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## Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Robust/Optimal Temperature Profile Control Of A High-Speed Aerospace Vehicle Using Neural Networks, Vivek Yadav, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan

#### Robust/Optimal Temperature Profile Control Of A High-Speed Aerospace Vehicle Using Neural Networks, Vivek Yadav, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. a 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. ldquoSnapshotrdquo solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the ldquoproper orthogonal decompositionrdquo (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. a low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. an ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with ...

Neural Network Approach For Obstacle Avoidance In 3-D Environments For Uavs, Vivek Yadav, Xiaohua Wang, S. N. Balakrishnan

#### Neural Network Approach For Obstacle Avoidance In 3-D Environments For Uavs, Vivek Yadav, Xiaohua Wang, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

In this paper a controller design is proposed to get obstacle free trajectories in a three dimensional urban environment for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The controller has a two-layer architecture. In the upper layer, vision-inspired Grossberg neural network is proposed to get the shortest distance paths. In the bottom layer, a model predictive control (MPC) based controller is used to obtain dynamically feasible trajectories. Simulation results are presented for to demonstrate the potential of the approach.

Neuroadaptive Model Following Controller Design For A Nonaffine Uav Model, Nishant Unnikrishnan, S. N. Balakrishnan

#### Neuroadaptive Model Following Controller Design For A Nonaffine Uav Model, Nishant Unnikrishnan, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

This paper proposes a new model-following adaptive control design technique for nonlinear systems that are nonaffine in control. The adaptive controller uses online neural networks that guarantee tracking in the presence of unmodeled dynamics and/or parameter uncertainties present in the system model through an online control adaptation procedure. The controller design is carried out in two steps: (i) synthesis of a set of neural networks which capture the unmodeled (neglected) dynamics or model uncertainties due to parametric variations and (ii) synthesis of a controller that drives the state of the actual plant to that of a reference model. This ...

Stationkeeping Of An L₂ Libration Point Satellite With Θ-D Technique, Ming Xin, S. N. Balakrishnan, Henry J. Pernicka, Michael W. Dancer

#### Stationkeeping Of An L₂ Libration Point Satellite With Θ-D Technique, Ming Xin, S. N. Balakrishnan, Henry J. Pernicka, Michael W. Dancer

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

A new method for L_{2} libration-point orbit stationkeeping is proposed in this paper using continuous thrust. The circular restricted three-body problem with Sun and Earth as the two primaries is considered. The unstable orbit about the L_{2} libration-point requires stationkeeping maneuvers to maintain the nominal path. In this study, an approach, called the "θ-D technique," based on optimal control theory gives a closed-form suboptimal feedback solution to solve this nonlinear control problem. In this approach the Hamiltonian-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is solved approximately by adding some perturbations to the cost function. The controller is designed such that the actual ...

State-Constrained Agile Missile Control With Adaptive-Critic-Based Neural Networks, Dongchen Han, S. N. Balakrishnan

#### State-Constrained Agile Missile Control With Adaptive-Critic-Based Neural Networks, Dongchen Han, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

In this study, we develop an adaptive-critic-based controller to steer an agile missile that has a constraint on the minimum flight Mach number from various initial Mach numbers to a given final Mach number in minimum time while completely reversing its flightpath angle. This class of bounded state space, free final time problems is very difficult to solve due to discontinuities in costates at the constraint boundaries. We use a two-neural-network structure called "adaptive critic" in this study to carry out the optimization process. This structure obtains an optimal controller through solving optimal control-related equations resulting from a Hamiltonian formulation ...

Online Identification And Control Of Aerospace Vehicles Using Recurrent Networks, Zhenning Hu, S. N. Balakrishnan

#### Online Identification And Control Of Aerospace Vehicles Using Recurrent Networks, Zhenning Hu, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

Methods for estimating the aerospace system parameters and controlling them through two neural networks are presented in this study. We equate the energy function of Hopfield neural network to integral square of errors in the system dynamics and extract the parameters of a system. Parameter convergence is proved. For control, we equate the equilibrium status of a "modified" Hopfield neural network to the steady state Riccati solution with the system parameters as inputs. Through these two networks, we present the online identification and control of an aircraft using its nonlinear dynamics.

Use Of Hopfield Neural Networks In Optimal Guidance, S. N. Balakrishnan, James Edward Steck

#### Use Of Hopfield Neural Networks In Optimal Guidance, S. N. Balakrishnan, James Edward Steck

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

A Hopfield neural network architecture is developed to solve the optimal control problem for homing missile guidance. A linear quadratic optimal control problem is formulated in the form of an efficient parallel computing device known as a Hopfield neural network. Convergence of the Hopfield network is analyzed from a theoretical perspective, showing that the network, as a dynamical system approaches a unique fixed point which is the solution to the optimal control problem at any instant during the missile pursuit. Several target-intercept scenarios are provided to demonstrate the use of the recurrent feedback neural net formulation.