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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Method And Apparatus For Fabricating Ceramic And Metal Components Via Additive Manufacturing With Uniform Layered Radiation Drying, Ming-Chuan Leu, Amir Ghazanfari, Wenbin Li, Greg Hilmas, Robert G. Landers Apr 2019

Method And Apparatus For Fabricating Ceramic And Metal Components Via Additive Manufacturing With Uniform Layered Radiation Drying, Ming-Chuan Leu, Amir Ghazanfari, Wenbin Li, Greg Hilmas, Robert G. Landers

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing three - dimensional ceramic, metal and functionally gradient composite objects, including the steps of filling a plurality of paste sources with a respective plurality of aqueous paste compositions, operationally connecting respective syringes containing respective aqueous paste compositions to a mix ing chamber, moving a first aqueous paste composition from a first respective paste source into the mixing chamber, moving a second aqueous paste composition from a second respective paste source into the mixing chamber, mixing the first and second aqueous paste compositions to define a first admixture having a first admixture composition, extruding the ...


Fabricating Functionally Graded Materials By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion With Dynamic Mixing, Wenbin Li, Austin J. Martin, Benjamin Kroehler, Alexander M. Henderson, Tieshu Huang, Jeremy Lee Watts, Greg Hilmas, Ming-Chuan Leu Aug 2018

Fabricating Functionally Graded Materials By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion With Dynamic Mixing, Wenbin Li, Austin J. Martin, Benjamin Kroehler, Alexander M. Henderson, Tieshu Huang, Jeremy Lee Watts, Greg Hilmas, Ming-Chuan Leu

Materials Science and Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is an extrusion-based additive manufacturing process recently developed for fabricating dense, functional ceramic components. Presented in this paper is a further development of this process focusing on fabrication of functionally graded materials (FGM). A dynamic mixing mechanism was developed for mixing constituent ceramic pastes, and an extrusion control scheme was developed for fabricating specimens with desired material compositions graded in real time. FGM specimens with compositions graded between Al2O3 and ZrO2 were fabricated and ultimately densified by sintering to validate the effectiveness of the CODE process for FGM fabrication. Energy dispersive spectroscopy ...


Recyclability Of 304l Stainless Steel In The Selective Laser Melting Process, Austin T. Sutton, Caitlin S. Kriewall, Ming-Chuan Leu, Joseph William Newkirk Aug 2018

Recyclability Of 304l Stainless Steel In The Selective Laser Melting Process, Austin T. Sutton, Caitlin S. Kriewall, Ming-Chuan Leu, Joseph William Newkirk

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

During part fabrication by selective laser melting (SLM), a powder-bed fusion process in Additive Manufacturing (AM), a large amount of energy is input from the laser into the melt pool, causing generation of spatter and condensate, both of which have the potential to settle in the surrounding powder-bed compromising its reusability. In this study, 304L stainless steel powder is subjected to five reuses in the SLM process to assess its recyclability through characterization of both powder and mechanical properties. Powder was characterized morphologically by particle size distribution measurements, oxygen content with inert gas fusion analysis, and phase identification by X-ray ...


Design Of Lattice Structures With Graded Density Fabricated By Additive Manufacturing, Wenjin Tao, Yong Liu, Austin T. Sutton, Krishna C. R. Kolan, Ming-Chuan Leu Jul 2018

Design Of Lattice Structures With Graded Density Fabricated By Additive Manufacturing, Wenjin Tao, Yong Liu, Austin T. Sutton, Krishna C. R. Kolan, Ming-Chuan Leu

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Lattice structures fabricated by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are promising for many applications, such as lightweight structures and energy absorbers. However, predicting and controlling of their mechanical behaviors is challenging due to the complexity of modeling and the uncertainties exist in the manufacturing process. In this paper, we explore the possibilities enabled by controlling the local densities. A set of lattice structures with different density gradients are designed using an implicit isosurface equation, and they are manufactured by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process with 304L stainless steel. Finite element analysis and compression test are used to evaluate their mechanical properties ...


Bonding Of 304l Stainless Steel To Cast Iron By Selective Laser Melting, Baily Thomas, Austin T. Sutton, Ming-Chuan Leu, Nikhil Doiphode Aug 2017

Bonding Of 304l Stainless Steel To Cast Iron By Selective Laser Melting, Baily Thomas, Austin T. Sutton, Ming-Chuan Leu, Nikhil Doiphode

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

While cast iron is widely used in industry, a major limitation is the weldability of a dissimilar material onto cast iron due to hot cracking as a result of lack of ductility from graphite flakes. Consequently, a significant amount of preheat is often employed to reduce the cooling rate in the fusion zone, which, however, may lead to distortion of the welded parts. A potential remedy could be the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process, where only small melt pools are created and thus the overall energy input is reduced. The present paper describes an investigation of the SLM process to ...


Mechanical Properties Of 304l Parts Made By Laser-Foil-Printing Technology, Chia-Hung Hung, Yiyu Shen, Ming-Chuan Leu, Hai-Lung Tsai Aug 2017

Mechanical Properties Of 304l Parts Made By Laser-Foil-Printing Technology, Chia-Hung Hung, Yiyu Shen, Ming-Chuan Leu, Hai-Lung Tsai

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Laser-Foil-Printing (LFP) is a novel laminated object manufacturing process for metal additive manufacturing. It fabricates three-dimensional metal parts by using a dual-laser system to weld and cut metal foils layer by layer. A main advantage of LFP is the higher cooling rate compared to powder-based laser additive manufacturing processes due to the thermal conductivity difference between foil and powder. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of 304L stainless steel parts built by the LFP process. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of LFP fabricated 304L SS parts are higher by 9% and 8 ...


Fabricating Zirconia Components With Organic Support Material By The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion Process, Wenbin Li, Amir Ghazanfari, Devin Mcmillen, Andrew Scherff, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas Aug 2017

Fabricating Zirconia Components With Organic Support Material By The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion Process, Wenbin Li, Amir Ghazanfari, Devin Mcmillen, Andrew Scherff, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is an extrusion-based additive manufacturing process recently developed for fabricating dense, functional ceramic components. This paper presents a further development of this process and focuses on fabricating 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3YSZ) components that cannot be fabricated without using support structures. The 3YSZ paste is deposited through the main nozzle, and a polycaprolactone (PCL) pellet feedstock is melted and deposited through an auxiliary nozzle to build support structures. After a green part is printed and dried, the support structures are removed by heating the part to ~70°C to melt the PCL. The part is then ...


Building Zr-Based Metallic Glass Part On Ti Alloy By Laser-Foil-Printing Additive Manufacturing, Yingqi Li, Yiyu Shen, Ming-Chuan Leu, Hai-Lung Tsai Aug 2017

Building Zr-Based Metallic Glass Part On Ti Alloy By Laser-Foil-Printing Additive Manufacturing, Yingqi Li, Yiyu Shen, Ming-Chuan Leu, Hai-Lung Tsai

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Through using Zr intermediate layers, Zr65.7Ti3.3Al3.7Ni11.7Cu15.6 metallic glass (MG) parts are successfully built on Ti-6Al-4V substrates by laser-foil-printing (LFP) additive manufacturing technology in which MG foils are laser welded layer-by-layer onto the substrate. The printed MG part is free of porosity, cracking and crystallization; additionally, its glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, micro-hardness, and tensile strength are very similar to the original MG material. The Zr intermediate layers are aimed at preventing direct interaction between the first layer of MG foil and the Ti substrate; otherwise, the welded MG foils would peel off from the substrate ...


Solvent Based 3d Printing Of Biopolymer/Bioactive Glass Composite And Hydrogel For Tissue Engineering Applications, Krishna Kolan, Yong Liu, Jakeb Baldridge, Caroline Murphy, Julie A. Semon, D. E. Day, Ming-Chuan Leu Jul 2017

Solvent Based 3d Printing Of Biopolymer/Bioactive Glass Composite And Hydrogel For Tissue Engineering Applications, Krishna Kolan, Yong Liu, Jakeb Baldridge, Caroline Murphy, Julie A. Semon, D. E. Day, Ming-Chuan Leu

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging technology in which scaffolding materials and cell-laden hydrogels may be deposited in a pre-determined fashion to create 3D porous constructs. A major challenge in 3D bioprinting is the slow degradation of melt deposited biopolymer. In this paper, we describe a new method for printing poly-caprolactone (PCL)/bioactive borate glass composite as a scaffolding material and Pluronic F127 hydrogel as a cell suspension medium. Bioactive borate glass was added to a mixture of PCL and organic solvent to make an extrudable paste using one syringe while hydrogel was extruded and deposited in between the PCL ...


3d Bioprinting Of Stem Cells And Polymer/Bioactive Glass Composite Scaffolds For Bone Tissue Engineering, Caroline Murphy, Krishna Kolan, Wenbin Li, Julie A. Semon, D. E. Day, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2017

3d Bioprinting Of Stem Cells And Polymer/Bioactive Glass Composite Scaffolds For Bone Tissue Engineering, Caroline Murphy, Krishna Kolan, Wenbin Li, Julie A. Semon, D. E. Day, Ming-Chuan Leu

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

A major limitation of using synthetic scaffolds in tissue engineering applications is insufficient angiogenesis in scaffold interior. Bioactive borate glasses have been shown to promote angiogenesis. There is a need to investigate the biofabrication of polymer composites by incorporating borate glass to increase the angiogenic capacity of the fabri-cated scaffolds. In this study, we investigated the bioprinting of human adipose stem cells (ASCs) with a polycaprolac-tone (PCL)/bioactive borate glass composite. Borate glass at the concentration of 10 to 50 weight %, was added to a mixture of PCL and organic solvent to make an extrudable paste. ASCs suspended in Matrigel ...


Properties Of Partially Stabilized Zirconia Components Fabricated By The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion Process, Wenbin Li, Amir Ghazanfari, Devin Mcmillen, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts Aug 2016

Properties Of Partially Stabilized Zirconia Components Fabricated By The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion Process, Wenbin Li, Amir Ghazanfari, Devin Mcmillen, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) process is a novel additive manufacturing process for fabricating dense ceramic components from aqueous pastes of high solids loading. In this study, 3 mol% Y2O3 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) parts were fabricated using the CODE process. The parts were then dried in a humidity controlled environmental chamber and sintered under atmospheric pressure. Mechanical properties of the sintered parts were examined using ASTM standard test techniques, including density, Young’s modulus, flexural strength, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness. The microstructure was analyzed, and grain size was measured using scanning electron ...


Novel Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing Process For Ceramic Parts, Amir Ghazanfari, Wenbin Li, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas Aug 2016

Novel Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing Process For Ceramic Parts, Amir Ghazanfari, Wenbin Li, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

An extrusion-based additive manufacturing process, called the Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) process, for producing three-dimensional ceramic components with near theoretical density is introduced in this paper. In this process, an aqueous paste of ceramic particles with a very low binder content (< 1 vol%) is extruded through a moving nozzle at room temperature. After a layer is deposited, it is surrounded by oil (to a level just below the top surface of most recent layer) to preclude non-uniform evaporation from the sides. Infrared radiation is then used to partially, and uniformly, dry the just-deposited layer so that the yield stress of the paste increases and the part maintains its shape. The same procedure is repeated for every layer until part fabrication is completed. Several sample parts for various applications were produced using this process and their properties were obtained. The results indicate that the proposed method enables fabrication of large, dense ceramic parts with complex geometries.


Designed Extrudate For Additive Manufacturing Of Zirconium Diboride By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion, Devin Mcmillen, Wenbin Li, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts Aug 2016

Designed Extrudate For Additive Manufacturing Of Zirconium Diboride By Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion, Devin Mcmillen, Wenbin Li, Ming-Chuan Leu, Greg Hilmas, Jeremy Lee Watts

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

This work describes a process by which zirconium diboride (ZrB2) parts may be fabricated using the Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) process. An oxide-carbide-nitride system consisting of ceramic powders and pre-ceramic organics, designed to yield ZrB2 after reaction sintering, has been developed to produce an aqueous-based extrudate for subsequent processing in the CODE system. Pressurelessly sintered test specimens containing 1 wt% PVA binder achieve high relative density ≥ 99%. The viscoelastic response of the extrudate was characterized via spindle rheometry with a small sample adapter. Batches with 1 wt% PVA and 0.5 wt% Methocel show strong shear thinning characteristic, under ...


3d Printing Of A Polymer Bioactive Glass Composite For Bone Repair, Caroline Murphy, Krishna C. R. Kolan, M. Long, Ming-Chuan Leu, Julie A. Semon, D. E. Day Aug 2016

3d Printing Of A Polymer Bioactive Glass Composite For Bone Repair, Caroline Murphy, Krishna C. R. Kolan, M. Long, Ming-Chuan Leu, Julie A. Semon, D. E. Day

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A major limitation of synthetic bone repair is insufficient vascularization of the interior region of the scaffold. In this study, we investigated the 3D printing of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) with polycaprolactone (PCL)/bioactive glass composite in a single process. This offered a three-dimensional environment for complex and dynamic interactions that govern the cell’s behavior in vivo3 in overall dimensions with a filament width of ~500 μm and pore sizes ranging from 100 to 200 μm were fabricated. Strut formability dependence on paste viscosity, scaffold integrity, and printing parameters for droplets of ADMSCs suspended in Matrigel were ...