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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

3d Janus Plasmonic Helical Nanoapertures For Polarization-Encrypted Data Storage, Yang Chen, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao Dec 2019

3d Janus Plasmonic Helical Nanoapertures For Polarization-Encrypted Data Storage, Yang Chen, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Helical structures have attracted considerable attention due to their inherent optical chirality. Here, we report a unique type of 3D Janus plasmonic helical nanoaperture with direction-controlled polarization sensitivity, which is simply fabricated via the one-step grayscale focused ion beam milling method. Circular dichroism in transmission of as large as 0.72 is experimentally realized in the forward direction due to the spin-dependent mode coupling process inside the helical nanoaperture. However, in the backward direction, the nanoaperture acquires giant linear dichroism in transmission of up to 0.87. By encoding the Janus metasurface with the two nanoaperture enantiomers having specified rotation ...


Orbital Angular Momentum Transformation Of Optical Vortex With Aluminum Metasurfaces, Yuchao Zhang, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao Dec 2019

Orbital Angular Momentum Transformation Of Optical Vortex With Aluminum Metasurfaces, Yuchao Zhang, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The orbital angular momentum (OAM) transformation of optical vortex is realized upon using aluminum metasurfaces with phase distributions derived from the caustic theory. The generated OAM transformation beam has the well-defined Bessel-like patterns with multiple designed topological charges from -1 to +2.5 including both the integer-order and fractional-order optical vortices along the propagation. The detailed OAM transformation process is observed in terms of the variations of both beam intensity and phase profiles. The dynamic distributions of OAM mode density in the transformation are further analyzed to illustrate the conservation of the total OAM. The demonstration of transforming OAM states ...


Pore Elimination Mechanisms During 3d Printing Of Metals, S. Mohammad H. Hojjatzadeh, Niranjan D. Parab, Wentao Yan, Lianyi Chen, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Dec 2019

Pore Elimination Mechanisms During 3d Printing Of Metals, S. Mohammad H. Hojjatzadeh, Niranjan D. Parab, Wentao Yan, Lianyi Chen, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is a 3D printing technology that can print metal parts with complex geometries without the design constraints of traditional manufacturing routes. However, the parts printed by LPBF normally contain many more pores than those made by conventional methods, which severely deteriorates their properties. Here, by combining in-situ high-speed high-resolution synchrotron x-ray imaging experiments and multi-physics modeling, we unveil the dynamics and mechanisms of pore motion and elimination in the LPBF process. We find that the high thermocapillary force, induced by the high temperature gradient in the laser interaction region, can rapidly eliminate pores from the ...


Second-Harmonic Optical Vortex Conversion From Ws₂ Monolayer, Arindam Dasgupta, Jie Gao, Xiaodong Yang Dec 2019

Second-Harmonic Optical Vortex Conversion From Ws₂ Monolayer, Arindam Dasgupta, Jie Gao, Xiaodong Yang

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Wavelength, polarization and orbital angular momentum of light are important degrees of freedom for processing and encoding information in optical communication. Over the years, the generation and conversion of orbital angular momentum in nonlinear optical media has found many novel applications in the context of optical communication and quantum information processing. With that hindsight, here orbital angular momentum conversion of optical vortices through second-harmonic generation from only one atomically thin WS2 monolayer is demonstrated at room temperature. Moreover, it is shown that the valley-contrasting physics associated with the nonlinear optical selection rule in WS2 monolayer precisely determines the output circular ...


Spatial Variation Of Vector Vortex Beams With Plasmonic Metasurfaces, Yuchao Zhang, Jie Gao, Xiaodong Yang Dec 2019

Spatial Variation Of Vector Vortex Beams With Plasmonic Metasurfaces, Yuchao Zhang, Jie Gao, Xiaodong Yang

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The spatial variation of vector vortex beams with arbitrary polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) values along the beam propagation is demonstrated by using plasmonic metasurfaces with the initial geometric phase profiles determined from the caustic theory. The vector vortex beam is produced by the superposition of deflected right- and left-handed circularly polarized component vortices with different helical phase charges, which are simultaneously generated off-axially by the single metasurface. Besides, the detailed evolution processes of intensity profile, polarization distribution and OAM value along the beam propagation distance is analyzed. The demonstrated arbitrary space-variant vector vortex beam will pave the ...


Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement With Aperiodic Thue-Morse Multilayer, Ling Li, Cherian J. Mathai, Shubhra Gangopadhyay, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao Dec 2019

Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement With Aperiodic Thue-Morse Multilayer, Ling Li, Cherian J. Mathai, Shubhra Gangopadhyay, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The emergence of multilayer metamaterials in the research field of enhancing spontaneous emission rates has recently received extensive attention. Previous research efforts mostly focus on periodic metal-dielectric multilayers in hyperbolic dispersion region; however, the influence of lattice order in subwavelength multilayers on spontaneous emission is rarely studied. Here, we observe the stronger Purcell enhancement of quantum dots coupled to the aperiodic metal-dielectric multilayer with Thue-Morse lattice order from elliptical to hyperbolic dispersion regions, compared to the periodic multilayer with the same metal filling ratio. This work demonstrates the potential of utilizing quasiperiodic metamaterial nanostructures to engineer the local density of ...


Bulk-Explosion-Induced Metal Spattering During Laser Processing, Cang Zhao, Qilin Guo, Xuxiao Li, Niranjan Parab, Kamel Fezzaa, Wenda Tan, Lianyi Chen, Tao Sun Jun 2019

Bulk-Explosion-Induced Metal Spattering During Laser Processing, Cang Zhao, Qilin Guo, Xuxiao Li, Niranjan Parab, Kamel Fezzaa, Wenda Tan, Lianyi Chen, Tao Sun

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Spattering has been a problem in metal processing involving high-power lasers, like laser welding, machining, and recently, additive manufacturing. Limited by the capabilities of in situ diagnostic techniques, typically imaging with visible light or laboratory x-ray sources, a comprehensive understanding of the laser-spattering phenomenon, particularly the extremely fast spatters, has not been achieved yet. Here, using MHz single-pulse synchrotron-x-ray imaging, we probe the spattering behavior of Ti-6Al-4V with micrometer spatial resolution and subnanosecond temporal resolution. Combining direct experimental observations, quantitative image analysis, as well as numerical simulations, our study unravels a novel mechanism of laser spattering: The bulk explosion of ...


A Hybrid Process Integrating Reverse Engineering, Pre-Repair Processing, Additive Manufacturing, And Material Testing For Component Remanufacturing, Xinchang Zhang, Wenyuan Cui, Wei Li, Frank W. Liou Jun 2019

A Hybrid Process Integrating Reverse Engineering, Pre-Repair Processing, Additive Manufacturing, And Material Testing For Component Remanufacturing, Xinchang Zhang, Wenyuan Cui, Wei Li, Frank W. Liou

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Metallic components can gain defects such as dents, cracks, wear, heat checks, deformation, etc., that need to be repaired before reinserting into service for extending the lifespan of these parts. In this study, a hybrid process was developed to integrate reverse engineering, pre-repair processing, additive manufacturing, and material testing for the purpose of part remanufacturing. Worn components with varied defects were scanned using a 3D scanner to recreate the three-dimensional models. Pre-repair processing methods which include pre-repair machining and heat-treatment were introduced. Strategies for pre-repair machining of defects including surface impact damage, surface superficial damage and cracking were presented. Pre-repair ...


Generation Of Nondiffracting Vector Beams With Ring-Shaped Plasmonic Metasurfaces, Yuchao Zhang, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao Jun 2019

Generation Of Nondiffracting Vector Beams With Ring-Shaped Plasmonic Metasurfaces, Yuchao Zhang, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Nondiffracting Bessel, Mathieu, and Weber vector beams are generated by using ring-shaped plasmonic geometric metasurfaces. The nondiffracting vector beam is produced by the superposition of two off-axis right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized nondiffracting scalar beams described by the Whittaker integral, which are simultaneously generated by a single metasurface with the ring-shaped phase profile. The polarization states of the generated nondiffracting vector beams are analyzed by the Stokes parameters and the orbital angular momentum states are measured by the beam interference. In addition, the selfhealing properties of nondiffracting vector beams are further demonstrated, showing that not only the beam profiles but ...


Method And Apparatus For Fabricating Ceramic And Metal Components Via Additive Manufacturing With Uniform Layered Radiation Drying, Ming-Chuan Leu, Amir Ghazanfari, Wenbin Li, Greg Hilmas, Robert G. Landers Apr 2019

Method And Apparatus For Fabricating Ceramic And Metal Components Via Additive Manufacturing With Uniform Layered Radiation Drying, Ming-Chuan Leu, Amir Ghazanfari, Wenbin Li, Greg Hilmas, Robert G. Landers

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing three - dimensional ceramic, metal and functionally gradient composite objects, including the steps of filling a plurality of paste sources with a respective plurality of aqueous paste compositions, operationally connecting respective syringes containing respective aqueous paste compositions to a mix ing chamber, moving a first aqueous paste composition from a first respective paste source into the mixing chamber, moving a second aqueous paste composition from a second respective paste source into the mixing chamber, mixing the first and second aqueous paste compositions to define a first admixture having a first admixture composition, extruding the ...


Manipulating Transverse Photovoltage Across Plasmonic Triangle Holes Of Symmetry Breaking, Marjan Akbari, Jie Gao, Xiaodong Yang Apr 2019

Manipulating Transverse Photovoltage Across Plasmonic Triangle Holes Of Symmetry Breaking, Marjan Akbari, Jie Gao, Xiaodong Yang

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The transverse photo-induced voltages generated by the photon drag effect under normally and obliquely incident circularly polarized light across the plasmonic symmetry-breaking isosceles-triangle holes and right-triangle holes have been characterized. It is observed that the sign of transverse photovoltage flips when the incident circular polarization is switched for both types of plasmonic triangle holes. However, the unbalanced photovoltage between two circular polarizations is achieved across the plasmonic right-triangle holes, compared to the balanced photovoltage in the plasmonic isosceles-triangle holes. Such manipulation of the sign and the amplitude of transverse photovoltage is enabled by the broken symmetries of the electric and ...


Optical Transportation And Accumulation Of Microparticles By Self-Accelerating Cusp Beams, Weiwei Liu, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao Apr 2019

Optical Transportation And Accumulation Of Microparticles By Self-Accelerating Cusp Beams, Weiwei Liu, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Most of the self-accelerating beams have monotonous single-channel bending structures, which greatly limit their applications in many fields such as microscopic imaging and particle manipulation. In this paper, the self-accelerating cusp beams with variable numbers of multichannel bending structures are generated to demonstrate the optical transportation and accumulation of micrometer polystyrene particles. The transportation velocity and optical force profiles of the microparticles moving along the bending channels of cusp beams are analyzed. Parallel particle transportation and particle accumulation manipulation from all the bending channels are further demonstrated. These results will inspire a lot of promising applications for self-accelerating beams especially ...


A Comparison Of Static And Dynamic Functional Connectivities For Identifying Subjects And Biological Sex Using Intrinsic Individual Brain Connectivity, Sreevalsan S. Menon, K. Krishnamurthy Apr 2019

A Comparison Of Static And Dynamic Functional Connectivities For Identifying Subjects And Biological Sex Using Intrinsic Individual Brain Connectivity, Sreevalsan S. Menon, K. Krishnamurthy

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Functional magnetic resonance imaging has revealed correlated activities in brain regions even in the absence of a task. Initial studies assumed this resting-state functional connectivity (FC) to be stationary in nature, but recent studies have modeled these activities as a dynamic network. Dynamic spatiotemporal models better model the brain activities, but are computationally more involved. A comparison of static and dynamic FCs was made to quantitatively study their efficacies in identifying intrinsic individual connectivity patterns using data from the Human Connectome project. Results show that the intrinsic individual brain connectivity pattern can be used as a ‘fingerprint’ to distinguish among ...


On The Feasibility Of Tailoring Copper-Nickel Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated Through Laser Metal Deposition, Sreekar Karnati, Yunlu Zhang, Frank W. Liou, Joseph William Newkirk Mar 2019

On The Feasibility Of Tailoring Copper-Nickel Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated Through Laser Metal Deposition, Sreekar Karnati, Yunlu Zhang, Frank W. Liou, Joseph William Newkirk

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

In this study, pulse‐width modulation of laser power was identified as a feasible means for varying the chemical gradient in copper—nickel‐graded materials. Graded material deposits of 70 wt. %. copper‐30 wt. %. nickel on 100 wt. %. nickel and vice versa were deposited and characterized. The 70/30 copper—nickel weight ratio in the feedstock powder was achieved through blending elemental copper and 96 wt. %. Ni—Delero‐22 alloy. At the dissimilar material interface over the course of four layers, the duty cycle of power was ramped down from a high value to optimized deposition conditions. This change was ...


Light Touch Based Virtual Cane For Balance Assistance During Standing, Sindhu Reddy Alluri Jan 2019

Light Touch Based Virtual Cane For Balance Assistance During Standing, Sindhu Reddy Alluri

Masters Theses

"Can additional information about one's body kinematics provided through hands improve human balance? Light-Touch (LT) through hands helps improve balance in a wide range of populations, both healthy and impaired. The force is too small to provide any meaningful mechanical assistance -- rather, it is suggested that the additional sensory information through hands helps the body improve balance.

To investigate the potential for improving human balance through biofeedback through hands, we developed a Virtual Cane (VC) for balance assistance during standing. The VC mimics the physical cane's function of providing information about one's body in space. Balance experiments ...


Laser Welding Of Metallic Glass To Crystalline Metal In Laser-Foil-Printing Additive Manufacturing, Yingqi Li Jan 2019

Laser Welding Of Metallic Glass To Crystalline Metal In Laser-Foil-Printing Additive Manufacturing, Yingqi Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"The application of metallic glasses has been traditionally limited to parts with small dimensions and simple geometries, due to the requirement of fast cooling during the conventional process of casting. In addition, joining metallic glass to crystalline metal is of interest for many applications that require locally tailored functions and properties, but it is challenging. This research describes a promising additive manufacturing technology, i.e., laser-foil-printing, to make high-quality metallic glass parts with large dimensions and complex geometries and to fabricate multi-material components from metallic glass and crystalline metal. In this research, Zr52.5Ti5Al10Ni ...


Time-Dependent Reliability Methodologies With Saddlepoint Approximation, Zhangli Hu Jan 2019

Time-Dependent Reliability Methodologies With Saddlepoint Approximation, Zhangli Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

"Engineers always encounter time-dependent uncertainties that ubiquitously exist, such as the random deterioration of material properties and time-variant loads. Therefore the reliability of engineering systems becomes time-dependent. It is crucial to predict the time-dependent reliability in the design stage, given possible catastrophic consequences of a failure. Although extensive research has been conducted on reliability analysis, estimating the reliability accurately and efficiently is still challenging. The objective of this work is to develop accurate and efficient reliability methodologies for engineering design. The basic idea is the integration of traditional reliability methods with saddlepoint approximation (SPA), which can accurately approximate the tail ...


Reliability Analysis For Systems With Outsourced Components, Zhengwei Hu Jan 2019

Reliability Analysis For Systems With Outsourced Components, Zhengwei Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

"The current business model for many industrial firms is to function as system integrators, depending on numerous outsourced components from outside component suppliers. This practice has resulted in tremendous cost savings; it makes system reliability analysis, however, more challenging due to the limited component information available to system designers. The component information is often proprietary to component suppliers. Motivated by the need of system reliability prediction with outsourced components, this work aims to explore feasible ways to accurately predict the system reliability during the system design stage. Four methods are proposed. The first method reconstructs component reliability functions using limited ...


Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li Jan 2019

Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is a recently developed freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing dense ceramic components from single and multiple constituents. In this process, aqueous paste of ceramic particles with a very low binder content ( < 1 vol%) is extruded through a moving nozzle to print each layer sequentially. Once one layer is printed, it is surrounded by oil to prevent undesirable water evaporation from the perimeters of the part. The oil level is regulated just below the topmost layer of the part being fabricated. Infrared radiation is then applied to uniformly and partially dry the top layer so that the yield stress of the paste increases to avoid part deformation. By repeating the above steps, the part is printed in a layer-wise fashion, followed by post-processing. Paste extrusion precision of different extrusion mechanisms was compared and analyzed, with an auger extruder determined to be the most suitable paste extruder for the CODE system. A novel fabrication system was developed based on a motion gantry, auger extruders, and peripheral devices. Sample specimens were then produced from 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia using this fabrication system, and their properties, including density, flexural strength, Young's modulus, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness were measured. The results indicated that superior mechanical properties were achieved by the CODE process among all the additive manufacturing processes. Further development was made on the CODE process to fabricate ceramic components that have external/internal features such as overhangs by using fugitive support material. Finally, ceramic composites with functionally graded materials (FGMs) were fabricated by the CODE process using a dynamic mixing device"--Abstract, page iv.


Solvent-Free Additive Manufacturing Of Electrodes For Li-Ion Batteries, Brandon Joshua Ludwig Jan 2019

Solvent-Free Additive Manufacturing Of Electrodes For Li-Ion Batteries, Brandon Joshua Ludwig

Doctoral Dissertations

"A new Li-ion battery electrode manufacturing process using a solvent free additive manufacturing method has been developed. Li-ion battery electrodes consist of active material particles, a binder additive, and a conductive additive. Traditionally, Li-ion battery electrodes are manufacturing using the "slurry casting" technique. In this method, the electrode materials are mixed with a solvent to create a slurry. Electrodes fabricated in this method are readily implemented for small platforms, such as portable electronics. However, this method isn't as economically viable in large platforms due to high material and manufacturing costs. High material and manufacturing costs are mostly attributed to ...


Enhanced Quantum Dots Spontaneous Emission With Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers, Wei Wang, Xiaodong Yang, Ting S. Luk, Jie Gao Jan 2019

Enhanced Quantum Dots Spontaneous Emission With Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers, Wei Wang, Xiaodong Yang, Ting S. Luk, Jie Gao

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Metamaterial perfect absorbers (PAs) made of a hexagonal array of holes on Ag-SiO 2 -Ag thin films have been realized and utilized to enhance the spontaneous emission rate and photoluminescence intensity of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) spin-coated on the absorber top surface. Perfect absorption of incoming light occurs at the wavelength where the impedance is matched to that of the free space. When QDs strongly excite both the electric and magnetic resonances at this perfect absorption wavelength, a significant Purcell effect on the spontaneous emission process and enhanced radiative outcoupling of photoluminescence intensity are expected. For perfect absorbers with ...


Near-Field Electrospinning Of A Polymer/Bioactive Glass Composite To Fabricate 3d Biomimetic Structures, Krishna C. R. Kolan, Jie Li, Sonya Roberts, Julie A. Semon, Jonghyun Park, D. E. Day, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2019

Near-Field Electrospinning Of A Polymer/Bioactive Glass Composite To Fabricate 3d Biomimetic Structures, Krishna C. R. Kolan, Jie Li, Sonya Roberts, Julie A. Semon, Jonghyun Park, D. E. Day, Ming-Chuan Leu

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

Bioactive glasses have recently gained attention in tissue engineering and three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting because of their ability to enhance angiogenesis. Some challenges for developing biological tissues with bioactive glasses include incorporation of glass particles and achieving a 3D architecture mimicking natural tissues. In this study, we investigate the fabrication of scaffolds with a polymer/bioactive glass composite using near-field electrospinning (NFES). An overall controlled 3D scaffold with pores, containing random fibers, is created and aimed to provide superior cell proliferation. Highly angiogenic borate bioactive glass (13-93B3) in 20 wt.% is added to polycaprolactone (PCL) to fabricate scaffolds using the NFES ...


Fabrication Of Alcocrfeni High-Entropy Alloy Coating On An Aisi 304 Substrate Via A Cofe₂Ni Intermediate Layer, Wenyuan Cui, Sreekar Karnati, Xinchang Zhang, Elizabeth Burns, Frank W. Liou Jan 2019

Fabrication Of Alcocrfeni High-Entropy Alloy Coating On An Aisi 304 Substrate Via A Cofe₂Ni Intermediate Layer, Wenyuan Cui, Sreekar Karnati, Xinchang Zhang, Elizabeth Burns, Frank W. Liou

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Through laser metal deposition, attempts were made to coat AlCoCrFeNi, a high-entropy alloy (HEA), on an AISI 304 stainless steel substrate to integrate their properties. However, the direct coating of the AlCoCrFeNi HEA on the AISI 304 substrate was found to be unviable due to cracks at the interface between these two materials. The difference in compositional change was suspected to be the source of the cracks. Therefore, a new transition route was performed by coating an intermediate layer of CoFe2Ni on the AISI 304 substrate. Investigations into the microstructure, phase composition, elemental composition and Vickers hardness were ...