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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Tomato Puree Convective Heat Transfer Simulation Using Boussinesq Approximation, Matteo Fabbri May 2019

Tomato Puree Convective Heat Transfer Simulation Using Boussinesq Approximation, Matteo Fabbri

Theses

With the advance of new technologies, the food industries are requiring systems that allow to produce the desired products with faster rates at cheaper costs. In this case, the study was initiated with the purpose to better understand what happens inside a package containing tomato puree when this is heated above 343 K in a tunnel pasteurizer. If the fluid must reach the thermal and microbiological condition of “pasteurization”, the system must guarantee that the temperature (around 343° Kelvin) is kept for a certain time allowing to pasteurize even the cooler package’s fluid-particle. The faster the system can heat ...


Mechanics Of Binder-Particle Interactions In Composite Battery Electrodes, Richard Johnson May 2019

Mechanics Of Binder-Particle Interactions In Composite Battery Electrodes, Richard Johnson

Theses

A study into the particle level mechanics of polymer binder and active material used in composite lithium-ion batteries (LIB) has been conducted. Silicon is highly sought after material that can be used as an active material in a composite anode. Its high theoretical capacity can result in batteries that can store more energy than current LIBs, but high volume expansion of Si during charge/discharge cycles leads to rapid capacity fade and poor cyclic life. Understanding the stress that is generated in the binder and the active material due to the volume expansion has not been fully understood. In this ...


Modelling Of Oxygen Diffusion In Cork, Swapnil Shivputra Rane May 2018

Modelling Of Oxygen Diffusion In Cork, Swapnil Shivputra Rane

Theses

The primary objective of this project is to better understand gas diffusion through natural cork structures by comparing simulations of gas diffusion through natural cork to experimental measurements of oxygen gas diffusion through the same structure. The cork's internal structure is measured using x-ray computed tomography (CT). From the measured internal structure, a simple mapping is assumed converting the measured x-ray computed tomography images into a 3D map of local diffusion coefficient. Specifically, it is assured that the x-ray CT pixel value is inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient of oxygen through the cork. A diffusion model for the ...


Electric-Field Assisted Manipulation And Self-Assembly Of Particle Suspensions, Edison Chijioke Amah Jan 2018

Electric-Field Assisted Manipulation And Self-Assembly Of Particle Suspensions, Edison Chijioke Amah

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Study On The Dispersion Of Particles At A Fluid-Liquid Interface And Its Application In Hydrophilous Pollination, Naga Aditya Musunuri Jan 2017

Study On The Dispersion Of Particles At A Fluid-Liquid Interface And Its Application In Hydrophilous Pollination, Naga Aditya Musunuri

Dissertations

This dissertation work describes the physics of particle adsorption and the spontaneous dispersion of powders that occurs when they come in contact with a fluid-liquid interface and its application in hydrophilous pollination of Ruppia Maritima, an aquatic plant. The dispersion of particles can occur so quickly that it appears explosive, especially for small particles on the surface of mobile liquids like water. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurements show that the adsorption of a spherical particle at the interface causes an axisymmetric streaming flow about the vertical line passing through the particle center. The fluid directly below the particle rises upward ...


Fast Estimation Model Of Pressure-Temperature Response For Planning Focused Ultrasound Surgery, Tariq Mohammad Arif Jan 2017

Fast Estimation Model Of Pressure-Temperature Response For Planning Focused Ultrasound Surgery, Tariq Mohammad Arif

Dissertations

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is becoming a widely accepted modality for extracorporeal non-invasive hyperthermia and surgical procedures. Since ultrasonic transducers need to operate in various challenging body locations, the arrangement of their array elements can be optimized to improve the capability of controlling focus intensity. In the first part of this dissertation, patterns of pressure field variations with several selected design variables (kerf, transducer element’s number and element’s width-height) are studied. These patterns indicate that there is a more suitable shape and arrangement of transducer elements in a specified area to achieve highest possible pressure. In order ...


Effect Of Temperature On The Fracture Behavior Of Lead-Free Solder Joints, Patrick Thompson May 2016

Effect Of Temperature On The Fracture Behavior Of Lead-Free Solder Joints, Patrick Thompson

Theses

The objective of the present study is to examine the effect of temperature on the fracture behavior of Cu-SAC305-Cu joints. To this end, double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens, consisting of a thin layer of Sn96.5Ag3.0Cu0.5 (SAC305) solder sandwiched between two copper bars, fabricated under standard surface mount (SMT) processing conditions are fractured under various temperatures with a MTS machine equipped with an environment chamber. The load-displacement behavior corresponding to crack initiation and the subsequent toughening before ultimate failure and the displacements near crack tip are recorded and used to calculate the fracture energy release rates. The fracture ...


Aerosol Transport By Coughing In A Depressurized And Air-Conditioned Chamber, Bo Zhang Jan 2016

Aerosol Transport By Coughing In A Depressurized And Air-Conditioned Chamber, Bo Zhang

Dissertations

Expiratory droplets from human coughing in an air-conditioned environment have always been considered to be potential carriers of pathogens, responsible for respiratory disease transmission. The air movement/circulation and ambient conditions such as pressure and temperature are all key factors of aerosol transport. To study the transmission of disease by human coughing in a depressurized air-conditioned chamber, there are many technical challenges, including the following: 1) the study of simulating human coughing; 2) the collection of aerosol generated by coughing; 3) the CFD simulation of coughing-induced aerosol transport in an air-conditioned chamber; 4) the validation of such a CFD simulation ...


Field Induced Assembly Of Particulate Systems, Kinnari Shah Jan 2016

Field Induced Assembly Of Particulate Systems, Kinnari Shah

Dissertations

The primary focus of the first part of this dissertation is to study the AC field-driven assembly of monodisperse silica and glass particles on liquid - liquid interface and forming a liquid film of uniform thickness having arrangement of particles on it. This liquid film with arrangement of regular particles can be converted into a solid film by curing top UV curable liquid. Here, electric field is used as a tool to facilitate AC field-driven assembly. The work describes the assembly of different size of regular particles and effective development of solid film.


Shock Wave Interaction With A Fluid Filled Cylinder Experimental Methods, Praveen Kumar Baba Siddabattuni Dec 2015

Shock Wave Interaction With A Fluid Filled Cylinder Experimental Methods, Praveen Kumar Baba Siddabattuni

Theses

In the recent wars of Iraq and Afghanistan, many soldiers sustained bTBI (blast-induced traumatic brain injury). The blasts are created by extensive use of improvised explosive devices (IED’s). Whether pure blast-shock waves cause TBI or what is the mechanism of injury are not fully known. Research efforts are underway to find answers to these questions.

The primary objective of this project is to understand how the shockwave interacts with a fluid-filled cylinder of different thicknesses. Here, the cylinder is idealized as head and the fluid filled inside it as the brain material. The primary interest here is, how the ...


Effect Of Endplate On The Blast Wave Profile In A Compressed Gas Shock Tube, Sudeepto Kahali Aug 2015

Effect Of Endplate On The Blast Wave Profile In A Compressed Gas Shock Tube, Sudeepto Kahali

Theses

Blast related brain injuries are commonly encountered in the recent wars of Iraq and Afghanistan increased use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). An estimated 20% of veterans returning from these operations have suffered traumatic brain injuries (TBI). The mechanisms and long-term effects of the injury are not fully understood, and extensive research effort is being focused toward identifying the mechanisms of primary blast injury. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters a subject, in the absence of shrapnel, casing or gaseous products, the loading is termed as primary blast loading, and its effects can be studied using shock tubes.

The wave ...


Development Of A Finite Element Method For Light Activated Polymers, Craig Hamel May 2015

Development Of A Finite Element Method For Light Activated Polymers, Craig Hamel

Theses

Traditional Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) belong to a class of smart materials which have shown promise for a wide range of applications. They are characterized by their ability to maintain a temporary deformed shape and return to an original parent permanent shape. The first SMPs developed responded to changes in temperature by exploiting the difference in modulus and chain mobility through the glass transition temperature. However, in recent years, new SMPs have been developed that respond to other stimuli besides temperature; these can include electricity, magnetism, changes in chemical concentration, and even light.

In this thesis, we consider the photo-mechanical ...


Gas-Solid Transport And Reaction Via Intervened Evaporating Sprays, Pengfei He May 2014

Gas-Solid Transport And Reaction Via Intervened Evaporating Sprays, Pengfei He

Dissertations

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a major process used for converting heavy oils to transportation fuels and light olefins. The gas-solid transport with reaction via intervened evaporating sprays in the FCC riser is specially important but complicated, with coupled mechanisms of chemical reaction and heat, momentum and mass transfer among multiple phases (liquid, solid and gas) in the restriction of wall boundary. Recent developments in FCC process models have progressed along two lines. One aims to develop composition-based kinetic models derived from molecular characterization of petroleum fractions while overlooking the hydrodynamic effect on local catalyst to oil ratio (CTO). The ...


Dynamics Of 1d Granular Column, Luo Zuo May 2014

Dynamics Of 1d Granular Column, Luo Zuo

Dissertations

This dissertation is focused on a discrete element study of the dynamics of a one- dimensional column of inelastic spheres that it subjected to taps by prescribing a half sine wave pulse to supporting floor. Contact interactions obey the Walton-Braun soft-sphere model in which the loading (unloading) path is governing by linear springs of stiffness K1, thereby producing col lisional energy loss through a constant restitution coefficient e. Over a ‘short time scale’, computations are done to examine the floor pulse wave as it propagates through the column contact network. Comparisons of the simulated findings are made with experimental measurements ...


Computational Optimization Methods For Modeling The Effect Of Muscle Forces On Bone Strength Adaptation, Catherine Siena Florio Dec 2013

Computational Optimization Methods For Modeling The Effect Of Muscle Forces On Bone Strength Adaptation, Catherine Siena Florio

Dissertations

An improved understanding of the mechanical influences that alter the strength of a bone can aid in the refinement of the wide array of currently available techniques to counteract the losses of bone strength that occur due to age or disuse both on Earth and in Space. To address this need, computational modeling methods to quantitatively analyze and compare the effects of mechanical factors on the strength of a targeted bone within a multibone, multimuscle system are developed and implemented in this work. Through a more detailed representation of the system in which the bone acts and the creation of ...


Design And Automated Operation Of A Condensation-Induced Depressurization System, Fen Du May 2012

Design And Automated Operation Of A Condensation-Induced Depressurization System, Fen Du

Dissertations

Typical examples of the use of the vacuum environments in industry include vacuum coating, vacuum drying, vacuum packing, vacuum casting, vacuum heat treatment, vacuum cooling for food storage and leakage detection. Most of these applications require a comparatively small volume of vacuum environment. However, there are also many applications where enormous vacuum chambers are needed. For example, a large vacuum chamber is used to simulate the conditions of space.

This study investigates the design and the automated operation of a vacuum generation system based on the idea of the condensation-induced depressurization with prefilled condensable medium in a confined, adiabatic chamber ...


Adsorption Of Particles On Fluid-Liquid Interfaces, Bhavin Dalal May 2012

Adsorption Of Particles On Fluid-Liquid Interfaces, Bhavin Dalal

Dissertations

Particles floating on fluid-liquid interfaces are of considerable interest because of their importance in a range of physical applications and biological processes, e.g., self-- assembly of particles at fluid-fluid interfaces resulting in novel nano structured materials, stabilization of emulsions, formation of pollen and insect egg rafts, etc. The aim of this dissertation is to explore the mechanism by which particles are adsorbed at fluid-liquid interfaces. It is shown that the inertia of a particle plays an important role in its motion in the direction normal to a fluid-liquid interface, and in determining the particles adsorption trajectory and orientation in ...


The Mechanical Testing Of Single Nanofiber, Pratik Manohar Dahule Dec 2011

The Mechanical Testing Of Single Nanofiber, Pratik Manohar Dahule

Theses

Polymer nanofibers exhibit properties that make them a favorable material for the development of tissue engineering scaffolds, filtration devices, sensors, and high strength lightweight materials. Perfectly aligned PLLA Nanofibers were fabricated by an electrospinning technique under optimum conditions and the diameter of the electrospun fibers can easily be tailored by adjusting the concentration of the polymer solution. To align the nanofibers, special arrangement was made in terms of two aluminum plates. Good alignment of polymer nanofibers on specimen was confirmed by SEM observation. The effect of different electro-spinning parameters on maximum fiber length, average fiber diameter, diameter uniformity, and fiber ...


Dispersion Of Particles On Liquid Surfaces, Sathishkumar Gurupatham Aug 2011

Dispersion Of Particles On Liquid Surfaces, Sathishkumar Gurupatham

Dissertations

When small particles (e.g., flour, pollen, etc.) come in contact with a liquid surface, they immediately disperse. The dispersion can occur so quickly that it appears explosive, especially for small particles on the surface of mobile liquids like water. This explosive dispersion is the consequence of capillary force pulling particles into the interface causing them to accelerate to a relatively large velocity. The maximum velocity increases with decreasing particle size; for nanometer-sized particles (e.g., viruses and proteins), the velocity on an air-water interface can be as large as 47 m/s. They also oscillate at a relatively high ...


Modeling Of Non-Uniform Hydrodynamics And Catalytic Reaction In A Solids-Laden Riser, Rajeshkumar Patel May 2011

Modeling Of Non-Uniform Hydrodynamics And Catalytic Reaction In A Solids-Laden Riser, Rajeshkumar Patel

Dissertations

The riser reactors are widely used in a variety of industrial applications such as polymerization, coal combustion and petroleum refinery because of the strong mixing of gas and solids that yields high heat and mass transfer rates, and reaction rates. In a Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process, the performance of riser reactor is strongly dependent on the interaction between the fluid and catalysts, since the reaction takes place on the active surface of the catalysts. This is why, the local coupling between hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics is critical to the development of riser reaction models. The local gas-solids flow structure ...


Design And Fabrication Of A Tapped Densification Apparatus For Bulk Solids, Joshua H. De Jong Dec 2010

Design And Fabrication Of A Tapped Densification Apparatus For Bulk Solids, Joshua H. De Jong

Theses

Experiments are commonly used to ascertain the flow properties of bulk solids. One such property is a measurement quantity known as the tapped density. Here, a container of granular material is subjected to a long sequence of discrete taps, after which the bulk density - the total mass divided by the volume occupied –- is determined. Current technology exists to achieve the maximum tap density by subjecting a container to a user defined number of taps at a specific, predetermined amplitude and frequency. However, the final bulk density is known to be dependent on the tap parameters. It can therefore be beneficial ...


Transport Mechanisms And Modeling Of Riser Reactor, Dawei Wang May 2010

Transport Mechanisms And Modeling Of Riser Reactor, Dawei Wang

Dissertations

Riser reactors are extensively employed in various industrial applications. In a riser reactor, the hydrodynamics is closely interacted with kinetic reactions. Common models for the performance prediction of riser reactors overlook this vital coupling effect, which not only miss the important reaction characteristics in the dense-phase transport regime of riser reactors but also misinterpret the kinetic properties via ad hoc adjustments. It is noted that the modeling of hydrodynamics in riser flows has major flaws in its predictability of phase transport in both dense-phase and accelerating regimes where most reactions occur. In addition, with the spray feeding of reactants at ...


Constitutive Modeling Of Glassy Memory Polymers, Mahesh Khanolkar May 2010

Constitutive Modeling Of Glassy Memory Polymers, Mahesh Khanolkar

Dissertations

The aim of this research is to develop constitutive models for non-linear materials. Here, issues related for developing constitutive model for glassy shape memory polymers are addressed in detail. Shape memory polymers are novel material that can be easily formed into complex shapes, retaining memory of their original shape even after undergoing large deformations. The temporary shape is stable and return to the original shape is triggered by a suitable mechanism such heating the polymer above a transition temperature. Glassy shape memory polymers are called glassy because the temporary shape is fixed by the formation of a glassy solid, while ...


Stochastic And Deterministic Dynamics Investigation Of The Microstructure Of Granular Materials, Vishagan Ratnaswamy May 2010

Stochastic And Deterministic Dynamics Investigation Of The Microstructure Of Granular Materials, Vishagan Ratnaswamy

Theses

Granular materials are ubiquitous in one's daily life. They can be found in the cereal you eat, the sugar you put in your coffee or the sand you walk on in the beach. The study of granular materials has a rich history dating back to the 17th century where Kepler studied the packing of particles. The compaction of granular materials is a problem that is studied by using theory, experiments and simulations. While these studies have yielded some important results, there still are many details about the mechanisms of granular compaction that are unknown.

In this thesis, the density ...


Optimal Synthesis Of Planar Adjustable Mechanisms, Chong Peng Dec 2009

Optimal Synthesis Of Planar Adjustable Mechanisms, Chong Peng

Dissertations

Adjustable mechanisms provide degrees of flexibility while retaining desirable features of one degree of freedom close-loop mechanisms, such as simplicity, stability, and high speed capabilities. By adjusting linkage parameters, additional phases of motions can be achieved using the same hardware. However, an adjustment to the mechanism adds only one or two additional design positions and divides desired positions into "phases", each of which contains only a few positions usually insufficient for industrial applications.

In order to extend the design position limitation of adjustable mechanisms, an optimal synthesis method based on link length structural error is developed and applied to kinematic ...


Motion Coordination And Control In The Development Of A Gait Rehabilitation System, Yazan Ahmad Manna Dec 2009

Motion Coordination And Control In The Development Of A Gait Rehabilitation System, Yazan Ahmad Manna

Dissertations

While most take their ability to walk for granted, some are unable to walk due to any number of pathologies, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), and Parkinson's disease. Decreased activity has been shown to be associated with rapidly deconditioning. Rehabilitation techniques that afford patients the ability to begin reconditioning through walking sooner may ultimately enhance their return to a better quality of life. To assist the functional recovery of such patients, an appropriate afferent input to the spinal cord will help in the therapy of the patient. Manual training is labor intensive, costly, and ...


Electrohydrodynamic Manipulation Of Multiphase Fluids, Sai C. Nudurupati Aug 2009

Electrohydrodynamic Manipulation Of Multiphase Fluids, Sai C. Nudurupati

Dissertations

In microfluidic devices, the fluid can be manipulated either as continuous streams or droplets. The latter is particularly attractive as individual droplets can not only move but also split and fuse, thus offer a greater flexibility in applications such as a laboratory-on- a-chip. In this thesis, a technique is developed that uses an externally applied electric field for manipulating and removing particles trapped on the surface of a drop. The drop is assumed to be immersed in another liquid with which it is immiscible, and the electric field is generated by placing electrodes on the sides of the microdevice. Both ...


Heterogeneous Flow Structure And Gas-Solid Transport Of Riser, Jun You May 2009

Heterogeneous Flow Structure And Gas-Solid Transport Of Riser, Jun You

Dissertations

This study aims to understand physical mechanisms of gas-solid transport and riser flow, investigate heterogeneous flow structures of gas-solid transport and their formation mechanism of the in riser flows, both in axial and radial directions. It provides sound interpretation for the experimental observation and valuable suggestion to riser reactor design. Chemical reaction is also coupled with flow hydrodynamics to board the industrial applications. This study mainly focuses on mathematical modeling approach based upon physical mechanism, and endeavor to validate model prediction against available experimental data.

First of all, most important physical mechanisms including inter-particle collision force, gas/solid interfacial force ...


Experiment And Modeling : Ignition Of Aluminum Particles With A Co2 Laser, Salil Mohan Dec 2008

Experiment And Modeling : Ignition Of Aluminum Particles With A Co2 Laser, Salil Mohan

Dissertations

Aluminum is a promising ingredient for high energy density compositions used in propulsion systems, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Aluminum powder fuel additives enable one to achieve higher combustion enthalpies and reaction temperatures. Therefore, to develop aluminum based novel and customized high density energetic materials, understanding of ignition and combustion kinetics of aluminum powders is required. In most practical systems, metal ignition and combustion occur in environments with rapidly changing temperatures and gas compositions. The kinetics of exothermic reactions in related energetic materials is commonly characterized by thermal analysis, where the heating rates are very low, on the order of 1 -50 ...


Kinematic Synthesis Of Planar Four Bar And Geared Five Bar Mechanisms With Structural Constraints, Yahia Mohammad Al-Smadi Dec 2008

Kinematic Synthesis Of Planar Four Bar And Geared Five Bar Mechanisms With Structural Constraints, Yahia Mohammad Al-Smadi

Dissertations

In motion generation, the objective is to calculate the mechanism parameters required to achieve or approximate a set of prescribed rigid-body positions. This doctoral dissertation study is aimed to integrate the classical kinematic analysis of a planar four-bar and geared five-bar motion generation with three structural design constraints. These constraints consider driving link static torque, deflection of the crank and buckling of the follower for a given rigid-body load or constant external load.

This kineto-elastostatic analysis is based on the following assumptions to be considered during the analysis; the crank and the follower are elastic members and the coupler is ...