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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Design And Analysis Of A Single Stage, Traveling Wave, Thermoacoustic Engine For Bi-Directional Turbine Generator Integration, Mitchell Mcgaughy Dec 2018

Design And Analysis Of A Single Stage, Traveling Wave, Thermoacoustic Engine For Bi-Directional Turbine Generator Integration, Mitchell Mcgaughy

All Theses

The demand for clean, sustainable, and cost-effective energy continues to increase due to global population growth and corresponding use of consumer products. Thermoacoustic technology potentially offers a sustainable and reliable solution to help address the continuing demand for electric power. A thermoacoustic device, operating on the principle of standing or traveling acoustic waves, can be designed as a heat pump or a prime mover system. The provision of heat to a thermoacoustic prime mover results in the generation of an acoustic wave that can be converted into electrical power.

Thermoacoustic devices offer highly reliable and transportable power generation with low ...


Particle Slip Velocity Influences Inertial Focusing Of Particles In Curved Microchannels, Saurabh Deshpande, Phanindra Tallapragada Aug 2018

Particle Slip Velocity Influences Inertial Focusing Of Particles In Curved Microchannels, Saurabh Deshpande, Phanindra Tallapragada

Publications

Size based separation and identification of particles in microfluidics through purely hydrodynamic means has gained significant interest due to a number of possible biomedical applications. Curved micro-channels, particularly spiral micro-channels with rectangular cross-section and the dynamics of particles in such channels have been extensively researched to achieve size based separation of particles. In this paper we present evidence that sheds new light on the dynamics of particles in such curved channels; that a unique particle slip velocity is associated with the focusing positions in the cross sections, which leads to a balance of forces. Our experiments therefore imply that the ...


A Globally Stable Attractor That Is Locally Unstable Everywhere, Phanindra Tallapragada, Senbagaraman Sudarsanam Dec 2017

A Globally Stable Attractor That Is Locally Unstable Everywhere, Phanindra Tallapragada, Senbagaraman Sudarsanam

Publications

We construct two examples of invariant manifolds that despite being locally unstable at every point in the transverse direction are globally stable. Using numerical simulations we show that these invariant manifolds temporarily repel nearby trajectories but act as global attractors. We formulate an explanation for such global stability in terms of the ‘rate of rotation’ of the stable and unstable eigenvectors spanning the normal subspace associated with each point of the invariant manifold. We discuss the role of this rate of rotation on the transitions between the stable and unstable regimes.


A Sustainable Approach For Tungsten Carbide Synthesis Using Renewable Biopolymers, Monsur Islam, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte Sep 2017

A Sustainable Approach For Tungsten Carbide Synthesis Using Renewable Biopolymers, Monsur Islam, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

Here we present a sustainable, environment-friendly and energy-efficient approach for synthesis of porous tungsten carbide (WC). A biopolymer-metal oxide composite featuring iota-carrageenan, chitin and tungsten trioxide (WO3) was used as the precursor material. The reaction mechanism for the synthesis of WC was estimated using the results from X-ray diffraction characterization (XRD). A synthesis temperature of 1300 °C and dwell time of 3 h were found to be the optimum process parameters to obtain WC>98% pure. The grain size, porosity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the synthesized WC were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, high ...


Assessing The Importance Of The Root Mean Square (Rms) Value Of Different Waveforms To Determine The Strength Of A Dielectrophoresis Trapping Force, Jordan Gilmore, Monsur Islam, Josie Duncan, Rucha Nato, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte May 2017

Assessing The Importance Of The Root Mean Square (Rms) Value Of Different Waveforms To Determine The Strength Of A Dielectrophoresis Trapping Force, Jordan Gilmore, Monsur Islam, Josie Duncan, Rucha Nato, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Importance Of The Root Mean Square (Rms) Value Of Different Waveforms To Determine The Strength Of A Dielectrophoresis Trapping Force, Jordon Gilmore, Monsur Islam, Josie Duncan, Rucha Natu, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte May 2017

Assessing The Importance Of The Root Mean Square (Rms) Value Of Different Waveforms To Determine The Strength Of A Dielectrophoresis Trapping Force, Jordon Gilmore, Monsur Islam, Josie Duncan, Rucha Natu, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

No abstract provided.


Fabrication Challenges And Perspectives On The Use Of Carbon-Electrode Dielectrophoresis In Sample Preparation, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte Mar 2017

Fabrication Challenges And Perspectives On The Use Of Carbon-Electrode Dielectrophoresis In Sample Preparation, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

The focus of this review is to assess the current status of three-dimensional (3D) carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis (carbonDEP) and identify the challenges currently preventing it from its use in high-throughput applications such as sample preparation for diagnostics. The use of 3D electrodes over more traditional planar ones is emphasised here as a way to increase the throughput of DEP devices. Glass-like carbon electrodes are derived through the carbonisation of photoresist structures made using photolithography. These biocompatible carbon electrodes are not ideal electrical conductors but are more electrochemically stable than noble metals such as gold and platinum. They are also significantly less ...


Effects Of Microstructure On The Strain Rate Sensitivity Of Advanced Steels, Rakan Alturk, Steven Mates, Zeren Xu, Fadi Abu-Farha Feb 2017

Effects Of Microstructure On The Strain Rate Sensitivity Of Advanced Steels, Rakan Alturk, Steven Mates, Zeren Xu, Fadi Abu-Farha

Publications

The dependence of the strain rate sensitivity of advanced ~1 GPa tensile strength steels on the phases present in their microstructures was studied by testing different steels at 0.005 and 500 s−1. The high strain rate tests were performed using a Kolsky bar setup, while the quasi-static tests were performed using a universal testing machine. The two main steels of interest were the Ferrite-Martensite DP980 and the Ferrite-Martensite-Austenite QP980; the latter being a transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steel. For comparison, ferritic CR5 mild steel and austenitic stainless steel 201 were also tested under the same conditions. Though ...


Demisting Using An Ultrasonic Standing Wave Field, T. M. Merrell, John Saylor Jan 2017

Demisting Using An Ultrasonic Standing Wave Field, T. M. Merrell, John Saylor

Publications

Removing drops from an air flow can be challenging, particularly, for small drops. Herein a method for demisting is presented that employs ultrasonics to force small drops to combine. Specifically, a cylindrical ultrasonic standing wave field is established in a tube, forming pressure nodes that take the form of cylinders located within the tube and having the same axis as the tube. Droplets are driven toward these pressure nodes by the acoustic radiation force, forcing smaller drops to combine to form larger drops, which eventually fall due to gravity, thereby demisting the flow. Experiments presented herein show that, for the ...


Nanoscale Solutions To Tailor Fiber Architectures For Realizing Composites With Triumvirate Properties, Vishnu Priya Ramineni Dec 2016

Nanoscale Solutions To Tailor Fiber Architectures For Realizing Composites With Triumvirate Properties, Vishnu Priya Ramineni

All Theses

The paramount need for the development of multifunctional, smart and adaptive material systems for application in industries like automobile, aeronautical and aerospace is undeniable. Polymer composites are fast becoming the primary material options to this demand in light of their superior mechanical properties, low density, high corrosion resistance and easy manufacturability. The design flexibility offered in terms of achieving higher specific properties and light weighting is the key reason behind their success. Among all the properties that composites possess, it is the stiffness, strength and toughness that most applications mandate. These properties however, provide complimentary and contrasting characteristics for composites ...


Cost Estimation Model For Pan Based Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Process, Amaninder Singh Gill, Darian Visotsky, Laine Mears, Joshua D. Summers Jun 2016

Cost Estimation Model For Pan Based Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Process, Amaninder Singh Gill, Darian Visotsky, Laine Mears, Joshua D. Summers

Publications

A polyacrilonitrile (PAN) based carbon fiber manufacturing cost estimation model driven by weight is presented in this study. One of the biggest limiting factors in the large scale use of carbon fiber (CF) in manufacturing is its high cost. The costs involved in manufacturing the carbon fiber have been formalized into a cost model in order to facilitate the understanding of these factors. This can play a key role in manufacturing CF in a cost effective method. This cost model accounts for the fixed and variable costs involved in all stages of manufacturing, in addition to accounting for price elasticity.


Enrichment Of Diluted Cell Populations From Large Sample Volumes Using 3d Carbon-Electrode Dielectrophoresis, Monsur Islam, Rucha Natu, Maria Fernanda Larraga-Martinez, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte Jun 2016

Enrichment Of Diluted Cell Populations From Large Sample Volumes Using 3d Carbon-Electrode Dielectrophoresis, Monsur Islam, Rucha Natu, Maria Fernanda Larraga-Martinez, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrodedielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 106–102 cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes ...


Towards Additive Manufacturing Of Tungsten Carbide Using Renewable Resources, Monsur Islam, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte May 2016

Towards Additive Manufacturing Of Tungsten Carbide Using Renewable Resources, Monsur Islam, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

Here we present preliminary results towards additive manufacturing of carbides. A biopolymer-metal oxide gel composite composed of iota-carrageenan, chitin and tungsten trioxide (WO3) was shaped and heat treated in order to obtain carbide structures. Upon heat treatment of this composite above 900 °C, a porous structure of tungsten carbide (WC) was obtained. The synthesis mechanism of WC was estimated using the result from XRD characterization. The synthesized WC was characterized with SEM, TEM and nitrogen absorption-desorption to investigate the morphology, particle size and pore size distribution. The carbonaceous materials retained the original shape. The ongoing work is on studying ...


Shrinkage Analysis Of Carbon Micro Structures Derived From Su-8 Photoresist, Rucha Natu, Monsur Islam, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte May 2016

Shrinkage Analysis Of Carbon Micro Structures Derived From Su-8 Photoresist, Rucha Natu, Monsur Islam, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

We present preliminary results for the analysis of shrinkage of 3D carbon posts obtained by the pyrolysis of SU-8 precursor structures, in a technique known as Carbon MEMS. Though the shrinkage in the carbon structures is highly reproducible, there is a strong dependence of this shrinkage on the initial dimensions of the SU-8 pillars. Our hypothesis is that the shrinkage depends upon the area available for degassing during carbonization. In this work, this idea is used to analyze shrinkage in cylindrical pillars. The results obtained are studied based on the ratio of lateral and top surface area available for degassing ...


Assessing The Advantages Of Using Square Wave Signals For Particle Trapping In Carbon-Electrode Dielectrophoresis, Guillermo Contreras-Dávila, Jose I. Gomez-Quiñones, Victor H. Pérez-González, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte May 2016

Assessing The Advantages Of Using Square Wave Signals For Particle Trapping In Carbon-Electrode Dielectrophoresis, Guillermo Contreras-Dávila, Jose I. Gomez-Quiñones, Victor H. Pérez-González, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

Here we present an improvement on the trapping efficiency of 3D carbon electrode Dielectrophoresis (carbonDEP) by using alternative signal geometries to the more traditional sine used to stimulate the electrodes. In particular, a square waveform is used. Theoretical analysis was based on the Root Mean Square (RMS) values and the Fourier Series Expansion of these signals. Computational modeling was performed to calculate the DEP force generated by the two signal waveforms and allowed for direct comparison. The trapping efficiency between square and sine signals was then determined experimentally. Given the same experiment characteristics, the use of square signals allows for ...


3d Carbon-Electrode Dielectrophoresis For Enrichment Of A Small Cell Population From A Large Sample Volume, Monsur Islam, Rucha Natu, Maria Fernanda Larraga-Martinez, Guillermo Contreras-Dávila, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte May 2016

3d Carbon-Electrode Dielectrophoresis For Enrichment Of A Small Cell Population From A Large Sample Volume, Monsur Islam, Rucha Natu, Maria Fernanda Larraga-Martinez, Guillermo Contreras-Dávila, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

Isolation and enrichment of cells from a diluted sample is necessary for different clinical applications. Here we have demonstrated the use of 3D carbon electrode dielectrophoresis (DEP) to process a diluted yeast sample featuring concentration as low as 102 cells/ml. The yeast cells in the sample were first trapped on carbon electrodes by implementing positive DEP force and then released and concentrated in a small volume of clean buffer. The maximum limit of the cell trapping for our device was found to be around 4000 cells. Using 10 µl/min, an enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 folds was ...


Synthesis Of Titanium Oxycarbide Through Carbothermal Reduction Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles And Renewable Biopolymers, Joshua Paul Flach, Paulo Henrique Figuereido De Lima, Joshua Craig Sparks, Monsur Islam, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte May 2016

Synthesis Of Titanium Oxycarbide Through Carbothermal Reduction Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles And Renewable Biopolymers, Joshua Paul Flach, Paulo Henrique Figuereido De Lima, Joshua Craig Sparks, Monsur Islam, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

The goal of this is study is to explore the feasibility of a sustainable method of titanium oxycarbide synthesis through carbothermal reduction of a biopolymer composite. The reaction was studied at different temperatures in vacuum environments and at multiple TiO2:C ratios in order to determine how these parameters affect the formation of titanium oxycarbide. The results indicate that both the heat treatment and the carbon ratios have a significant impact on the O/C ratio, and therefore, molecular composition and crystal structure of the titanium oxycarbide. The use of renewable biopolymers as a carbon source in the synthesis ...


Synthesis Of Tungsten Carbide From Bacterial Cellulose, Monsur Islam, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte May 2016

Synthesis Of Tungsten Carbide From Bacterial Cellulose, Monsur Islam, Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

Publications

Here we present preliminary experiments for the synthesis of carbide material using bacterial cellulose as carbon source. We used bacteria cellulose available as Nata de Coco and infiltrated it with tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanoparticles. This composite was heat treated at 1300 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The XRD pattern confirms the synthesis of tungsten carbide (WC) in the carbonaceous material, though a significant amount of metallic tungsten remained unreacted. SEM images shows that WC particles are present only at the surface of the carbon, which may be a consequence of improper infiltration or collapse of carbon matrix during heat treatment.


On Subgrid-Scale Physics In The Convective Atmospheric Surface Layer, Khuong Nguyen Dec 2015

On Subgrid-Scale Physics In The Convective Atmospheric Surface Layer, Khuong Nguyen

All Dissertations

The dynamics of the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress and scalar flux in the convective atmospheric surface layer are studied using field measurements from the Advection Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (AHATS). We extend the array technique previously used to evaluate the SGS velocity and temperature to include measurements of the fluctuating pressure, enabling separation of the resolvable- and subgrid-scale pressure and allowing for the first-ever observations of the pressure covariance terms and the full SGS budgets. Non-dimensional forms of the budget terms are analysed as functions of the surface-layer stability parameter and the ratio of the wavelength of the spectral peak of ...


Analysis And Synthesis Of Effective Human-Robot Interaction At Varying Levels In Control Hierarchy, David Spencer Dec 2015

Analysis And Synthesis Of Effective Human-Robot Interaction At Varying Levels In Control Hierarchy, David Spencer

All Theses

Robot controller design is usually hierarchical with both high-level task and motion planning and low-level control law design. In the presented works, we investigate methods for low-level and high-level control designs to guarantee joint performance of human-robot interaction (HRI). In the first work, a low-level method using the switched linear quadratic regulator (SLQR), an optimal control policy based on a quadratic cost function, is used. By incorporating measures of robot performance and human workload, it can be determined when to utilize the human operator in a method that improves overall task performance while reducing operator workload. This method is demonstrated ...


Experimental Investigation Of Heat Leakage And Air Leakage In Domestic Refrigerators, Shervin Shoai Naini Dec 2015

Experimental Investigation Of Heat Leakage And Air Leakage In Domestic Refrigerators, Shervin Shoai Naini

All Theses

The optimization of the energy consumption in household refrigerators should consider the influence of the gasket which determines the heat transfer and air infiltration rate. In this research project, engineering methods are developed to evaluate the heat leakage due to the gasket and air infiltration in domestic refrigerators. In the first study, experimental and numerical approaches are applied to evaluate the gasket heat transfer based on the “Reverse Heat Load Method”. The main objective is to find the effective heat leakage with the dimensions of energy leakage per gasket length per temperature difference (W/m.K). An insulated cubic ...


In Vitro Multi-Scale Patient-Specific Modeling Of Hemodynamics In Stage 1 Norwood Palliation For The Treatment Of Single Ventricle Heart Disease, Tianqi Hang Dec 2015

In Vitro Multi-Scale Patient-Specific Modeling Of Hemodynamics In Stage 1 Norwood Palliation For The Treatment Of Single Ventricle Heart Disease, Tianqi Hang

All Dissertations

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect in which the left ventricle is severely underdeveloped. The Norwood procedure is the first stage procedure to make an unrestrictive systemic blood flow and at the same time balance it with the pulmonary flow. This is done by constructing a neo-aorta using the pulmonary artery root and the autologous aorta, and then installing a shunt to the pulmonary artery. Variations of the Norwood surgery include the modified Blalock-Taussig (mBT) shunt, which diverts blood from the innominate artery to the pulmonary artery (PA), and the Right Ventricle Shunt (RVS), which diverts ...


Characterizing The Effective Bandwidth Of Nonlinear Vibratory Energy Harvesters Possessing Multiple Stable Equilibria, Meghashyam Panyam Mohan Ram Dec 2015

Characterizing The Effective Bandwidth Of Nonlinear Vibratory Energy Harvesters Possessing Multiple Stable Equilibria, Meghashyam Panyam Mohan Ram

All Dissertations

In the last few years, advances in micro-fabrication technologies have lead to the development of low-power electronic devices spanning critical fields related to sensing, data transmission, and medical implants. Unfortunately, effective utilization of these devices is currently hindered by their reliance on batteries. In many of these applications, batteries may not be a viable choice as they have a fixed storage capacity and need to be constantly replaced or recharged. In light of such challenges, several novel concepts for micro-power generation have been recently introduced to harness, otherwise, wasted ambient energy from the environment and maintain these low-power devices. Vibratory ...


Design Of A Meta-Material With Targeted Nonlinear Deformation Response, Zachary Satterfield Dec 2015

Design Of A Meta-Material With Targeted Nonlinear Deformation Response, Zachary Satterfield

All Theses

The M1 Abrams tank contains track pads consist of a high density rubber. This rubber fails prematurely due to heat buildup caused by the hysteretic nature of elastomers. It is therefore desired to replace this elastomer by a meta-material that has equivalent nonlinear deformation characteristics without this primary failure mode. A meta-material is an artificial material in the form of a periodic structure that exhibits behavior that differs from its constitutive material. After a thorough literature review, topology optimization was found as the only method used to design meta-materials. Further investigation determined topology optimization as an infeasible method to design ...


Co-Design Of Dynamic Real-Time Scheduling And Cooperative Control For Human-Agent Collaboration Systems Based On Mutual Trust, Xiaotian Wang Dec 2015

Co-Design Of Dynamic Real-Time Scheduling And Cooperative Control For Human-Agent Collaboration Systems Based On Mutual Trust, Xiaotian Wang

All Theses

Mutual trust is a key factor in human-human collaboration. Inspired by this social interaction, we analyze human-agent mutual trust in the collaboration of one human and (semi)autonomous multi-agent systems. In the thesis, we derive time-series human-agent mutual trust models based on results from human factors engineering. To avoid both over- trust and under-trust, we set up dynamic timing models for the multi-agent scheduling problem and develop necessary and sufficient conditions to test the schedulability of the human multi-agent collaborative task. Furthermore, we extend the collaboration between one human and multiple agents into the collaboration between multi-human network and swarm-based ...


Control Of Thermoforming Process Parameters To Manufacture Surfaces With Pin-Based Tooling, Vijay Sarthy Mysore Sreedhara Dec 2015

Control Of Thermoforming Process Parameters To Manufacture Surfaces With Pin-Based Tooling, Vijay Sarthy Mysore Sreedhara

All Theses

Many manufacturing processes used to mass produce parts rely on expensive and time consuming tooling. These processes include sheet metal forming, injection molding, casting, and thermoforming. The time invested in design and development of tooling can be justified for high-production volumes. However, for low-volume production and customized products, the tooling investment cannot be amortized. Flexible tooling has been developed to address the needs of smaller production volumes. Reconfigurable pin tooling is an example of flexible tooling that relies on a matrix of adjustable-height pins to produce approximate surfaces. A key challenge in pin-based tooling is achieving accurate high quality surfaces ...


Structural Optimization Using Parametric Programming Method, Krupakaran Ravichandraan Dec 2015

Structural Optimization Using Parametric Programming Method, Krupakaran Ravichandraan

All Theses

The Parametric Programming method is investigated to consider its applicability to structural optimization problems. It is used to solve optimization problems that have design variables as implicit functions of some independent input parameter(s). It provides optimal solutions as a parametric function of the input parameter(s) for the entire parameter space of interest. It does not require the detailed discrete optimizations needed at a large number of parameter values as in traditional non-parametric optimization. Parametric programming is widely used in optimal controls, model predictive control, scheduling, process synthesis and material design under uncertainty due to the above mentioned benefits ...


A Novel Approach To Evaluating Compact Finite Differences And Similar Tridiagonal Schemes On Gpu-Accelerated Clusters, Ashwin Trikuta Srinath Dec 2015

A Novel Approach To Evaluating Compact Finite Differences And Similar Tridiagonal Schemes On Gpu-Accelerated Clusters, Ashwin Trikuta Srinath

All Theses

Compact finite difference schemes are widely used in the direct numerical simulation of fluid flows for their ability to better resolve the small scales of turbulence. However, they can be expensive to evaluate and difficult to parallelize. In this work, we present an approach for the computation of compact finite differences and similar tridiagonal schemes on graphics processing units (GPUs). We present a variant of the cyclic reduction algorithm for solving the tridiagonal linear systems that arise in such numerical schemes. We study the impact of the matrix structure on the cyclic reduction algorithm and show that precomputing forward reduction ...


Electromechanical Modeling Of A Honeycomb Core Integrated Vibration Energy Converter With Increased Specific Power For Energy Harvesting Applications, Nataraj Chandrasekharan Dec 2015

Electromechanical Modeling Of A Honeycomb Core Integrated Vibration Energy Converter With Increased Specific Power For Energy Harvesting Applications, Nataraj Chandrasekharan

All Dissertations

Innovation in integrated circuit technology along with improved manufacturing processes has resulted in considerable reduction in power consumption of electromechanical devices. Majority of these devices are currently powered by batteries. However, the issues posed by batteries, including the need for frequent battery recharge/replacement has resulted in a compelling need for alternate energy to achieve self-sufficient device operation or to supplement battery power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods through piezoelectric transduction provides with a promising potential towards replacing or supplementing battery power source. However, current piezoelectric energy harvesters generate low specific power (power-to-weight ratio) when compared to batteries that the ...


Configuration Management In Manufacturing And Assembly: Case Study And Enabler Development, Keith Phelan Dec 2015

Configuration Management In Manufacturing And Assembly: Case Study And Enabler Development, Keith Phelan

All Dissertations

The overall goal of this research is to improve the product configuration change management process. The increase in the demand for highly customizable products has led to many manufacturers using mass customization to meet the constantly changing demands of a wide consumer base. However, effectively managing the configurations can be difficult, especially in large manufacturers or for complex products with a large number of possible configurations. This is largely due to a combination of the scope of the configuration management system and the difficulty in understanding how changes to one element of a configuration can propagate through the configuration system ...