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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Solvent And Method For Extraction Of Triglyceride Rich Oil, Shubhender Kapila, Paul Ki-Souk Nam, V. J. Flanigan Oct 2004

Solvent And Method For Extraction Of Triglyceride Rich Oil, Shubhender Kapila, Paul Ki-Souk Nam, V. J. Flanigan

Chemistry Faculty Research & Creative Works

The present invention relates to a solvent for use in extracting oil from an oil bearing material, such as soybeans, with the solvent resulting in the selective extraction of a triglyceride rich oil, which contains 95% or greater triglycerides and non-polar constituents, with the solvent comprised of a hydrocarbon, preferably hexane, and a fluorocarbon, so that the solvent has a viscosity less than 2.6 centipoise and a polarity of less than 0.1. The present invention also relates to a method of using the solvent to extract the triglyceride rich oil, with the method including preferably extracting the oil ...


Solvent And Method For Extraction Of Triglyceride Rich Oil, Shubhender Kapila, Paul Ki-Souk Nam, V. J. Flanigan Sep 2004

Solvent And Method For Extraction Of Triglyceride Rich Oil, Shubhender Kapila, Paul Ki-Souk Nam, V. J. Flanigan

Chemistry Faculty Research & Creative Works

The present invention relates to a solvent for use in extracting oil from an oil bearing material, such as soybeans, with the solvent resulting in the selective extraction of a triglyceride rich oil, which contains 95% or greater triglycerides and non-polar constituents, with the solvent comprised of a hydrocarbon, preferably hexane, and a fluorocarbon, so that the solvent has a viscosity less than 2.6 centipoise and a polarity of less than 0.1. The present invention also relates to a method of using the solvent to extract the triglyceride rich oil, with the method including preferably extracting the oil ...


Stationkeeping Of An L₂ Libration Point Satellite With Θ-D Technique, Ming Xin, S. N. Balakrishnan, Henry J. Pernicka, Michael W. Dancer Jan 2004

Stationkeeping Of An L₂ Libration Point Satellite With Θ-D Technique, Ming Xin, S. N. Balakrishnan, Henry J. Pernicka, Michael W. Dancer

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A new method for L2 libration-point orbit stationkeeping is proposed in this paper using continuous thrust. The circular restricted three-body problem with Sun and Earth as the two primaries is considered. The unstable orbit about the L2 libration-point requires stationkeeping maneuvers to maintain the nominal path. In this study, an approach, called the "θ-D technique," based on optimal control theory gives a closed-form suboptimal feedback solution to solve this nonlinear control problem. In this approach the Hamiltonian-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is solved approximately by adding some perturbations to the cost function. The controller is designed such that the actual ...


Development And Analysis Of A Feedback Treatment Strategy For Parturient Paresis Of Cows, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan Jan 2004

Development And Analysis Of A Feedback Treatment Strategy For Parturient Paresis Of Cows, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

An intelligent on-line feedback treatment strategy based on nonlinear optimal control theory is presented for the parturient paresis of cows. A limitation in the development of an existing nonlinear mathematical model for the homogeneous system is addressed and further modified to incorporate a control input. A neural network based optimal feedback controller is synthesized for the treatment of the disease. Detailed studies are used to analyze the effectiveness of a feedback medication strategy and it is compared with the current "impulse" strategy. The results show that while the current practice may fail in some cases, especially if it is carried ...


Optimal Control Synthesis Of A Class Of Nonlinear Systems Using Single Network Adaptive Critics, Radhakant Padhi, Nishant Unnikrishnan, S. N. Balakrishnan Jan 2004

Optimal Control Synthesis Of A Class Of Nonlinear Systems Using Single Network Adaptive Critics, Radhakant Padhi, Nishant Unnikrishnan, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Adaptive critic (AC) neural network solutions to optimal control designs using dynamic programming has reduced the need of complex computations and storage requirements that typical dynamic programming requires. In this paper, a "single network adaptive critic" (SNAC) is presented. This approach is applicable to a class of nonlinear systems where the optimal control (stationary) equation is explicitly solvable for control in terms of state and costate variables. The SNAC architecture offers three potential advantages; a simpler architecture, significant savings of computational load and reduction in approximation errors. In order to demonstrate these benefits, a real-life micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) problem has been ...


Optimal Beaver Population Management Using Reduced Order Distributed Parameter Model And Single Network Adaptive Critics, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan Jan 2004

Optimal Beaver Population Management Using Reduced Order Distributed Parameter Model And Single Network Adaptive Critics, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Using a distributed parameter model for beaver population that accounts for their spatial and temporal behavior, an optimal control for a desired distribution of the animals is presented. Optimal solutions are obtained through a "single network adaptive critic" (SNAC) neural network architecture. The objective of this research is to design an "optimal" beaver harvesting scheme for a region of interest.


Development And Implementation Of New Nonlinear Control Concepts For A Ua, Vijayakumar Janardhan, Derek Schmitz, S. N. Balakrishnan Jan 2004

Development And Implementation Of New Nonlinear Control Concepts For A Ua, Vijayakumar Janardhan, Derek Schmitz, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A reconfigurable flight control method is developed to be implemented on an Unmanned Aircraft (UA), a thirty percent scale model of the Cessna 150. This paper presents the details of the UAV platform, system identification, reconfigurable controller design, development, and implementation on the UA to analyze the performance metrics. A Crossbow Inertial Measurement Unit provides the roll, pitch and yaw accelerations and rates along with the roll and pitch. The 100400 mini-air data boom from spaceage control provides the airspeed, altitude, angle of attack and the side slip angles. System identification is accomplished by commanding preprogrammed inputs to the control ...


Solid State Aircraft Concept Overview, M. Shahinpoor, P. Jenkins, C. Smith, Kakkattukuzhy M. Isaac, T. Dalbello, Anthony Colozza Jan 2004

Solid State Aircraft Concept Overview, M. Shahinpoor, P. Jenkins, C. Smith, Kakkattukuzhy M. Isaac, T. Dalbello, Anthony Colozza

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Due to recent advances in polymers, photovoltaics, and batteries a unique type of aircraft may be feasible. This is a "solid-state" aircraft, with no conventional mechanical moving parts. Airfoil, propulsion, energy production, energy storage and control are combined in an integrated structure. The key material of this concept is an ionic polymeric-metal composite (IPMC) that provides source of control and propulsion. This material has the unique capability of deforming in an electric field and returning to its original shape when the field is removed. Combining the IPMC with thin-film batteries and thin-film photovoltaics provides both energy source and storage in ...


Airframe Noise Modeling Appropriate For Multidisciplinary Design And Optimization, Serhat Hosder, Bernard Grossman, Joseph A. Schetz, William H. Mason Jan 2004

Airframe Noise Modeling Appropriate For Multidisciplinary Design And Optimization, Serhat Hosder, Bernard Grossman, Joseph A. Schetz, William H. Mason

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A Trailing Edge Noise Metric has been developed for constructing response surfaces that may be used for optimization problems involving aerodynamic noise from a clean wing. The modeling approach includes a modified version of a theoretical trailing edge noise prediction and utilizes a high fidelity CFD (RANS) code with a two-equation turbulence model to obtain the characteristic velocity and length scales used in the noise model. The noise metric is not the absolute value of the noise intensity, but an accurate relative noise measure as shown in the validation studies. Parametric studies were performed to investigate the effect of the ...


Analysis Of Jet-Wing Distributed Propulsion From Thick Wing Trailing Edges, Serhat Hosder, Joseph A. Schetz, Vance Dippold Jan 2004

Analysis Of Jet-Wing Distributed Propulsion From Thick Wing Trailing Edges, Serhat Hosder, Joseph A. Schetz, Vance Dippold

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Conventional airliners use two to four engines in a Cayley-type arrangement to provide thrust, and the thrust is concentrated right behind the engine. Distributed propulsion is the idea of redistributing the thrust across most, or all, of the wingspan of an aircraft. This can be accomplished by using several large engines and using a duct to spread out the exhaust flow to form a jet-wing or by using many small engines spaced along the span of the wing. Jet-wing distributed propulsion was originally suggested as a way to improve propulsive efficiency. A previous study at Virginia Tech assessed the potential ...


Automatic Feedback Control Of Mechanical Gas Face Seals Via Clearance Control, Sachin S. Yelma, Robert G. Landers, Brad A. Miller Jan 2004

Automatic Feedback Control Of Mechanical Gas Face Seals Via Clearance Control, Sachin S. Yelma, Robert G. Landers, Brad A. Miller

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

An approach based on proper orthogonal decomposition and Galerkin projection is presented for developing low-order nonlinear models of the gas film pressure within mechanical gas face seals. A technique is developed for determining an optimal set of global basis functions for the pressure field using data measured experimentally or obtained numerically from simulations of the seal motion. The reduced-order gas film models are shown to be computationally efficient compared to full-order models developed using the conventional semidiscretization methods. An example of a coned mechanical gas face seal in a flexibly mounted stator configuration is presented. Axial and tilt modes of ...


Characterization And Modeling Of Local Electromechanical Response In Stress-Biased Piezoelectric Actuators, N. Navapan-Traiphol, Robert W. Schwartz, Daniel S. Stutts, J. Wood Jan 2004

Characterization And Modeling Of Local Electromechanical Response In Stress-Biased Piezoelectric Actuators, N. Navapan-Traiphol, Robert W. Schwartz, Daniel S. Stutts, J. Wood

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Numerous investigators have explored the factors that contribute to the high electromechanical performance of stress-biased actuators with particular attention being given to the importance of the extrinsic (domain wall translation) response mechanism. Based on the variation in lateral stress through the thickness of the piezoelectric layer within these devices, it has been suggested that the piezoelectric coefficient varies as a function of position within the layer, though no direct evidence has been previously presented. In this study, the results of Moire interferometry investigations of local strains within these devices are reviewed. The technique permits effective depth-profiling of local deformations at ...


Design And Technologies For A Smart Composite Bridge, K. Chandrashekhara, Prakash Kumar, Steve Eugene Watkins, Antonio Nanni Jan 2004

Design And Technologies For A Smart Composite Bridge, K. Chandrashekhara, Prakash Kumar, Steve Eugene Watkins, Antonio Nanni

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

An all-composite, smart bridge design for shortspan applications is described. The bridge dimensions are 9.14-m (30-ft.) long and 2.74-m (9-ft.) wide. A modular construction based on assemblies of pultruded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP) composite tubes is used to meet American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) H20 highway load ratings. The hollow tubes are 76 mm (3 in.) square and are made of carbon/vinyl-ester and glass/vinyl-ester. An extensive experimental study was carried out to obtain and compare properties (stiffness, strength, and failure modes) for a quarter portion of the full-sized bridge. The bridge response was measured ...