particles, allowing for preliminary differentiation of pollens from other micro particles. Three samples are studied: polymethyl methacrylate particles, tree pollens from Juniperus Scopulorum and grass pollens from Secale Cerale. The samples, suspended in diluted KCl aqueous solutions in an electrochemical cell, were allowed to pass through a microchannel and the conductance of the microchannel was sampled with a Gamry®Potentiostat. The changes in the conductance due to the passing of the ...


A New Microfluidic Device For Complete, Continuous Separation Of Microparticles, Liang-Liang Fan, Xu-Kun He, Yu Han, Li Du, Liang Zhao, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

A New Microfluidic Device For Complete, Continuous Separation Of Microparticles, Liang-Liang Fan, Xu-Kun He, Yu Han, Li Du, Liang Zhao, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

A microchannel with symmetric sharp corners is reported for particle separation, based on the inter-play between the inertial lift force and the centrifugal force induced by sharp corners. At an appropriate flow rate, the centrifugal force is larger than the inertial lift force on large particles, while the inertial lift force is dominant on small particles. Hence large particles are centrifuged to the center, while small par-ticles are focused at side streams, achieving complete particle separation. The device requires no sheath flow, avoiding the dilution of analyte sample and complex operation, and can be potentially used for many lab-on-a-chip applications.


A Microchannel With Repeated Sharp Corners For Single Stream Particle Focusing, Liang-Liang Fan, Xu-Kun He, Liang Zhao, Yu Han, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

A Microchannel With Repeated Sharp Corners For Single Stream Particle Focusing, Liang-Liang Fan, Xu-Kun He, Liang Zhao, Yu Han, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

A new microfluidic device for fast and high throughput microparticle focusing is reported. The particle focusing is based on the combination of inertial lift force effect and centrifugal force effect generated in a microchannel with a series of repeated sharp corners on one side of the channel wall. The inertial lift force effect induces two focused particles streams in the microchannel, and the centrifugal force generated at the sharp corner structures tends to drive the particles laterally away from the corner. With the use of a series of the repeated, sharp corner structures, a single and highly focused particle stream ...


Experimental Study And Computer Simulation On Fracture Toughness Of Sheet Metal After Laser Forming, J. Cheng, J. Zhang, C. Chu, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Experimental Study And Computer Simulation On Fracture Toughness Of Sheet Metal After Laser Forming, J. Cheng, J. Zhang, C. Chu, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

Fracture toughness is one of the most important mechanical properties for sheet metal in many applications. However not enough attention has been paid to the effects of laser forming conditions on fracture toughness of sheet metal. This paper presents an integrated fracture toughness model to study fracture toughness of sheet metal after laser forming. Microstructure, distribution of residual stresses and geometry of sheet metal specimen are considered in the model. Results of residual stress from microstructure-integrated finite element modelling of laser forming are incorporated in the model. Low carbon steel is used in this paper to validate the model. The ...


Detection And Counting Of Micro Scale Particles And Pollen Using A Multi-Aperture Coulter Counter, Ashish Jagtiani, Jiang Zhe, Jun Hu, Joan Carletta Apr 2015

Detection And Counting Of Micro Scale Particles And Pollen Using A Multi-Aperture Coulter Counter, Ashish Jagtiani, Jiang Zhe, Jun Hu, Joan Carletta

Dr. Jiang Zhe

We demonstrate a high throughput, all-electronic Coulter-type sensor with four sensing microapertures to detect and count micro-scale particles. Four particle samples are utilized for this study: polymethacrylate particles 40 µm and 20 µm in diameter, Juniper Scopulorum (Rocky Mountain Juniper) pollen and Cottonwood pollen particles. The two types of pollen particles are roughly 20 µm in diameter. The particles are mixed with deionized water and forced to pass through the microapertures. Voltage pulses across all four apertures are recorded and analysed. Results demonstrate that the sensor can detect and count particles through its four sensing apertures simultaneously. Thus, the counting ...


Mems Devices And Methods For Inhibiting Errant Motion Of Mems Components, Hirokazu Tamura, Matthew Neal, Alan Sidman, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Mems Devices And Methods For Inhibiting Errant Motion Of Mems Components, Hirokazu Tamura, Matthew Neal, Alan Sidman, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

A Microelectromechanical (MEMS) device and method of fabrication that can minimize derailing of an actuable element of the MEMS device during fabrication can include a MEMS actuator to selectively generate displacement forces to displace an actuable element along a path between sidewalls of a channel. The sidewalls can have stops formed therein that can interact with surfaces on the actuable element to limit displacement of the actuable element during fabrication. One of the sidewalls can be indented to form the stops and the actuable element can have an arm portion that extends between the stops. The sidewalls can be offset ...


Dynamic Modulation For Multiplexation Of Microfluidic And Nanofluidic Based Biosensors, Jun Hu, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Dynamic Modulation For Multiplexation Of Microfluidic And Nanofluidic Based Biosensors, Jun Hu, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

The present invention generally relates to a method for rapidly counting micronand/or submicron particles by passing such particles through any of a pluralityof microfluidic channels simultaneously with an ion current and measuring the signal generated thereby. The present invention also generally relates to a device for practicing the method of the present invention. Some embodiments can include methods and/or devices for distinguishing between and counting particles in mixtures. Still other embodiments can include methods and/or devices for identifying and/or counting bioparticles and/or bioactive particles such as pollen.


Integrated Ultrasonic-Inductive Pulse Sensor For Wear Debris Detection, Jiang Zhe, Li Du Apr 2015

Integrated Ultrasonic-Inductive Pulse Sensor For Wear Debris Detection, Jiang Zhe, Li Du

Dr. Jiang Zhe

An apparatus for detecting wear particles in a fluid includes an inlet channel and an outlet channel. An ultrasonic transducer creating an acoustic wave that defines an acoustic focal zone is located between the inlet and outlet channels. A flow path located between the inlet and outlet channel is shaped to restrict the flow of the fluid to be within the acoustic focal zone. An inductive pulse sensorincludes a plurality of flow channels receiving the fluid and a plurality of planar coils wound around the flow channels. The inductive pulse sensor includes adetection system for the detection of wear particles ...


Parallel Sensing Of Metallic Wear Debris In Lubricants Using Undersampling Data Processing, Li Du, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Parallel Sensing Of Metallic Wear Debris In Lubricants Using Undersampling Data Processing, Li Du, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

Online lubricant monitoring requires a debris sensor that can rapidly detect wear debris in a large volume of lubricants. To meet this need, we present a fluidic oil debris sensor using parallel multiple sensing channels for detecting metallic wear debris. Each sensing element is comprised of a two-layer planar coil and a meso-scale fluidic pipe crossing its center. The detection of metallic debris is based on inductive Coulter counting principle. The use of multiple parallel channels allows the sensor to process a large amount of lubricants without sacrificing the detection sensitivity. An undersampling process was performed on the voltage signal ...


An Integrated Ultrasonic–Inductive Pulse Sensor For Wear Debris Detection, Li Du, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

An Integrated Ultrasonic–Inductive Pulse Sensor For Wear Debris Detection, Li Du, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

One approach to detect signs of potential machine failure is to detect wear debris in the lubrication oil of a rotating or reciprocating machine because the size and the concentration of wear debris particles in the oil show a direct relationship with the level of wear. In this article, a proof-of-principle integrated wear debris sensor consisting of an ultrasonic pulse sensor and an inductive pulse sensor for detecting wear debris in lubrication oil is presented. The ultrasonic pulse sensor detects all solid debris (metallic and non-metallic debris). A flow recess structure is utilized to ensure that all wear debris passes ...


Improving Sensitivity Of An Inductive Pulse Sensor For Detection Of Metallic Wear Debris In Lubricants Using Parallel Lc Resonance Method, Li Du, Zhu Xiaoliang, Liang Zhao, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Improving Sensitivity Of An Inductive Pulse Sensor For Detection Of Metallic Wear Debris In Lubricants Using Parallel Lc Resonance Method, Li Du, Zhu Xiaoliang, Liang Zhao, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

Detection of small metallic wear debris is critical to identify abnormal wear conditions for prognosis of pending machinery failure. In this paper we applied an inductance–capacitance (LC) resonance method to an inductive pulse debris sensor to increase the sensitivity. By adding an external capacitor to the sensing coil of the sensor, a parallel LC resonance circuit is formed that has a unique resonant frequency. At an excitation frequency close to the resonant frequency, impedance change (and thus change in voltage output) of the LC circuit caused by the passage of a debris particle is amplified due to sharp change ...


Oil Debris And Viscosity Monitoring Using Ultrasonic And Capacitance/Inductance Measurements, Matthew Appleby, Fred Choy, Li Du, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

Oil Debris And Viscosity Monitoring Using Ultrasonic And Capacitance/Inductance Measurements, Matthew Appleby, Fred Choy, Li Du, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

No abstract provided.


High Throughput Wear Debris Detection In Lubricants Using A Resonance Frequency Division Multiplexed Sensor, Li Du, Xiaoliang Zhu, Yu Han, Jiang Zhe Apr 2015

High Throughput Wear Debris Detection In Lubricants Using A Resonance Frequency Division Multiplexed Sensor, Li Du, Xiaoliang Zhu, Yu Han, Jiang Zhe

Dr. Jiang Zhe

With a long time goal of detecting signs of potential machine failure, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle multiplexed, multichannel, inductive pulse sensor based on resonant frequency division multiplexing for high throughput detection of micro-scale metallic debris in lubricants. In the four-channel sensor, each sensing coil is connected to a specific external capacitance to form a parallel LC circuit that has a unique resonant frequency. Only one combined sinusoidal excitation signal consisting of four frequencies components that are close to the 4 sensing channels’ resonant frequencies was applied to the sensor, and only one combined voltage response was measured. Because each sensing ...