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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

The Use Of Sacrificial Support Structures In A Rapid Machining Process, Wutthigrai Boonsuk, Matthew C. Frank Sep 2019

The Use Of Sacrificial Support Structures In A Rapid Machining Process, Wutthigrai Boonsuk, Matthew C. Frank

Wutthigrai Boonsuk

Rapid prototyping techniques for CNC machining have been developed in an effort to produce functional prototypes in appropriate materials. One of the major challenges is to develop an automatic fixturing system for the part during the milling process. The current proposed method, sacrificial support fixturing, is similar to the support structures used in existing rapid processes, such as Stereolithography. During the machining process, the sacrificial supports emerge incrementally and, at the end of the process, are the only entities connecting the part to the stock material. In this paper, we propose methodologies for the design of sacrificial support structures for ...


Bulk-Explosion-Induced Metal Spattering During Laser Processing, Cang Zhao, Qilin Guo, Xuxiao Li, Niranjan Parab, Kamel Fezzaa, Wenda Tan, Lianyi Chen, Tao Sun Jul 2019

Bulk-Explosion-Induced Metal Spattering During Laser Processing, Cang Zhao, Qilin Guo, Xuxiao Li, Niranjan Parab, Kamel Fezzaa, Wenda Tan, Lianyi Chen, Tao Sun

Lianyi Chen

Spattering has been a problem in metal processing involving high-power lasers, like laser welding, machining, and recently, additive manufacturing. Limited by the capabilities of in situ diagnostic techniques, typically imaging with visible light or laboratory x-ray sources, a comprehensive understanding of the laser-spattering phenomenon, particularly the extremely fast spatters, has not been achieved yet. Here, using MHz single-pulse synchrotron-x-ray imaging, we probe the spattering behavior of Ti-6Al-4V with micrometer spatial resolution and subnanosecond temporal resolution. Combining direct experimental observations, quantitative image analysis, as well as numerical simulations, our study unravels a novel mechanism of laser spattering: The bulk explosion of ...


The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Engineering And Computer Science, Fall 2017, Buenaventura "Ven" Basco Oct 2018

The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Engineering And Computer Science, Fall 2017, Buenaventura "Ven" Basco

Buenaventura "Ven" Basco

No abstract provided.


Application Of Bayesian Belief Network For Agile Kanban Backlog Estimation, Eric D. Weflen, Kevin Korniejczuk, Sharon Lau, Steven S. Kryk, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Iris V. Rivero Sep 2018

Application Of Bayesian Belief Network For Agile Kanban Backlog Estimation, Eric D. Weflen, Kevin Korniejczuk, Sharon Lau, Steven S. Kryk, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Iris V. Rivero

Sharon Lau

What is Agile Kanban?

• Different from Kanban for JIT manufacturing!

• Visualization of workflow

• Limit work in process (WIP)


Advances In Composite Manufacturing Of Helicopter Parts, Tobias A. Weber, Hans-Joachim K. Ruff-Stahl Jul 2018

Advances In Composite Manufacturing Of Helicopter Parts, Tobias A. Weber, Hans-Joachim K. Ruff-Stahl

Hans-Joachim Ruff-Stahl

This study investigates and compares different methods for improving standard autoclave composite manufacturing in order to find suitable approaches to a more efficient composite production. The goal is not only a reduction in manufacturing times and costs but also quality enhancement. Improved part quality while decreasing costs enables a manufacturer of composite parts to expand its market share, especially in the helicopter market, which has been constantly shrinking over the last two years. Various approaches such as improved tooling technology, the use of automated systems for lamination as well as outsourcing are examined to provide an overview of possible advancements ...


Three Hundred And Sixty Degree Real-Time Monitoring Of 3-D Printing Using Computer Analysis Of Two Camera Views, Siranee Nuchitprasitchai, Michael C. Roggeman, Joshua M. Pearce Mar 2018

Three Hundred And Sixty Degree Real-Time Monitoring Of 3-D Printing Using Computer Analysis Of Two Camera Views, Siranee Nuchitprasitchai, Michael C. Roggeman, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

Prosumer (producing consumer)-based desktop additive manufacturing has been enabled by the recent radical reduction in 3-D printer capital costs created by the open-source release of the self-replicating rapid prototype (RepRap). To continue this success, there have been some efforts to improve reliability, which are either too expensive or lacked automation. A promising method to improve reliability is to use computer vision, although the success rates are still too low for widespread use. To overcome these challenges an open source low-cost reliable real-time optimal monitoring platform for 3-D printing from double cameras is presented here. This error detection system is ...


Distributed Manufacturing Of Flexible Products: Technical Feasibility And Economic Viability, Aubrey Woern, Joshua M. Pearce Mar 2018

Distributed Manufacturing Of Flexible Products: Technical Feasibility And Economic Viability, Aubrey Woern, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

Distributed manufacturing even at the household level is now well established with the combined use of open source designs and self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) 3-D printers. Previous work has shown substantial economic consumer benefits for producing their own polymer products. Now flexible filaments are available at roughly 3-times the cost of more conventional 3-D printing materials. To provide some insight into the potential for flexible filament to be both technically feasible and economically viable for distributed digital manufacturing at the consumer level this study investigates 20 common flexible household products. The 3-D printed products were quantified by print time, electrical ...


Free And Open Source 3-D Model Customizer For Websites To Democratize Design With Openscad, Yuenyong Nilsiam, Joshua M. Pearce Mar 2018

Free And Open Source 3-D Model Customizer For Websites To Democratize Design With Openscad, Yuenyong Nilsiam, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

3-D printing has entered the consumer market because of recent radical price declines. Consumers can save substantial money by offsetting purchases with DIY pre-designed 3-D printed products. However, even more value can be obtained with distributed manufacturing using mass customization. Unfortunately, the average consumer is not technically sophisticated enough to easily design their own products. One solution to this is the use of an overlay on OpenSCAD parametric code, although current solutions force users to relinquish all rights to their own designs. There is thus a substantial need in the open source design community for a libre 3-D model customizer ...


Energy Payback Time Of A Solar Photovoltaic Powered Waste Plastic Recyclebot System, Shan Zhong, Pratiksha Rakhe, Joshua M. Pearce Mar 2018

Energy Payback Time Of A Solar Photovoltaic Powered Waste Plastic Recyclebot System, Shan Zhong, Pratiksha Rakhe, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

The growth of both plastic consumption and prosumer 3-D printing are driving an interest in producing 3-D printer filaments from waste plastic. This study quantifies the embodied energy of a vertical DC solar photovoltaic (PV) powered recyclebot based on life cycle energy analysis and compares it to horizontal AC recyclebots, conventional recycling, and the production of a virgin 3-D printer filament. The energy payback time (EPBT) is calculated using the embodied energy of the materials making up the recyclebot itself and is found to be about five days for the extrusion of a poly lactic acid (PLA) filament or 2 ...


Open Source Multi-Head 3d Printer For Polymer-Metal Composite Component Manufacturing, J. Laureto, Joshua M. Pearce Mar 2018

Open Source Multi-Head 3d Printer For Polymer-Metal Composite Component Manufacturing, J. Laureto, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

As low-cost desktop 3D printing is now dominated by free and open source self-replicating rapid prototype (RepRap) derivatives, there is an intense interest in extending the scope of potential applications to manufacturing. This study describes a manufacturing technology that enables a constrained set of polymer-metal composite components. This paper provides (1) free and open source hardware and (2) software for printing systems that achieves metal wire embedment into a polymer matrix 3D-printed part via a novel weaving and wrapping method using (3) OpenSCAD and parametric coding for customized g-code commands. Composite parts are evaluated from the technical viability of manufacturing ...


Impact Of Diy Home Manufacturing With 3d Printing On The Toy And Game Market, Emily Peterson, Joshua M. Pearce Mar 2018

Impact Of Diy Home Manufacturing With 3d Printing On The Toy And Game Market, Emily Peterson, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

The 2020 toy and game market is projected to be US$135 billion. To determine if 3D printing could affect these markets if consumers offset purchases by 3D printing free designs, this study investigates the 100 most popular downloaded designs at MyMiniFactory in a month. Savings are quantified for using a Lulzbot Mini 3D printer and three filament types: commercial filament, pellet-extruded filament, and post-consumer waste converted to filament with a recyclebot. Case studies probed the quality of: (1) six common complex toys; (2) Lego blocks; and (3) the customizability of open source board games. All filaments analyzed saved the ...


Open Source 3-D Printed Nutating Mixer, Dhwani K. Trivedi, Joshua M. Pearce Mar 2018

Open Source 3-D Printed Nutating Mixer, Dhwani K. Trivedi, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

As the open source development of additive manufacturing has led to low-cost desktop three-dimensional (3-D) printing, a number of scientists throughout the world have begun to share digital designs of free and open source scientific hardware. Open source scientific hardware enables custom experimentation, laboratory control, rapid upgrading, transparent maintenance, and lower costs in general. To aid in this trend, this study describes the development, design, assembly, and operation of a 3-D printable open source desktop nutating mixer, which provides a fixed 20° platform tilt angle for a gentle three-dimensional (gyrating) agitation of chemical or biological samples (e.g., DNA or ...


Enabling Inkjet Printed Graphene For Ion Selective Electrodes With Postprint Thermal Annealing, Qing He, Suprem R. Das, Nathaniel T. Garland, Dapeng Jing, John A. Hondred, Allison A. Cargill, Shaowei Ding, Chandran Karunakaran, Jonathan C. Claussen Jun 2017

Enabling Inkjet Printed Graphene For Ion Selective Electrodes With Postprint Thermal Annealing, Qing He, Suprem R. Das, Nathaniel T. Garland, Dapeng Jing, John A. Hondred, Allison A. Cargill, Shaowei Ding, Chandran Karunakaran, Jonathan C. Claussen

Jonathan C. Claussen

Inkjet printed graphene (IPG) has recently shown tremendous promise in reducing the cost and complexity of graphene circuit fabrication. Herein we demonstrate, for the first time, the fabrication of an ion selective electrode (ISE) with IPG. A thermal annealing process in a nitrogen ambient environment converts the IPG into a highly conductive electrode (sheet resistance changes from 52.8 ± 7.4 MΩ/□ for unannealed graphene to 172.7 ± 33.3 Ω/□ for graphene annealed at 950 °C). Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis reveals that the printed graphene flakes begin to smooth at an annealing temperature ...


Factors Limiting Cell Penetration In Manufacturing Plants, Danny J. Johnson, U. Wemmerlov Jun 2017

Factors Limiting Cell Penetration In Manufacturing Plants, Danny J. Johnson, U. Wemmerlov

Danny J. Johnson

Despite the potential advantages of cellular manufacturing, most plants with cells have only partially converted their systems. This study examines factors that limit cell penetration within plants using a mail survey of cell users. The existence of service processes, lack of a strong champion who would push the design and implementation of more cells, and low cost of tracking non-cell parts/ products on the plant floor were found to be significant predictors of cell penetration for plants with cells and no plans for further cells. Factors limiting penetration in plants planning to implement further cells could not be determined.


Fabrication Of N-Doped Carbon Derived From Poly(Acrylonitrile)-Ionic Liquid Copolymer And Application In Lithium Ion Batteries, Lei Wang, Fuliang Zhu, Jun Xia, Gongrui Wang, Yanshuang Meng, Yue Zhang Dec 2016

Fabrication Of N-Doped Carbon Derived From Poly(Acrylonitrile)-Ionic Liquid Copolymer And Application In Lithium Ion Batteries, Lei Wang, Fuliang Zhu, Jun Xia, Gongrui Wang, Yanshuang Meng, Yue Zhang

Yue Zhang

Nitrogen-doped carbon materials have been prepared by soap-free emulsion with poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) and poly(acrylonitrile)-ionic liquid copolymer (PAN-PIL) as carbon sources. The carbonized PAN-PIL (CPAN-PIL) shows a higher nitrogen content (6.80 at.%.) than the carbonized PAN (CPAN) (2.32 at.%). The ionic liquid copolymer introduced graphitic nitrogen to CPAN-PIL, which was not observed in CPAN. The high nitrogen content and graphic nitrogen improved the electrical conductivity and increased the number of active sites. Therefore, CPAN-PIL displayed a specific capacity of 381 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, which is 23% higher than the specific capacity of CPAN.


Yolk-Shell Co3o4-Coo/Carbon Composites For Lithium-Ion Batteries With Enhanced Electrochemical Properties, Gongrui Wang, Yanshuang Meng, Lei Wang, Jun Xia, Fuliang Zhu, Yue Zhang Dec 2016

Yolk-Shell Co3o4-Coo/Carbon Composites For Lithium-Ion Batteries With Enhanced Electrochemical Properties, Gongrui Wang, Yanshuang Meng, Lei Wang, Jun Xia, Fuliang Zhu, Yue Zhang

Yue Zhang

A novel yolk-shell structured Co3O4-CoO/Carbon (Co3O4-CoO/C) composite was prepared and applied as cathode active materials in lithium ion batteries. The composites were prepared through a facile copolymerization of ionic liquid and acrylonitrile, which were used as carbon sources, followed by carbonization. The yolk-shell structure of the composite endows the electrodes with excellent cycling performance due to improved electronic conductivity, reduced strain and depressed aggregation of active materials compared with bare Co3O4. Thus, the Co3O4-CoO/C composite showed a high reversible capacity and cycling life of 590 mAh·g-1 after 50 charge/discharge cycles at a current rate of ...


Synthesis Of N-Doped Carbon By Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis Ionic Liquid For Lithium-Ion Batteries, Yanshuang Meng, Jun Xia, Fuliang Zhu, Yue Zhang Dec 2015

Synthesis Of N-Doped Carbon By Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis Ionic Liquid For Lithium-Ion Batteries, Yanshuang Meng, Jun Xia, Fuliang Zhu, Yue Zhang

Yue Zhang

Nitrogen-doped carbon (NDC) was prepared by a novel microwave-assisted pyrolysis of ionic liquid method. The carbonation temperature and time of the ionic liquid were obviously dropped down by microwave-assisted pyrolysis. The results of XRD, Raman spectra and FT-IR spectra indicated that the pyrolysis product was graphitic nitrogen-doped carbon. The nitrogen dopant in NDC created a porous structure and a large number of defects, which introduced many active sites for the Li+ ion adsorption. Consequently, the NDC delivered high electrochemical performances when used as anode for lithium ion batteries. The NDC electrode exhibited a specific capacity of 243.6mAh.g-1 after ...


Synthesis And Applications Of Semiconducting Graphene, Shahrima Maharubin, Xin Zhang, Fuliang Zhu, Hong-Chao Zhang, Gengxin Zhang, Yue Zhang Dec 2015

Synthesis And Applications Of Semiconducting Graphene, Shahrima Maharubin, Xin Zhang, Fuliang Zhu, Hong-Chao Zhang, Gengxin Zhang, Yue Zhang

Yue Zhang

Semimetal-to-semiconductor transition in graphene can bestow graphene with numerous novel and enhanced structural, electrical, optical, and physicochemical characteristics. The scope of graphene and its prospective for an array of implications could be significantly outspread by this transition. In consideration of the recent advancements of semiconducting graphene, this article widely reviews the properties, production, and developing operations of this emergent material. The comparisons among the benefits and difficulties of current methods are made, intending to offer evidences to develop novel and scalable synthesis approaches. The emphasis is on the properties and applications resulting from various conversion methods (doping, controlled reduction, and ...


Developing Students’ Understanding Of Global Issues Through Lean Manufacturing, Frank E. Peters, Leslie Potter, Kyung J. Min Sep 2015

Developing Students’ Understanding Of Global Issues Through Lean Manufacturing, Frank E. Peters, Leslie Potter, Kyung J. Min

Leslie Potter

While traditional international exchange programs provide valuable experience for engineering students, they are neither within reach nor practical for all students. An innovative course was developed and executed Spring 2007 to provide engineering students with an intense international experience. This course is aimed at strengthening ABET outcome item (h) [the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context]. Additionally, the course provides students the opportunity to practice contemporary, industry-relevant skills by exploring lean manufacturing, including tools, philosophies, and current literature. In the first offering of the course, fifteen students participated ...


Further Improvements Of An End-Effector For Robotic Assembly Of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells, Vladimir Gurau, Terri Armstrong-Koch Aug 2015

Further Improvements Of An End-Effector For Robotic Assembly Of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells, Vladimir Gurau, Terri Armstrong-Koch

Vladimir Gurau

This paper presents a technology for robotic assembly of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs). We describe the most recent configuration of the end-effector used for robotic assembly of PEMFCs, the robot workcell, the fuel cell components and the method of automated assembling fuel cell stacks. In this second generation of end-effector and workcell designs, the productivity of the automated assembly process and the capability of the robot to assemble larger scale fuel cell stacks have been improved. The advantage of the technology presented here consists in its low cost, its simplicity, in its capability of rapidly assembling fuel cell ...


Why Toyota And Honda Topped The 2002 J.D. Power Quality Study, Susan Lightle, Kenneth Yale Rosenzweig, John Talbott Jun 2015

Why Toyota And Honda Topped The 2002 J.D. Power Quality Study, Susan Lightle, Kenneth Yale Rosenzweig, John Talbott

Kenneth Y. Rosenzweig

Toyota again topped the annual J. D. Power and Associates quality study released in late May of 2002. Toyota scored the highest mark ever with l 07 defects per l 00 vehicles, while Honda came in second with 113 defects. The study was based on responses of approximately 65,000 new car owners queried during their first 90-days of ownership. These results do not surprise us, as we have been fortunate to make numerous sojourns to the Toyota plant in Georgetown, Kentucky, and observe the manufacturing processes. These trips were normally facilitated by a former Japanese student of ours, Minako ...


Investigation Of Spray-Coated Silver-Microparticle Electrodes For Ionic Electroactive Polymer Actuators, Catherine Meis, Nicole N. Hashemi, Reza Montazami Mar 2015

Investigation Of Spray-Coated Silver-Microparticle Electrodes For Ionic Electroactive Polymer Actuators, Catherine Meis, Nicole N. Hashemi, Reza Montazami

Nicole N. Hashemi

We have employed the easy-to-scale-up method of spray-coating in combination with layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to fabricate ionic electroactive polymer actuators (IEAPAs). IEAPAs with spray-coated silver microparticle electrodes demonstrate enhanced strain and response time when compared to nearly identical, optimized conventional IEAPA with gold leaf electrodes. The results demonstrate that strain of these IEAPAs increases with the decrease of thickness of the outer silver microparticle electrodes. In addition, the response time of the actuators at frequencies of 1 and 10 Hz improves compared to optimized conventionally fabricated IEAPA. It was found that samples consisting of spray-coated silver electrodes can charge up ...


Alginate-Collagen Fibril Composite Hydrogel, Mahmoud Baniasadi, Majid Minary-Jolandan Feb 2015

Alginate-Collagen Fibril Composite Hydrogel, Mahmoud Baniasadi, Majid Minary-Jolandan

Mahmoud Baniasadi

We report on the synthesis and the mechanical characterization of an alginate-collagen fibril composite hydrogel. Native type I collagen fibrils were used to synthesize the fibrous composite hydrogel. We characterized the mechanical properties of the fabricated fibrous hydrogel using tensile testing; rheometry and atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanoindentation experiments. The results show that addition of type I collagen fibrils improves the rheological and indentation properties of the hydrogel.


A System For Rapid Creation And Assessment Of Conceptual Large Vehicle Designs Using Immersive Virtual Reality, Christian Noon, Ruqin Zhang, Eliot H. Winer, James H. Oliver, Brian Gilmore, Jerry Duncan Feb 2015

A System For Rapid Creation And Assessment Of Conceptual Large Vehicle Designs Using Immersive Virtual Reality, Christian Noon, Ruqin Zhang, Eliot H. Winer, James H. Oliver, Brian Gilmore, Jerry Duncan

James H. Oliver

Currently, new product concepts are often evaluated by developing detailed virtual part and assembly models with traditional computer aided design (CAD) tools followed by appropriate analyses (e.g., finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, etc.). The creation of these models and analyses are tremendously time consuming. If a number of different conceptual configurations have been determined, it may not be possible to model and analyze each of them due to the complexity of these evaluation processes. Thus, promising concepts might be eliminated based solely on insufficient time and resources for assessment. In addition, the virtual models and analyses performed are ...


Methods Of Extrusion On Demand For High Solids Loading Ceramic Paste In Freeform Extrusion Fabrication, Wenbin Li, Amir Ghazanfari, Ming C. Leu, Robert G. Landers Dec 2014

Methods Of Extrusion On Demand For High Solids Loading Ceramic Paste In Freeform Extrusion Fabrication, Wenbin Li, Amir Ghazanfari, Ming C. Leu, Robert G. Landers

Amir Armani (Ghazanfari)

Fabrication of highly dense parts with complex geometry by paste-extrusion-based solid freeform fabrication processes requires a precise control of the extrusion flow rate to dispense material on demand, which is often referred as Extrusion-On-Demand (EOD). The extrusion process for aqueous ceramic pastes is complex and difficult to control due to their non-Newtonian behavior, compressibility and inhomogeneity. In this study, three methods of EOD (based on ram extruder, needle valve, and auger valve) are introduced and investigated for the extrusion of high solids loading (i.e., >50%, volumetric) aqueous alumina paste. Optimal extrusion process parameters for these methods are determined through ...


Analyzing Sustainable, Localized Food Production Systems With A Systematic Optimization Model, Guiping Hu, Lizhi Wang, Susan W. Arendt, Randy Boeckenstedt Nov 2014

Analyzing Sustainable, Localized Food Production Systems With A Systematic Optimization Model, Guiping Hu, Lizhi Wang, Susan W. Arendt, Randy Boeckenstedt

Susan W. Arendt

Localized food production and sourcing is drawing increasing attention due to environmental and health considerations. In this study, we used population, dietary and geographical information to map potential foodsheds with emphasis on minimizing total geographic distribution. We also developed innovative protocols, metrics and optimization methods to analyze the foodshed localization of geographic areas. We used data from Iowa to analyze and validate the optimization model. This study can also be extended to other regions outside of Iowa.


Single-Layer Graphene Oxide Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites By Laser Sintering: Microstructure And Mechanical Property Enhancement, Dong Lin Oct 2014

Single-Layer Graphene Oxide Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites By Laser Sintering: Microstructure And Mechanical Property Enhancement, Dong Lin

dong lin

No abstract provided.


Optimization Of Contact Pattern Position On The Worm Wheel Teeth By Axial Shift In Worm Wheel Axis, Ehsan Soury, Arash Houshmand, Alireza Nezamabadi Mar 2014

Optimization Of Contact Pattern Position On The Worm Wheel Teeth By Axial Shift In Worm Wheel Axis, Ehsan Soury, Arash Houshmand, Alireza Nezamabadi

Arash Houshmand

In industrial applications Lubricant temperature decrease is a desired aim in the case of lubricant and gears performance. In this paper the procedure of optimization of worm gears performance by considering the proper contact pattern position had been performed. In accordance with required axial shift in worm wheel axis the contact pattern optimized and as a result the lubricant temperature decreased. This procedure leads to increase gears efficiency and their effective life.


Single-Layer Graphene Oxide Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites By Laser Sintering: Microstructure And Mechanical Property Enhancement, Dong Lin Dec 2013

Single-Layer Graphene Oxide Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites By Laser Sintering: Microstructure And Mechanical Property Enhancement, Dong Lin

dong lin

No abstract provided.


A Case Study Of Heat Treatment On Aisi 1020 Steel, Sayed Shafayat Hossain, Md. Maksudul Islam, Md. Sajibul Alam Bhuyan Dec 2013

A Case Study Of Heat Treatment On Aisi 1020 Steel, Sayed Shafayat Hossain, Md. Maksudul Islam, Md. Sajibul Alam Bhuyan

Md. Maksudul Islam

Proper heat treatment of steels is one of the most important factors in determining how they will perform in service. Engineering materials, mostly steel, are heat treated under controlled sequence of heating and cooling to alter their physical and mechanical properties to meet desired engineering applications. In this study we have chosen AISI 1020 steel as for our research work and we have tried to find out the mechanical properties (hardness) and micro structural properties (martensite formation, carbon self-locking region) by means of appropriate heat treatment process (annealing, normalizing & hardening). Here the steel specimens were heat treated in a furnace at different temperature levels and soaking time; and then cooled in various media (air, ash, water). After that ...