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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Open Source Completely 3-D Printable Centrifuge, Salil S. Sule, Aliaksei Petsiuk, Joshua M. Pearce May 2019

Open Source Completely 3-D Printable Centrifuge, Salil S. Sule, Aliaksei Petsiuk, Joshua M. Pearce

Michigan Tech Publications

Centrifuges are commonly required devices in medical diagnostics facilities as well as scientific laboratories. Although there are commercial and open source centrifuges, the costs of the former and the required electricity to operate the latter limit accessibility in resource-constrained settings. There is a need for low-cost, human-powered, verified, and reliable lab-scale centrifuges. This study provides the designs for a low-cost 100% 3-D printed centrifuge, which can be fabricated on any low-cost RepRap-class (self-replicating rapid prototyper) fused filament fabrication (FFF)- or fused particle fabrication (FPF)-based 3-D printer. In addition, validation procedures are provided using a web camera and free and ...


Capillary Penetration Method For Measuring Wetting Properties Of Carbon Ionomer Films For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (Pemfc) Applications, Sofyane Abbou, Kazuya Tajiri, K. T. Alofari, Ezequiel F. Medici, A. T. Haug, Jeffrey S. Allen Apr 2019

Capillary Penetration Method For Measuring Wetting Properties Of Carbon Ionomer Films For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (Pemfc) Applications, Sofyane Abbou, Kazuya Tajiri, K. T. Alofari, Ezequiel F. Medici, A. T. Haug, Jeffrey S. Allen

Michigan Tech Publications

In this work, capillary rise experiments were performed to assess the wetting properties of carbon-ionomer (CI) films. The samples were attached to a micro-balance and then immersed into liquid water to (i) measure the mass gain from the liquid uptake and (ii) estimate the (external) contact angle to water (typical value around 140°). The results showed that drying the CI films under low vacuum significantly impacted the CI film wettability. The influence of the ionomer content on the CI films’ wettability was investigated with various ionomer to carbon (I/C) ratios: 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 ...


A Discrete Curvature Estimation Based Low-Distortion Adaptive Savitzky-Golay Filter For Ecg Denoising, Hui Huang, Shiyan Hu, Ye Sun Apr 2019

A Discrete Curvature Estimation Based Low-Distortion Adaptive Savitzky-Golay Filter For Ecg Denoising, Hui Huang, Shiyan Hu, Ye Sun

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics Publications

Electrocardiogram (ECG) sensing is an important application for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, driven by the emerging technology of wearable electronics, massive wearable ECG sensors are developed, which however brings additional sources of noise contamination on ECG signals from these wearable ECG sensors. In this paper, we propose a new low-distortion adaptive Savitzky-Golay (LDASG) filtering method for ECG denoising based on discrete curvature estimation, which demonstrates better performance than the state of the art of ECG denoising. The standard Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter has a remarkable performance of data smoothing. However, it lacks adaptability to signal variations and thus often ...


A Novel Correlation Model For Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Operating At High-Interference Flow Regimes, Anurag Rajan, Fernando L. Ponta Mar 2019

A Novel Correlation Model For Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Operating At High-Interference Flow Regimes, Anurag Rajan, Fernando L. Ponta

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics Publications

Driven by economics-of-scale factors, wind-turbine rotor sizes have increased formidably in recent years. Larger rotors with lighter blades of increased flexibility will experiment substantially higher levels of deformation. Future turbines will also incorporate advanced control strategies to widen the range of wind velocities over which energy is captured. These factors will extend turbine operational regimes, including flow states with high interference factors. In this paper we derive a new empirical relation to both improve and extend the range of Blade Element Momentum (BEM) models, when applied to high interference-factor regimes. In most BEM models, these flow regimes are modeled using ...


Me-Em Enewsbrief, March 2019, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Mar 2019

Me-Em Enewsbrief, March 2019, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


A Hamiltonian Surface-Shaping Approach For Control System Analysis And The Design Of Nonlinear Wave Energy Converters, Shadi Darani, Ossama Abdelkhalik, Rush D. Robinett Iii, David Wilson Feb 2019

A Hamiltonian Surface-Shaping Approach For Control System Analysis And The Design Of Nonlinear Wave Energy Converters, Shadi Darani, Ossama Abdelkhalik, Rush D. Robinett Iii, David Wilson

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics Publications

The dynamic model of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) may have nonlinearities due to several reasons such as a nonuniform buoy shape and/or nonlinear power takeoff units. This paper presents the Hamiltonian Surface-Shaping (HSS) approach as a tool for the analysis and design of nonlinear control of WECs. The Hamiltonian represents the stored energy in the system and can be constructed as a function of the WEC’s system states, its position, and velocity. The Hamiltonian surface is defined by the energy storage, while the system trajectories are constrained to this surface and determined by the power flows of the ...


Comprehensive Parameters Identification And Dynamic Model Validation Of Interior-Mount Line-Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors, Luqman S. Maraaba, Zakariya M. Al-Hamouz, Absulaziz S. Milhem, Ssennoga Twaha Jan 2019

Comprehensive Parameters Identification And Dynamic Model Validation Of Interior-Mount Line-Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors, Luqman S. Maraaba, Zakariya M. Al-Hamouz, Absulaziz S. Milhem, Ssennoga Twaha

School of Technology Publications

The application of line-start permanent magnet synchronous motors (LSPMSMs) is rapidly spreading due to their advantages of high efficiency, high operational power factor, being self-starting, rendering them as highly needed in many applications in recent years. Although there have been standard methods for the identification of parameters of synchronous and induction machines, most of them do not apply to LSPMSMs. This paper presents a study and analysis of different parameter identification methods for interior mount LSPMSM. Experimental tests have been performed in the laboratory on a 1-hp interior mount LSPMSM. The measurements have been validated by investigating the performance of ...


Me-Em Enewsbrief, December 2018, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Dec 2018

Me-Em Enewsbrief, December 2018, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


Multidimensional Optimal Droop Control For Dc Microgrids In Military Applications, Kaitlyn J. Bunker, Michael D. Cook, Wayne Weaver, Gordon Parker Oct 2018

Multidimensional Optimal Droop Control For Dc Microgrids In Military Applications, Kaitlyn J. Bunker, Michael D. Cook, Wayne Weaver, Gordon Parker

Michigan Tech Publications

Reliability is a key consideration when microgrid technology is implemented in military applications. Droop control provides a simple option without requiring communication between microgrid components, increasing the control system reliability. However, traditional droop control does not allow the microgrid to utilize much of the power available from a solar resource. This paper applies an optimal multidimensional droop control strategy for a solar resource connected in a microgrid at a military patrol base. Simulation and hardware-in-the-loop experiments of a sample microgrid show that much more power from the solar resource can be utilized, while maintaining the system’s bus voltage around ...


Me-Em Enewsbrief, September 2018, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Sep 2018

Me-Em Enewsbrief, September 2018, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


Properties Of Torrefied U.S. Waste Blends, Zhou Xu, Stas Zinchik, Shreyas Kolapkar, Ezra Bar Ziv, Ted Hansen, Dennis Conn, Armando G. Mcdonald Jul 2018

Properties Of Torrefied U.S. Waste Blends, Zhou Xu, Stas Zinchik, Shreyas Kolapkar, Ezra Bar Ziv, Ted Hansen, Dennis Conn, Armando G. Mcdonald

Michigan Tech Publications

Power generation facilities in the U.S. are looking for a potential renewable fuel that is sustainable, low-cost, complies with environmental regulation standards and is a drop-in fuel in the existing infrastructure. Although torrefied woody biomass, meets most of these requirements, its high cost, due to the use of woody biomass, prevented its commercialization. Industrial waste blends, which are also mostly renewable, are suitable feedstock for torrefaction, and can be an economically viable solution, thus may prolong the life of some of the existing coal power plants in the U.S. This paper focuses on the torrefaction dynamics of paper ...


Me-Em Enewsbrief, June 2018, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Jun 2018

Me-Em Enewsbrief, June 2018, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


Control Of Wave Energy Converters With Discrete Displacement Hydraulic Power Take-Off Units, Shangyan Zou, Ossama Abdelkhalik Apr 2018

Control Of Wave Energy Converters With Discrete Displacement Hydraulic Power Take-Off Units, Shangyan Zou, Ossama Abdelkhalik

Michigan Tech Publications

The control of ocean Wave Energy Converters (WECs) impacts the harvested energy. Several control methods have been developed over the past few decades to maximize the harvested energy. Many of these methods were developed based on an unconstrained dynamic model assuming an ideal power take-off (PTO) unit. This study presents numerical tests and comparisons of a few recently developed control methods. The testing is conducted using a numerical simulator that simulates a hydraulic PTO. The PTO imposes constraints on the maximum attainable control force and maximum stroke. In addition, the PTO has its own dynamics, which may impact the performance ...


The Role Of Electron Irradiation History In Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy., Trevor H Moser, Hardeep Mehta, Chiwoo Park, Ryan T Kelly, Tolou Shokuhfar, James E Evans Apr 2018

The Role Of Electron Irradiation History In Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy., Trevor H Moser, Hardeep Mehta, Chiwoo Park, Ryan T Kelly, Tolou Shokuhfar, James E Evans

Michigan Tech Publications

In situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LC-TEM) allows dynamic nanoscale characterization of systems in a hydrated state. Although powerful, this technique remains impaired by issues of repeatability that limit experimental fidelity and hinder the identification and control of some variables underlying observed dynamics. We detail new LC-TEM devices that improve experimental reproducibility by expanding available imaging area and providing a platform for investigating electron flux history on the sample. Irradiation history is an important factor influencing LC-TEM results that has, to this point, been largely qualitatively and not quantitatively described. We use these devices to highlight the role of ...


Me-Em Enewsbrief, March 2018, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Mar 2018

Me-Em Enewsbrief, March 2018, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


Me-Em Enewsbrief, July-December 2017, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Dec 2017

Me-Em Enewsbrief, July-December 2017, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


Distributed Manufacturing Of Flexible Products: Technical Feasibility And Economic Viability, Aubrey Woern, Joshua M. Pearce Oct 2017

Distributed Manufacturing Of Flexible Products: Technical Feasibility And Economic Viability, Aubrey Woern, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Distributed manufacturing even at the household level is now well established with the combined use of open source designs and self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) 3-D printers. Previous work has shown substantial economic consumer benefits for producing their own polymer products. Now flexible filaments are available at roughly 3-times the cost of more conventional 3-D printing materials. To provide some insight into the potential for flexible filament to be both technically feasible and economically viable for distributed digital manufacturing at the consumer level this study investigates 20 common flexible household products. The 3-D printed products were quantified by print time, electrical ...


Rarefication Effects On Jet Impingement Loads, Shiying Cai, Chunpei Cai, Kai Zhang, Jun Li Sep 2017

Rarefication Effects On Jet Impingement Loads, Shiying Cai, Chunpei Cai, Kai Zhang, Jun Li

Michigan Tech Publications

Rarefication effects on jet impingement loads are studied by comparing recent new formulas at the collisionless flow limit and numerical simulations. The jet exit size is finite, and can be either planar or round. In the simulations, the jets have different degrees of rarefication, with a Knudsen (Kn) number ranging from 0 to infinity; i.e., the jet flows can be continuum, collisional, or collisionless. The comparison results indicate that (1) the new surface load formulas are accurate at the collisionless flow limit; (2) in general, the formulas offer upper limits for the peak loads; (3) however, it is improper ...


Open Source 3-D Printed Nutating Mixer, Dhwani K. Trivedi, Joshua M. Pearce Sep 2017

Open Source 3-D Printed Nutating Mixer, Dhwani K. Trivedi, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

As the open source development of additive manufacturing has led to low-cost desktop three-dimensional (3-D) printing, a number of scientists throughout the world have begun to share digital designs of free and open source scientific hardware. Open source scientific hardware enables custom experimentation, laboratory control, rapid upgrading, transparent maintenance, and lower costs in general. To aid in this trend, this study describes the development, design, assembly, and operation of a 3-D printable open source desktop nutating mixer, which provides a fixed 20° platform tilt angle for a gentle three-dimensional (gyrating) agitation of chemical or biological samples (e.g., DNA or ...


Impact Of Diy Home Manufacturing With 3d Printing On The Toy And Game Market, Emily Peterson, Joshua M. Pearce Jul 2017

Impact Of Diy Home Manufacturing With 3d Printing On The Toy And Game Market, Emily Peterson, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

The 2020 toy and game market is projected to be US$135 billion. To determine if 3D printing could affect these markets if consumers offset purchases by 3D printing free designs, this study investigates the 100 most popular downloaded designs at MyMiniFactory in a month. Savings are quantified for using a Lulzbot Mini 3D printer and three filament types: commercial filament, pellet-extruded filament, and post-consumer waste converted to filament with a recyclebot. Case studies probed the quality of: (1) six common complex toys; (2) Lego blocks; and (3) the customizability of open source board games. All filaments analyzed saved the ...


Three Hundred And Sixty Degree Real-Time Monitoring Of 3-D Printing Using Computer Analysis Of Two Camera Views, Siranee Nuchitprasitchai, Michael C. Roggemann, Joshua M. Pearce Jul 2017

Three Hundred And Sixty Degree Real-Time Monitoring Of 3-D Printing Using Computer Analysis Of Two Camera Views, Siranee Nuchitprasitchai, Michael C. Roggemann, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Prosumer (producing consumer)-based desktop additive manufacturing has been enabled by the recent radical reduction in 3-D printer capital costs created by the open-source release of the self-replicating rapid prototype (RepRap). To continue this success, there have been some efforts to improve reliability, which are either too expensive or lacked automation. A promising method to improve reliability is to use computer vision, although the success rates are still too low for widespread use. To overcome these challenges an open source low-cost reliable real-time optimal monitoring platform for 3-D printing from double cameras is presented here. This error detection system is ...


Free And Open Source 3-D Model Customizer For Websites To Democratize Design With Openscad, Yuenyong Nilsiam, Joshua M. Pearce Jul 2017

Free And Open Source 3-D Model Customizer For Websites To Democratize Design With Openscad, Yuenyong Nilsiam, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

3-D printing has entered the consumer market because of recent radical price declines. Consumers can save substantial money by offsetting purchases with DIY pre-designed 3-D printed products. However, even more value can be obtained with distributed manufacturing using mass customization. Unfortunately, the average consumer is not technically sophisticated enough to easily design their own products. One solution to this is the use of an overlay on OpenSCAD parametric code, although current solutions force users to relinquish all rights to their own designs. There is thus a substantial need in the open source design community for a libre 3-D model customizer ...


Open Source Multi-Head 3d Printer For Polymer-Metal Composite Component Manufacturing, J. Laureto, Joshua M. Pearce Jun 2017

Open Source Multi-Head 3d Printer For Polymer-Metal Composite Component Manufacturing, J. Laureto, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

As low-cost desktop 3D printing is now dominated by free and open source self-replicating rapid prototype (RepRap) derivatives, there is an intense interest in extending the scope of potential applications to manufacturing. This study describes a manufacturing technology that enables a constrained set of polymer-metal composite components. This paper provides (1) free and open source hardware and (2) software for printing systems that achieves metal wire embedment into a polymer matrix 3D-printed part via a novel weaving and wrapping method using (3) OpenSCAD and parametric coding for customized g-code commands. Composite parts are evaluated from the technical viability of manufacturing ...


Energy Payback Time Of A Solar Photovoltaic Powered Waste Plastic Recyclebot System, Shan Zhong, Pratiksha Rakhe, Joshua M. Pearce Jun 2017

Energy Payback Time Of A Solar Photovoltaic Powered Waste Plastic Recyclebot System, Shan Zhong, Pratiksha Rakhe, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

The growth of both plastic consumption and prosumer 3-D printing are driving an interest in producing 3-D printer filaments from waste plastic. This study quantifies the embodied energy of a vertical DC solar photovoltaic (PV) powered recyclebot based on life cycle energy analysis and compares it to horizontal AC recyclebots, conventional recycling, and the production of a virgin 3-D printer filament. The energy payback time (EPBT) is calculated using the embodied energy of the materials making up the recyclebot itself and is found to be about five days for the extrusion of a poly lactic acid (PLA) filament or 2 ...


Me-Em Enewsbrief, June 2017, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Jun 2017

Me-Em Enewsbrief, June 2017, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


An Improved Electron Pre-Sheath Model For Tss-1r Current Enhancement Computations, Chunpei Cai Mar 2017

An Improved Electron Pre-Sheath Model For Tss-1r Current Enhancement Computations, Chunpei Cai

Michigan Tech Publications

This report presents improvements of investigations on the Tethered Satellite System (TSS)-1R electron current enhancement due to magnetic limited collections. New analytical expressions are obtained for the potential and temperature changes across the pre-sheath. The mathematical treatments in this work are more rigorous than one past approach. More experimental measurements collected in the ionosphere during the TSS-1R mission are adopted for validations. The relations developed in this work offer two bounding curves for these data points quite successfully; the average of these two curves is close to the curve-fitting results for the measurements; and an average of 2.95 ...


Me-Em Enewsbrief, March 2017, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Mar 2017

Me-Em Enewsbrief, March 2017, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of Bmss On The Characterization And Modeling Of Series And Parallel Li-Ion Packs, Sandra Castano-Solis, Daniel Serrano-Jimenez, Lucia Gauchia, Javier Sanz Feb 2017

The Influence Of Bmss On The Characterization And Modeling Of Series And Parallel Li-Ion Packs, Sandra Castano-Solis, Daniel Serrano-Jimenez, Lucia Gauchia, Javier Sanz

Michigan Tech Publications

This work analyzes the effects of a BMS (battery management system) on the characterization and modeling of series and parallel connections of Li-ion cell packs. The Li-ion pack studied consists of four series modules connected in parallel. This pack has been characterized by means of charge, discharge and frequency tests. As a result of these tests, series and parallel influence on battery parameters have been determined. A model considering the effects of a BMS is established and compared with a model based on a single-cell approach. Experimental validations show that the single cell based approach gives poor results in comparison ...


A New Gaskinetic Model To Analyze Background Flow Effects On Weak Gaseous Jet Flows From Electric Propulsion Devices, Chunpei Cai Jan 2017

A New Gaskinetic Model To Analyze Background Flow Effects On Weak Gaseous Jet Flows From Electric Propulsion Devices, Chunpei Cai

Michigan Tech Publications

Recent work on studying rarefied background and jet flow interactions is reported. A new gaskinetic method is developed to investigate two closely related problems. The first problem is how a collisionless background flow can affect a highly rarefied jet flow. The rarefied jet and background flow conditions are assumed available and described with seven parameters. Gaskinetic theories are applied and formulas are obtained for the mixture properties. Simulations are performed to validate these expressions, and excellent agreement is obtained. The second problem is to recover the collisionless background and jet flow parameters with limited measurements. A group of linearized equations ...


Surface Ozone And Its Precursors At Summit, Greenland: Comparison Between Observations And Model Simulations, Yaoxian Huang, Shiliang Wu, Louisa J. Kramer, Detlev Helmig, Richard E. Honrath Jan 2017

Surface Ozone And Its Precursors At Summit, Greenland: Comparison Between Observations And Model Simulations, Yaoxian Huang, Shiliang Wu, Louisa J. Kramer, Detlev Helmig, Richard E. Honrath

Michigan Tech Publications

Recent studies have shown significant challenges for atmospheric models to simulate tropospheric ozone (O3/and its precursors in the Arctic. In this study, ground-based data were combined with a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to examine the abundance and seasonal variations of O3 and its precursors at Summit, Greenland (72.34° N, 38.29° W; 3212 ma.s.l.). Model simulations for atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NOx/, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), ethane (C2H6/, propane (C3H8/, carbon monoxide (CO), and O3 for the period July 2008-June 2010 were compared with observations. The model performed well in simulating certain species (such as CO ...