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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Takeoff And Performance Tradeoffs Of Retrofit Distributed Electric Propulsion For Urban Transport, Kevin Moore, Andrew Ning Aug 2019

Takeoff And Performance Tradeoffs Of Retrofit Distributed Electric Propulsion For Urban Transport, Kevin Moore, Andrew Ning

Faculty Publications

While vertical takeoff and landing aircraft have shown promise for urban air transport, distributed electric propulsion on existing aircraft may offer immediately implementable alternatives. Distributed electric propulsion could potentially decrease takeoff distances enough to enable thousands of potential inter-city runways. This conceptual study explores the effects of a retrofit of open-bladed electric propulsion units. To model and explore the design space we use blade element momentum method, vortex lattice method, linear-beam finite element analysis, classical laminate theory, composite failure, empirically-based blade noise modeling, motor and motor-controller mass models, and gradient-based optimization. With liftoff time of seconds and the safe total ...


Optimization Of Turbine Design In Wind Farms With Multiple Hub Heights, Using Exact Analytic Gradients And Structural Constraints, Andrew P.J. Stanley, Andrew Ning, Katherine Dykes Jan 2019

Optimization Of Turbine Design In Wind Farms With Multiple Hub Heights, Using Exact Analytic Gradients And Structural Constraints, Andrew P.J. Stanley, Andrew Ning, Katherine Dykes

Faculty Publications

Wind farms are generally designed with turbines of all the same hub height. If wind farms were designed with turbines of different hub heights, wake interference between turbines could be reduced, lowering the cost of energy (COE). This paper demonstrates a method to optimize onshore wind farms with two different hub heights using exact, analytic gradients. Gradient-based optimization with exact gradients scales well with large problems and is preferable in this application over gradient-free methods. Our model consisted of the following: a version of the FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady-State wake model that accommodated three- dimensional wakes and calculated ...


Estimation Of Knee Kinematics Using Non-Monotonic Nanocomposite High-Deflection Strain Gauges, Adin Douglas Martineau Dec 2018

Estimation Of Knee Kinematics Using Non-Monotonic Nanocomposite High-Deflection Strain Gauges, Adin Douglas Martineau

Theses and Dissertations

Human knee kinematics, especially during gait, are an important analysis tool. The current "gold standard" for kinematics measurement is a multi-camera, marker-based motion capture system with 3D position tracking. These systems are accurate but expensive and their use is limited to a confined laboratory environment. High deflection strain gauges (HDSG) are a novel class of sensors that have the potential to measure kinematics and can be inexpensive, low profile, and are not limited to measurements within a calibrated volume. However, many HDSG sensors can have a non-linear and non-monotonic response. This thesis explores using a nanocomposite HDSG sensor system for ...


The Design, Construction, And Thermal Diffusivity Measurements Of The Fluorescent Scanning Thermal Microscope (Fstm), Samuel Hunter Hayden Dec 2018

The Design, Construction, And Thermal Diffusivity Measurements Of The Fluorescent Scanning Thermal Microscope (Fstm), Samuel Hunter Hayden

Theses and Dissertations

Over the life of nuclear fuel, inhomogeneous structures develop, negatively impacting thermal properties. New fuels are under development, but require more accurate knowledge of how the properties change to model performance and determine safe operational conditions. Measurement systems capable of small–scale, pointwise thermal property measurements and low cost are necessary to measure these properties and integrate into hot cells where electronics are likely to fail during fuel investigation. This project develops a cheaper, smaller, and easily replaceable Fluorescent Scanning Thermal Microscope (FSTM) using the blue laser and focusing circuitry from an Xbox HD-DVD player. The FSTM also incorporates novel ...


Examining The Mechanics Responsible For Strain Delocalization In Metallic Glass Matrix Composites, Casey Owen Messick Dec 2018

Examining The Mechanics Responsible For Strain Delocalization In Metallic Glass Matrix Composites, Casey Owen Messick

Theses and Dissertations

Metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) have been developed to improve upon the ductility of monolithic metallic glass. These composites utilize a secondary crystalline phase that is grown into an amorphous matrix as isolated dendritic trees. This work seeks to understand the mechanisms underlying strain delocalization in MGMCs in order to better direct efforts for continual progress in this class of material. A mesoscale modelling technique based on shear transformation zone (STZ) dynamics is used to do so. STZ dynamics is a coarse grained technique that can provide insight into the microscopic processes that control macroscopic behavior, but which can be ...


Origami-Based Design Of Fold States And Stability, Alex Avila Dec 2018

Origami-Based Design Of Fold States And Stability, Alex Avila

Theses and Dissertations

Origami is a potentially elegant and powerful source of inspiration for many engineering designs. The viable shapes (fold states) of a single device allow it to perform multiple, seemingly contradictory, functions. The fold state is a large factor in the device's performance, but there are challenges in selecting and maintaining those fold states. In this thesis we analyze existing concepts for overcoming these challenges. Those concepts are compared with those that occur in origami-based devices. From this analysis fundamental gaps were identified, specifically, shortcoming in the terminology used to refer to (1) non-flat origami states and (2) sets of ...


Investigation Of An Isotruss Structure As A Compliant Member Used In Bending And Torsion, Jens Garret Jacobson Dec 2018

Investigation Of An Isotruss Structure As A Compliant Member Used In Bending And Torsion, Jens Garret Jacobson

Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of IsoTruss structures in bending and torsion was conducted. A model was developed in ANSYS APDL where bay length and longitudinal member to helical member cross-sectional area ratio could be varied while holding the diameter constant. The model was validated using previously reported values from analytical models and empirical data. The model was used to make predictions of a specific geometry that was manufactured, tested and compared against the model. 12 specimens were built and tested. In flexure, empirical data had a percent error with respect to the model ranging from 10.9 to 65.4% with one ...


Distributed Electric Propulsion Conceptual Design Applied To Traditional Aircraft Take Off Distance Through Multidisciplinary Design, Kevin Ray Moore Nov 2018

Distributed Electric Propulsion Conceptual Design Applied To Traditional Aircraft Take Off Distance Through Multidisciplinary Design, Kevin Ray Moore

Theses and Dissertations

While vertical takeoff and landing aircraft show promise for urban air transport, distributed electric propulsion on existing aircraft may offer an immediately implementable alternative. Dis- tributed electric propulsion has the potential of increasing the aircraft thrust-to-weight ratio and lift coefficient high enough to enable takeoff distances of less than 100 meters. While fuel based propulsion technologies generally increase in specific power with increasing size, electric propul- sion typically can be decreased in size without a decrease in specific power. The smaller but highly power-dense propulsion units enable alternative designs including many small units, optionally powered units, and vectored thrust from ...


Coordinated, Multi-Arm Manipulation With Soft Robots, Dustan Paul Kraus Oct 2018

Coordinated, Multi-Arm Manipulation With Soft Robots, Dustan Paul Kraus

Theses and Dissertations

Soft lightweight robots provide an inherently safe solution to using robots in unmodeled environments by maintaining safety without increasing cost through expensive sensors. Unfortunately, many practical problems still need to be addressed before soft robots can become useful in real world tasks. Unlike traditional robots, soft robot geometry is not constant but can change with deflation and reinflation. Small errors in a robot's kinematic model can result in large errors in pose estimation of the end effector. This error, coupled with the inherent compliance of soft robots and the difficulty of soft robot joint angle sensing, makes it very ...


Deep Rc: Enabling Remote Control Through Deep Learning, Jaron Ellingson, Gary Ellingson, Tim Mclain Sep 2018

Deep Rc: Enabling Remote Control Through Deep Learning, Jaron Ellingson, Gary Ellingson, Tim Mclain

Student Publications

Human remote-control (RC) pilots have the ability to perceive the position and orientation of an aircraft using only third-person-perspective visual sensing. While novice pilots often struggle when learning to control RC aircraft, they can sense the orientation of the aircraft with relative ease. In this paper, we hypothesize and demonstrate that deep learning methods can be used to mimic the human ability to perceive the orientation of an aircraft from monocular imagery.

This work uses a neural network to directly sense the aircraft attitude. The network is combined with more conventional image processing methods for visual tracking of the aircraft ...


Thermal Transport At Superhydrophobic Surfaces In Impinging Liquid Jets, Natural Convection, And Pool Boiling, Matthew Clark Searle Sep 2018

Thermal Transport At Superhydrophobic Surfaces In Impinging Liquid Jets, Natural Convection, And Pool Boiling, Matthew Clark Searle

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the effects of superhydrophobic (SHPo) surfaces on thermal transport. The work is divided into two main categories: thermal transport without phase change and thermal transport with phase change. Thermal transport without phase change is the topic of four stand-alone chapters. Three address jet impingement at SHPo surfaces and the fourth considers natural convection at a vertical, SHPo wall. Thermal transport with phase change is the topic of a single stand-alone chapter exploring pool boiling at SHPo surfaces. Two chapters examining jet impingement present analytical models for thermal transport; one considered an isothermal wall and the other ...


Visual Servoing For Multirotor Precision Landing In Varying Light Conditions, Jesse Wynn, Tim Mclain Aug 2018

Visual Servoing For Multirotor Precision Landing In Varying Light Conditions, Jesse Wynn, Tim Mclain

Faculty Publications

The problem of performing a precision landing of an autonomous multirotor UAV in various lighting conditions is studied. A vision-based approach is proposed and consists of varying degree-of-freedom image-based visual servoing (VDOF-IBVS), and a specialized landing marker. The proposed approach is validated through extensive flight testing outdoors in both lighted and dark conditions, and is done using a standard off-the-shelf autopilot system.


Developable Compliant-Aided Rolling-Contact Mechanisms, Todd G. Nelson, Just L. Herder Aug 2018

Developable Compliant-Aided Rolling-Contact Mechanisms, Todd G. Nelson, Just L. Herder

Student Publications

Rolling-contact mechanisms can provide low-friction motion with unique kinematic paths. We show that developable surfaces can be used as a design tool for rolling-contact mechanisms joined with compliant bands. These mechanisms can exhibit 3D motion paths, couple rotational and translational motions into a single degree of freedom, and can be designed to exhibit various tailored kinetic responses. We set forth developable surface parametrizations well suited to the creation of rolling contacts. We highlight how the geodesic and principal curvatures of the non-ruling principal curves of a developable surface are meaningful design quantities for rolling contacts. We provide kinematic and kinetic ...


Efficient Incorporation Of Fatigue Damage Constraints In Wind Turbine Blade Optimization, Bryce Taylor Ingersoll Aug 2018

Efficient Incorporation Of Fatigue Damage Constraints In Wind Turbine Blade Optimization, Bryce Taylor Ingersoll

Theses and Dissertations

Improving the wind turbine blade design has a significant effect on the efficiency of the wind turbine. This is a challenging multi-disciplinary optimization problem. During the blade design process, the aerodynamic shapes, sizing of the structural members, and material composition must all be determined and optimized. Some previous blade design methods incorporate the wind turbine's static response with an added safety factor to account for neglected dynamic effects. Others incorporate the dynamic response, but in general is limited to a few design cases. By not fully incorporating the dynamic response of the wind turbine, the final turbine ...


Electrochemical Glucose Sensors Enhanced By Methyl Viologen And Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Channels, Benjamin J. Brownlee, Meisam Bahari, John H. Harb, Jonathan C. Claussen, Brian D. Iverson Aug 2018

Electrochemical Glucose Sensors Enhanced By Methyl Viologen And Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Channels, Benjamin J. Brownlee, Meisam Bahari, John H. Harb, Jonathan C. Claussen, Brian D. Iverson

Faculty Publications

Free-standing, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) were patterned into 16 μm diameter microchannel arrays for flow-through electrochemical glucose sensing. Non-enzymatic sensing of glucose was achieved by the chemical reaction of glucose with methyl viologen (MV) at an elevated temperature and pH (0.1 M NaOH), followed by the electrochemical reaction of reduced-MV with the VACNT surface. The MV sensor required no functionalization (including no metal) and was able to produce on average 3.4 electrons per glucose molecule. The current density of the MV sensor was linear with both flow rate and glucose concentration. Challenges with interference chemicals were mitigated ...


Methods And Metrics To Measure And Predict The Social Impact Of Engineered Products, Phillip Douglas Stevenson Aug 2018

Methods And Metrics To Measure And Predict The Social Impact Of Engineered Products, Phillip Douglas Stevenson

Theses and Dissertations

More than ever before, engineers are creating products for developing countries. One of the purposes of these products is to improve the consumer's quality of life. Currently, there is no established method of measuring the social impact of these types of products. As a result, engineers have used their own metrics to assess their product's impact, if at all. Some of the common metrics used include products sold and revenue, which measure the financial success of a product without recognizing the social successes or failures it might have. In this thesis I introduce a potential metric, the Product ...


Design For Maintainability In Developing Communities—A Case Study On The Uros Islands, Thomas Barlow Jul 2018

Design For Maintainability In Developing Communities—A Case Study On The Uros Islands, Thomas Barlow

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Designing products for developing communities has exposed many of the underlying assumptions that engineers from developed nations have during the design process. There has been much written about these underlying assumptions in order to create a better framework for designing for developing communities. One unexplored, yet important area is the universality of common maintainability principles used in developed countries when designing products used in developing communities. Such principles include: simplicity, diagnosability, standardization of parts, modular subassemblies, minimizing assembly and disassembly parts, labeling components, increased life of moving parts, manuals, and simplifying tools needed for repairs [1]–[3]. The purpose of ...


Tactile Sensing And Position Estimation Methods For Increased Proprioception Of Soft-Robotic Platforms, Nathan Mcclain Day Jul 2018

Tactile Sensing And Position Estimation Methods For Increased Proprioception Of Soft-Robotic Platforms, Nathan Mcclain Day

Theses and Dissertations

Soft robots have the potential to transform the way robots interact with their environment. This is due to their low inertia and inherent ability to more safely interact with the world without damaging themselves or the people around them. However, existing sensing for soft robots has at least partially limited their ability to control interactions with their environment. Tactile sensors could enable soft robots to sense interaction, but most tactile sensors are made from rigid substrates and are not well suited to applications for soft robots that can deform. In addition, the benefit of being able to cheaply manufacture soft ...


Total Hemispherical Apparent Radiative Properties Of The Infinite V-Groove With Diffuse Reflection, Rydge B. Mulford, Nathan S. Collins, Michael S. Farnsworth, Matthew R. Jones, Brian D. Iverson Jul 2018

Total Hemispherical Apparent Radiative Properties Of The Infinite V-Groove With Diffuse Reflection, Rydge B. Mulford, Nathan S. Collins, Michael S. Farnsworth, Matthew R. Jones, Brian D. Iverson

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Increased Energy Yield Through Fast Pyrolysis: Empowering Malawian Villages, Diehl Mutamba Jun 2018

Increased Energy Yield Through Fast Pyrolysis: Empowering Malawian Villages, Diehl Mutamba

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Biomass contributes to several renewable energy technologies. This project will explore the use of fast pyrolysis to produce fuels by designing an apparatus for fast pyrolysis. Malawian people harvest firewood from the forests, which is a major contributor to deforestation. Furthermore, they convert some of it to charcoal with about 10-15% efficiency to sell to city dwellers. The project will enable herbaceous fuels to replace wood, increase charcoal yields and create new products. Firewood and charcoal produce smoke and carbon monoxide (CO) that compromises the villagers’ health.

This project will address deforestation problems, improve sustainability, decrease health hazards and improve ...


Art To Engineering: Curved Folding And Developable Surfaces In Mechanism And Deployable Structure Design, Todd G. Nelson Jun 2018

Art To Engineering: Curved Folding And Developable Surfaces In Mechanism And Deployable Structure Design, Todd G. Nelson

Theses and Dissertations

This work investigates how curved-crease origami and the developable surfaces which compose it can be transitioned to engineering design. Methods for creating flexible, tailorable-property surfaces that function as thick panels in place of paper are presented. Concepts from curved-crease origami and developable surfaces that can describe and extend engineering applications are discussed and demonstrated. These concepts are particularly beneficial to applications where curved surfaces are integral to the function, deployability is desired, and planar manufacturing could be beneficial.The first part of this work uses arrays of compliant elements to create flexible-tailorable property surfaces. The key feature to these arrays ...


Friction Bit Joining Of Similar Alloy Sheets Of High-Strength Aluminum Alloy 7085, Matthew R. Okazaki Jun 2018

Friction Bit Joining Of Similar Alloy Sheets Of High-Strength Aluminum Alloy 7085, Matthew R. Okazaki

Theses and Dissertations

Friction Bit Joining (FBJ) is a new technology used primarily in joining dissimilar metals. Its primary use has been focused in the automotive industry to provide an alternative joining process to welding. As automotive manufacturing has continually pushed toward using dissimilar materials, new joining processes have been needed to replace traditional welding practices that do not perform well when materials are not weld compatible. FBJ meets these needs perfectly as it provides strength as well as the ability to join materials of almost any kind.The purpose of this research was to explore different applications of the FBJ process. Traditionally ...


Augmented Design Capabilities For Origami Tessellations, Janette Darlene Herron Jun 2018

Augmented Design Capabilities For Origami Tessellations, Janette Darlene Herron

Theses and Dissertations

Applying engineering principles to tessellation origami-based designs enables the control of certain design properties, such as flexibility, bending stiffness, mechanical advantage, shape conformance, and deployment motion. The ability to control these and other properties will enable augmented design capabilities in environments which currently limit the design to specific materials, including space, medicine, harsh environments, and scaled environments (such as MEMS applications). Other applications will be able to achieve more complex motions or better satisfy design and performance requirements.This research demonstrates augmented design capabilities of origami tessellations in engineering design in rigid-foldable and non-rigid-foldable applications. First, a method to determine ...


Universal Airfoil Parametrization Using B-Splines, Dev Rajnarayan, Andrew Ning, Judd Mehr Jun 2018

Universal Airfoil Parametrization Using B-Splines, Dev Rajnarayan, Andrew Ning, Judd Mehr

Faculty Publications

In this paper, we apply well-known techniques for parametric curves to the definition and deformation of airfoil sections. While it has already been shown that many versions of Kulfan’s Class Shape Transformation (CST) are exactly equivalent to Bézier curves, we show here that all NACA 4-digit thickness distributions and the PARSEC parametrization of Sobiezcky are also higher-order Bézier curves. As with CST, Béziers and B-Splines provide direct control over aerodynamically meaningful features such as nose radius and boat-tail angle, but also provide more a intuitive parametrization of the rest of the airfoil surface. We show the efficacy of B-Spline-based ...


Bubble Nucleation In Superhydrophobic Microchannels Due To Subcritical Heating, Adam Cowley, Daniel Maynes, Julie Crockett, Brian D. Iverson Jun 2018

Bubble Nucleation In Superhydrophobic Microchannels Due To Subcritical Heating, Adam Cowley, Daniel Maynes, Julie Crockett, Brian D. Iverson

Faculty Publications

This work experimentally studies the effects of single wall heating on laminar flow in a high-aspect ratio superhydrophobic microchannel. When water that is saturated with air is used as the working liquid, the non-wetted cavities on the superhydrophobic surfaces act as nucleation sites and allow air to effervesce out of the water and onto the surface when heated. Previous works in the literature have only considered the opposite case where the water is undersaturated and absorbs air out the cavities for a microchannel setting. The microchannel considered in this work consists of a rib/cavity structured superhydrophobic surface and a ...


Evolution Of Mg Az31 Twin Activation With Strain: A Machine Learning Study, Andrew D. Orme Apr 2018

Evolution Of Mg Az31 Twin Activation With Strain: A Machine Learning Study, Andrew D. Orme

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Machine learning is being adopted in various areas of materials science to both create predictive models and to uncover correlations which reveal underlying physics. However, these two aims are often at odds with each other since the resultant predictive models generally become so complex that they can essentially be described as a black box, making them difficult to understand. In this study, complex relationships between microstructure and twin formation in AZ31 magnesium are investigated as a function of increasing strain. Supervised machine learning is employed, in the form of J-48 decision trees. In one approach, strain is incorporated as an ...


Uncertainty In Optical Particulate Counting Sensors, Jared Todd Blanchard Apr 2018

Uncertainty In Optical Particulate Counting Sensors, Jared Todd Blanchard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

To mitigate the health problems and environmental damage caused by the burning of biomass in homes across the developing world, there is an international effort to design clean burning cookstoves that burn with greater efficiency and emit fewer harmful substances. An important tool for gauging the effectiveness of these alternate stoves is the optical particulate counting (OPC) sensor, which comes in many varieties. To facilitate comparison between measurements from different models, a mathematical model and uncertainty analysis method for OPC’s have been developed. These may be applied to any light-scattering OPC. In addition, a low-cost physical system was developed ...


Simulation Of The Inertia Friction Welding Process Using A Subscale Specimen And A Friction Stir Welder, Ty Samual Dansie Apr 2018

Simulation Of The Inertia Friction Welding Process Using A Subscale Specimen And A Friction Stir Welder, Ty Samual Dansie

Theses and Dissertations

This study develops a method to simulate a full-scale inertia friction weld with a sub-scale specimen and modifies a direct drive friction stir welder to perform the welding process. A torque meter is fabricated for the FSW machine to measure weld torque. Machine controls are modified to enable a force control during the IFW process. An equation is created to measure weld upset due to deflection of the FSW machine. Data obtained from a full-scale inertia friction weld are altered to account for the geometrical differences between the sub-scale and full-scale specimens. The IFW are simulated with the sub-scale specimen ...


Simulated Tremor Propagation In The Upper Limb: From Muscle Activity To Joint Displacement, Thomas Henry Corie Apr 2018

Simulated Tremor Propagation In The Upper Limb: From Muscle Activity To Joint Displacement, Thomas Henry Corie

Theses and Dissertations

Although tremor is the most common movement disorder, there are few non-invasive treatment options. One of the obstacles to creating effective tremor suppression devices is our lack of understanding regarding where tremor originates (which muscles), how it propagates through the limb (to which degrees of freedom, DOF), and where it manifests most severely (which DOF). To investigate these questions, we created a simple, linear time-invariant model to simulate tremor, with tremorogenic muscle activity input (in the 15 major superficial muscles from the shoulder to the wrist) and joint displacement output (in the 7 major upper limb DOF). The model included ...


Effect Of Gyroscope Parameters On Gyroscopic Tremor Suppression In A Single Degree Of Freedom, Brendon Connor Allen Apr 2018

Effect Of Gyroscope Parameters On Gyroscopic Tremor Suppression In A Single Degree Of Freedom, Brendon Connor Allen

Theses and Dissertations

Although tremor is one of the most common movement disorders, there are few effective tremor-suppressing options available to patients. One potential tremor-suppression device involves a wearable gyrostabilizer similar to those used to stabilize cameras. However, we do not currently know how to design a gyrostabilizer to suppress tremor in an optimal manner. To address this gap, we present a systematic investigation of how gyrostabilizer parameters affect tremor suppression in a single degree of freedom (DOF). A simple model of the hand with a single DOF at the wrist and a gyroscope mounted on the back of the hand was used ...