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Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

2016

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Articles 31 - 60 of 69

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Molecular Combing Of Dna Nanofibers And Comparison To Electrospinning, Tanner L. Buresh Apr 2016

Molecular Combing Of Dna Nanofibers And Comparison To Electrospinning, Tanner L. Buresh

UCARE Research Products

The goal of these experiments was to create DNA nanofibers through the method of molecular combing (MC) and then compare the MC fibers to fibers created with electrospinning (ES). The experiment was designed and initial samples were created. After confirming that the method would succeed in creating DNA fibers, several parametric studies were performed in order to optimize the experiment and create the most uniform fibers possible. The parametric studies were done on the following variables: substrate material, pH level of DNA solution, and DNA solution concentration. After completion of all experiments, it was determined that although fibers could be ...


Ultra-Thin Boron Nitride Films By Pulsed Laser Deposition: Plasma Diagnostics, Synthesis, And Device Transport, Nicholas Robert Glavin Apr 2016

Ultra-Thin Boron Nitride Films By Pulsed Laser Deposition: Plasma Diagnostics, Synthesis, And Device Transport, Nicholas Robert Glavin

Open Access Dissertations

This work describes, for the first time, a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique for growth of large area, stoichiometric ultra-thin hexagonal and amorphous boron nitride for next generation 2D material electronics. The growth of boron nitride, in this case, is driven by the high kinetic energies and chemical reactivities of the condensing species formed from physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes, which can facilitate growth over large areas and at reduced substrate temperatures. The use of optical emission spectroscopy during plasma growth provides insight into chemistry, kinetic energies, time of flight data, and spatial distributions within a PVD plasma plume ablated ...


Method For Hyper-Polarizing Nuclear Spns At Arbtrary Magnetic Felds, Carlos A. Meriles, Daniela Pagliero, Abdelghani Laraoui Jan 2016

Method For Hyper-Polarizing Nuclear Spns At Arbtrary Magnetic Felds, Carlos A. Meriles, Daniela Pagliero, Abdelghani Laraoui

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

A method of dynamically polarizing the nuclear spin host of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is provided. The method uses optical, microwave and radio-frequency pulses to recursively transfer spin polarization from the NV electronic spin. Nitrogen nuclear spin initialization approaching 80% at room temperature is demonstrated both in ensemble and single NV centers without relying on level anti-crossings. This makes the method applicable at arbitrary magnetic fields.


An Assessment Of The Validity Of The Kinetic Model For Liquid-Vapor Phase Change By Examining Cryogenic Propellants, Kishan Bellur Jan 2016

An Assessment Of The Validity Of The Kinetic Model For Liquid-Vapor Phase Change By Examining Cryogenic Propellants, Kishan Bellur

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Evaporation is ubiquitous in nature and occurs even in a microgravity space envi- ronment. Long term space missions require storage of cryogenic propellents and an accurate prediction of phase change rates. Kinetic theory has been used to model and predict evaporation rates for over a century but the reported values of accommodation coefficients are highly inconsistent and no accurate data is available for cryogens. The proposed study involves a combined experimental and computational approach to ex- tract the accommodation coefficients. Neutron imaging is used as the visualization technique due to the difference in attenuation between the cryogen and the metallic ...


Development Of An Enzymatic Glucose Biosensor For Applications In Wearable Sweat-Based Sensing, Allison Anne Cargill Jan 2016

Development Of An Enzymatic Glucose Biosensor For Applications In Wearable Sweat-Based Sensing, Allison Anne Cargill

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The recent development and commercial availability of wearable devices like the FITBIT® and Apple Watch® reflect an increasing consumer interest in actively monitoring health parameters. Though wearable devices are beginning to emerge in a variety of fields and applications, there is particular interest in the development of wearable monitors for continuously sensing blood glucose levels. Diabetes currently affects nearly 10% of the American population, a number that is expected to rise in the near future, prompting increased interest in noninvasive methods of monitoring glucose levels. This interest in noninvasive monitoring and the recent advent of continuous monitoring products ...


Electrocatalysis In Li-S Batteries, Hesham I. Al Salem Jan 2016

Electrocatalysis In Li-S Batteries, Hesham I. Al Salem

Wayne State University Dissertations

Stabilizing polysulfide-shuttle process while ensuring high sulfur loading holds the key to realize high theoretical energy density (2500 Wh/kg) of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Though several carbon based porous materials have been used as host structures for sulfur and its intermediate polysulfides, the week adsorption of polysulfides on carbon surface and its poor reaction kinetics limits them from practical application. Here, we preset a novel ‘electcatalysis’ approach to stabilize polysulfide shuttle process and also enhance its red-ox kinetics. As a proof of concept, we have studied in-detail using conventional electrocatalyst i.e Pt/graphene composite, further the same extended to ...


Platinum Nanoparticle Decorated Sio2 Microfibers As Catalysts For Micro Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Propulsion, Bolin Chen, Nathaniel T. Garland, Jason Geder, Marius Pruessner, Eric Mootz, Allison Cargill, Anne Leners, Granit Vokshi, Jacob Davis, Wyatt Burns, Michael A. Daniele, Josh Kogot, Igor L. Medintz, Jonathan C. Claussen Jan 2016

Platinum Nanoparticle Decorated Sio2 Microfibers As Catalysts For Micro Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Propulsion, Bolin Chen, Nathaniel T. Garland, Jason Geder, Marius Pruessner, Eric Mootz, Allison Cargill, Anne Leners, Granit Vokshi, Jacob Davis, Wyatt Burns, Michael A. Daniele, Josh Kogot, Igor L. Medintz, Jonathan C. Claussen

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Micro unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) need to house propulsion mechanisms that are small in size but sufficiently powerful to deliver on-demand acceleration for tight radius turns, burst-driven docking maneuvers, and low-speed course corrections. Recently, small-scale hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) propulsion mechanisms have shown great promise in delivering pulsatile thrust for such acceleration needs. However, the need for robust, high surface area nanocatalysts that can be manufactured on a large scale for integration into micro UUV reaction chambers is still needed. In this report, a thermal/electrical insulator, silicon oxide (SiO2) microfibers, is used as a support for platinum nanoparticle (PtNP) catalysts ...


Platinum Nanoparticle Decorated Sio2 Microfibers As Catalysts For Micro Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Propulsion, Bolin Chen, Nathaniel T. Garland, Jason Geder, Marius Pruessner, Eric Mootz, Allison Cargill, Anne Leners, Granit Vokshi, Jacob Davis, Wyatt Burns, Michael A. Daniele, Josh Kogot, Igor L. Medintz, Jonathan C. Claussen Jan 2016

Platinum Nanoparticle Decorated Sio2 Microfibers As Catalysts For Micro Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Propulsion, Bolin Chen, Nathaniel T. Garland, Jason Geder, Marius Pruessner, Eric Mootz, Allison Cargill, Anne Leners, Granit Vokshi, Jacob Davis, Wyatt Burns, Michael A. Daniele, Josh Kogot, Igor L. Medintz, Jonathan C. Claussen

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Micro unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) need to house propulsion mechanisms that are small in size but sufficiently powerful to deliver on-demand acceleration for tight radius turns, burst-driven docking maneuvers, and low-speed course corrections. Recently, small-scale hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) propulsion mechanisms have shown great promise in delivering pulsatile thrust for such acceleration needs. However, the need for robust, high surface area nanocatalysts that can be manufactured on a large scale for integration into micro UUV reaction chambers is still needed. In this report, a thermal/electrical insulator, silicon oxide (SiO2) microfibers, is used as a support for platinum nanoparticle (PtNP) catalysts ...


Study Of Role Of Meniscus And Viscous Forces During Liquid-Mediated Contacts Separation, Prabin Dhital Jan 2016

Study Of Role Of Meniscus And Viscous Forces During Liquid-Mediated Contacts Separation, Prabin Dhital

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Menisci may form between two solid surfaces with the presence of an ultra-thin liquid film. When the separation operation is needed, meniscus and viscous forces contribute to an adhesion leading stiction, high friction, possibly high wear and potential failure of the contact systems, for instance microdevices, magnetic head disks and diesel fuel injectors. The situation may become more pronounced when the contacting surfaces are ultra-smooth and the normal load is small. Various design parameters, such as contact angle, initial separation height, surface tension and liquid viscosity, have been investigated during liquid-mediated contact separation. However, how the involved forces will change ...


Structural, Dielectric, And Ferroelectric Characterization Of Lead-Free Calcium-Cerium Co-Doped Batio3 Ceramics, Juan Alberto Duran Jan 2016

Structural, Dielectric, And Ferroelectric Characterization Of Lead-Free Calcium-Cerium Co-Doped Batio3 Ceramics, Juan Alberto Duran

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Structure, morphology, and regulation of the dielectric properties via close-composition intervals is demonstrated for variable-cerium, constant-calcium co-doped barium titanate (Ba0.80Ca0.20CeyTi1-yO3; y=0.0-0.25; referred to BCCT). The effect of variable Ce-content on the structure and dielectric properties of BCCT is investigated. X-ray diffraction spectra confirms the studied samples are mainly in BT tetragonal phase with a small secondary phase detected as CaTiO3 in BCCT for y = 0.20 and 0.25. However, the lattice parameter reduction was evident with increasing Ce-content. Composition-driven dielectric constant leap (4,000-5,500) was observed from intrinsic BCT to BCCT for (y ...


Advances In Perovskite Solar Cells, Chuantian Zuo, Henk J. Bolink, Hongwei Han, Jinsong Huang, David Cahen, Liming Ding Jan 2016

Advances In Perovskite Solar Cells, Chuantian Zuo, Henk J. Bolink, Hongwei Han, Jinsong Huang, David Cahen, Liming Ding

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Organolead halide perovskite materials possess a combination of remarkable optoelectronic properties, such as steep optical absorption edge and high absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes. Taken together with the ability for low temperature preparation, also from solution, perovskite-based devices, especially photovoltaic (PV) cells have been studied intensively, with remarkable progress in performance, over the past few years. The combination of high efficiency, low cost and additional (non-PV) applications provides great potential for commercialization. Performance and applications of perovskite solar cells often correlate with their device structures. Many innovative device structures were developed, aiming at large-scale fabrication, reducing ...


Biomimetic Substrate Control Of Cellular Mechanotransduction, Mohammad Nahid Andalib, Yuris A. Dzenis, Henry J. Donahue, Jung Yul Lim Jan 2016

Biomimetic Substrate Control Of Cellular Mechanotransduction, Mohammad Nahid Andalib, Yuris A. Dzenis, Henry J. Donahue, Jung Yul Lim

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Extracellular mechanophysical signals from both static substrate cue and dynamic mechanical loading have strong potential to regulate cell functions. Most of the studies have adopted either static or dynamic cue and shown that each cue can regulate cell adhesion, spreading, migration, proliferation, lineage commitment, and differentiation. However, there is limited information on the integrative control of cell functions by the static and dynamic mechanophysical signals. For example, a majority of dynamic loading studies have tested mechanical stimulation of cells utilizing cultures on flat surfaces without any surface modification. While these approaches have provided significant information on cell mechanotransduction, obtained outcomes ...


Bioink Properties Before, During And After 3d Bioprinting, Katja Holzl, Shengmao Lin, Liesbeth Tytgat, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Linxia Gu, Aleksandr Ovsianikov Jan 2016

Bioink Properties Before, During And After 3d Bioprinting, Katja Holzl, Shengmao Lin, Liesbeth Tytgat, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Linxia Gu, Aleksandr Ovsianikov

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Bioprinting is a process based on additive manufacturing from materials containing living cells. These materials, often referred to as bioink, are based on cytocompatible hydrogel precursor formulations, which gel in a manner compatible with different bioprinting approaches. The bioink properties before, during and after gelation are essential for its printability, comprising such features as achievable structural resolution, shape fidelity and cell survival. However, it is the final properties of the matured bioprinted tissue construct that are crucial for the end application. During tissue formation these properties are influenced by the amount of cells present in the construct, their proliferation, migration ...


Fiber Based Approaches As Medicine Delivery Systems, Farrokh Sharifi, Avinash C. Sooriyarachchi, Hayriye Altural, Reza Montazami, Marissa Nichole Rylander, Nicole Nastaran Hashemi Jan 2016

Fiber Based Approaches As Medicine Delivery Systems, Farrokh Sharifi, Avinash C. Sooriyarachchi, Hayriye Altural, Reza Montazami, Marissa Nichole Rylander, Nicole Nastaran Hashemi

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The goal of drug delivery is to ensure that therapeutic molecules reach the intended target organ or tissue, such that the effectiveness of the drug is maximized. The efficiency of a drug delivery system greatly depends on the choice of drug carrier. Recently, there has been growing interest in using micro- and nanofibers for this purpose. The reasons for this growing interest include these materials’ high surface area to volume ratios, ease of fabrication, high mechanical properties, and desirable drug release profile. Here, we review developments in using these materials made by the most prevalent methods of fiber fabrication: electrospinning ...


Electrokinetic Phenomena In Pencil Lead-Based Microfluidics, Yashar Bashirzadeh, Venkat Maruthamuthu, Shizhi Qian Jan 2016

Electrokinetic Phenomena In Pencil Lead-Based Microfluidics, Yashar Bashirzadeh, Venkat Maruthamuthu, Shizhi Qian

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Fabrication of microchannels and associated electrodes to generate electrokinetic phenomena often involves costly materials and considerable effort. In this study, we used graphite pencil-leads as low cost, disposable 3D electrodes to investigate various electrokinetic phenomena in straight cylindrical microchannels, which were themselves fabricated by using a graphite rod as the microchannel mold. Individual pencil-leads were employed as the micro-electrodes arranged along the side walls of the microchannel. Efficient electrokinetic phenomena provided by the 3D electrodes, including alternating current electroosmosis (ACEO), induced-charge electroosmosis (ICEO), and dielectrophoresis (DEP), were demonstrated by the introduced pencil-lead based microfluidic devices. The electrokinetic phenomena were characterized ...


Comparison Between Direct And Reverse Electroporation Of Cells In Situ: A Simulation Study, Leila Towhidi, Delaram Khodadadi, Nataly Maimari, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Henry Ip, Zoltan Kis, Brenda R. Kwak, Tatiana W. Petrova, Mauro Delorenzi, Rob Krams Jan 2016

Comparison Between Direct And Reverse Electroporation Of Cells In Situ: A Simulation Study, Leila Towhidi, Delaram Khodadadi, Nataly Maimari, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Henry Ip, Zoltan Kis, Brenda R. Kwak, Tatiana W. Petrova, Mauro Delorenzi, Rob Krams

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The discovery of the human genome has unveiled new fields of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, which has produced paradigm shifts on how to study disease mechanisms, wherein a current central focus is the understanding of how gene signatures and gene networks interact within cells. These gene function studies require manipulating genes either through activation or inhibition, which can be achieved by temporarily permeabilizing the cell membrane through transfection to deliver cDNA or RNAi. An efficient transfection technique is electroporation, which applies an optimized electric pulse to permeabilize the cells of interest. When the molecules are applied on top of seeded ...


Development Of A Synthetic Gene Network To Modulate Gene Expression By Mechanical Forces, Zoltan Kis, Tania Rodin, Asma Zafar, Zhangxing Lai, Grace Freke, Oliver Fleck, Armando Del Rio Hernandez, Leila Towhidi, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Takayuki Homma, Rob Krams Jan 2016

Development Of A Synthetic Gene Network To Modulate Gene Expression By Mechanical Forces, Zoltan Kis, Tania Rodin, Asma Zafar, Zhangxing Lai, Grace Freke, Oliver Fleck, Armando Del Rio Hernandez, Leila Towhidi, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Takayuki Homma, Rob Krams

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The majority of (mammalian) cells in our body are sensitive to mechanical forces, but little work has been done to develop assays to monitor mechanosensor activity. Furthermore, it is currently impossible to use mechanosensor activity to drive gene expression. To address these needs, we developed the first mammalian mechanosensitive synthetic gene network to monitor endothelial cell shear stress levels and directly modulate expression of an atheroprotective transcription factor by shear stress. The technique is highly modular, easily scalable and allows graded control of gene expression by mechanical stimuli in hard-to-transfect mammalian cells. We call this new approach mechanosyngenetics. To insert ...


Integration Of Flow Studies For Robust Selection Of Mechanoresponsive Genes, Nataly Maimari, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Alessandra Russo, Krysia Broda, Rob Krams Jan 2016

Integration Of Flow Studies For Robust Selection Of Mechanoresponsive Genes, Nataly Maimari, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Alessandra Russo, Krysia Broda, Rob Krams

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Blood flow is an essential contributor to plaque growth, composition and initiation. It is sensed by endothelial cells, which react to blood flow by expressing >1000 genes. The sheer number of genes implies that one needs genomic techniques to unravel their response in disease. Individual genomic studies have been performed but lack sufficient power to identify subtle changes in gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether a systematic meta-analysis of available microarray studies can improve their consistency.

We identified 17 studies using microarrays, of which 6 were performed in vivo and 11 in vitro. The in vivo studies were ...


Experimental Explanation Of The Formation Mechanism Of Surface Mound-Structures By Femtosecond Laser On Polycrystalline Ni60Nb40, Edwin Peng, A. Tsubaki, Craig A. Zuhlke, Meiyu Wang, Ryan Bell, Michael J. Lucis, Troy P. Anderson, Dennis R. Alexander, George Gogos, Jeffrey E. Shield Jan 2016

Experimental Explanation Of The Formation Mechanism Of Surface Mound-Structures By Femtosecond Laser On Polycrystalline Ni60Nb40, Edwin Peng, A. Tsubaki, Craig A. Zuhlke, Meiyu Wang, Ryan Bell, Michael J. Lucis, Troy P. Anderson, Dennis R. Alexander, George Gogos, Jeffrey E. Shield

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) is an emerging technique for creating functionalized surfaces with specialized properties, such as broadband optical absorption or superhydrophobicity/ superhydrophilicity. It has been demonstrated in the past that FLSP can be used to form two distinct classes of mound-like, self-organized micro/nanostructures on the surfaces of various metals. Here, the formation mechanisms of below surface growth (BSG) and above surface growth (ASG) mounds on polycrystalline Ni60Nb40 are studied. Cross-sectional imaging of these mounds by focused ion beam milling and subsequent scanning electron microscopy revealed evidence of the unique formation processes for each class ...


Characterizing The Boundary Lateral To The Shear Direction Of Deformation Twins In Magnesium, Y. Liu, N. Li, S. Shao, M. Gong, J Wang, R.J. Mccabe, Y. Jiang, C.N. Tome Jan 2016

Characterizing The Boundary Lateral To The Shear Direction Of Deformation Twins In Magnesium, Y. Liu, N. Li, S. Shao, M. Gong, J Wang, R.J. Mccabe, Y. Jiang, C.N. Tome

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The three-dimensional nature of twins, especially the atomic structures and motion mechanisms of the boundary lateral to the shear direction of the twin, has never been characterized at the atomic level, because such boundary is, in principle, crystallographically unobservable.We thus refer to it here as the dark side of the twin. Here, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomistic simulations, we characterize the dark side of {1012} deformation twins in magnesium. It is found that the dark side is serrated and comprised of {1012} coherent twin boundaries and semi-coherent twist prismatic–prismatic {2110} boundaries that control twin growth. The ...


Stress-Dependent Ultrasonic Scattering In Polycrystalline Materials, Christopher M. Kube, Christopher A Turner Jan 2016

Stress-Dependent Ultrasonic Scattering In Polycrystalline Materials, Christopher M. Kube, Christopher A Turner

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Stress-dependent elastic moduli of polycrystalline materials are used in a statistically based model for the scattering of ultrasonic waves from randomly oriented grains that are members of a stressed polycrystal. The stress is assumed to be homogeneous and can be either residual or generated from external loads. The stress-dependent elastic properties are incorporated into the definition of the differential scattering cross-section, which defines how strongly an incident wave is scattered into various directions. Nine stress-dependent differential scattering cross-sections or scattering coefficients are defined to include all possibilities of incident and scattered waves, which can be either longitudinal or (two) transverse ...


Graphene Platform For Neural Regenerative Medicine, Tasneem Bouzid, Alexander Sinitskii, Jung Yul Lim Jan 2016

Graphene Platform For Neural Regenerative Medicine, Tasneem Bouzid, Alexander Sinitskii, Jung Yul Lim

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Graphene is a material composed of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. The unique electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of graphene are extensively exploited for various applications in electronics, energy, and sensors. Studies also proposed the potential of graphene for biomedical applications. The intrinsic characteristics of graphene and its availability for chemical and physical modifications make graphene a promising vehicle for various biomedical applications including drug delivery, bioimaging, disease diagnostics, etc. The chemical structure of graphene and, in turn, its functionality, can be altered by attaching functional groups, which not only modify the ...


Expanded 3d Nanofiber Scaffolds: Cell Penetration, Neovascularization, And Host Response, Jiang Jiang, Zhuoran Li, Hongjun Wang, Yue Wang, Mark A. Carlson, Matthew J. Teusink, Matthew R. Macewan, Linxia Gu, Jingwei Xie Jan 2016

Expanded 3d Nanofiber Scaffolds: Cell Penetration, Neovascularization, And Host Response, Jiang Jiang, Zhuoran Li, Hongjun Wang, Yue Wang, Mark A. Carlson, Matthew J. Teusink, Matthew R. Macewan, Linxia Gu, Jingwei Xie

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Herein, a robust method to fabricate expanded nanofiber scaffolds with controlled size and thickness using a customized mold during the modified gas-foaming process is reported. The expansion of nanofiber membranes is also simulated using a computational fluid model. Expanded nanofiber scaffolds implanted subcutaneously in rats show cellular infiltration, whereas non-expanded scaffolds only have surface cellular attachment. Compared to unexpanded nanofiber scaffolds, more CD68+ and CD163+ cells are observed within expanded scaffolds at all tested time points post-implantation. More CCR7+ cells appear within expanded scaffolds at week 8 post-implantation. In addition, new blood vessels are present within the expanded scaffolds at ...


Active Stiffening Of F-Actin Network Dominated By Structural Transition Of Actin Filaments Into Bundles, Shengmao Lin, Xinwei Han, Gary C.P. Tsui, David Hui, Linxia Gu Jan 2016

Active Stiffening Of F-Actin Network Dominated By Structural Transition Of Actin Filaments Into Bundles, Shengmao Lin, Xinwei Han, Gary C.P. Tsui, David Hui, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Molecular motor regulated active contractile force is key for cells sensing and responding to their mechanical environment, which leads to characteristic structures and functions of cells. The F-actin network demonstrates a two-order of magnitude increase in its modulus due to contractility; however, the mechanism for this active stiffening remains unclear. Two widely acknowledged hypotheses are that active stiffening of F-actin network is caused by (1) the nonlinear force-extension behavior of cross-linkers, and (2) the loading mode being switched from bending to stretching dominated regime. Direct evidence supporting either theory is lacking. Here we examined these hypotheses and showed that a ...


Temperature-Dependent Helium Ion-Beam Mixing In An Amorphous Sioc/Crystalline Fe Composite, Qing Su, Lloyd Price, Lin Shao, Michael Nastasi Jan 2016

Temperature-Dependent Helium Ion-Beam Mixing In An Amorphous Sioc/Crystalline Fe Composite, Qing Su, Lloyd Price, Lin Shao, Michael Nastasi

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Temperature dependent He-irradiation-induced ion-beam mixing between amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) and crystalline Fe was examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The Fe marker layer (7.2 ± 0.8 nm) was placed in between two amorphous SiOC layers (200 nm). The amount of ion-beam mixing after 298, 473, 673, 873, and 1073 K irradiation was investigated. Both TEM and RBS results showed no ion-beam mixing between Fe and SiOC after 473 and 673 K irradiation and a very trivial amount of ion-beam mixing (~2 nm) after 298 K irradiation. At irradiation temperatures higher than ...


Stabilized Wide Bandgap MapbbrXI3– X Perovskite By Enhanced Grain Size And Improved Crystallinity, Miao Hu, Cheng Bi, Yongbo Yuan, Yang Bai, Jinsong Huang Jan 2016

Stabilized Wide Bandgap MapbbrXI3– X Perovskite By Enhanced Grain Size And Improved Crystallinity, Miao Hu, Cheng Bi, Yongbo Yuan, Yang Bai, Jinsong Huang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Methylammonium lead trihalide perovskite (MAPbX3, where MA is methylammonium, and X is a halide)-based solar cells have been intensively investigated recently, with the demonstrated certified solar power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 20%. To further boost the PCE to beyond the Schockley–Queisser limit, tandem structured solar cells have been investigated based on integrating MAPbX3 and low bandgap solar cells. However, the efficiency of the two-terminal integrated perovskite-silicon tandem cells is still low. The best reported efficiency of 13.7% for this type of tandem cells is far smaller than the individual cells yet, partially due to the ...


Ultrahigh Sensitivity Of Methylammonium Lead Tribromide Perovskite Single Crystals To Environmental Gases, Hong-Hua Fang, Sampson Adjokatse, Haotong Wei, Jie Yang, Graeme R. Blake, Jinsong Huang, Jacky Even, Maria Antonietta Loi Jan 2016

Ultrahigh Sensitivity Of Methylammonium Lead Tribromide Perovskite Single Crystals To Environmental Gases, Hong-Hua Fang, Sampson Adjokatse, Haotong Wei, Jie Yang, Graeme R. Blake, Jinsong Huang, Jacky Even, Maria Antonietta Loi

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

One of the limiting factors to high device performance in photovoltaics is the presence of surface traps. Hence, the understanding and control of carrier recombination at the surface of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite is critical for the design and optimization of devices with this material as the active layer. We demonstrate that the surface recombination rate (or surface trap state density) inmethylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) single crystals can be fully and reversibly controlled by the physisorption of oxygen and water molecules, leading to a modulation of the photoluminescence intensity by over two orders of magnitude.We report an unusually low surface ...


Low Temperature Solution-Processed Sb:Sno2 Nanocrystals For Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells, Yang Bai, Yanjun Fang, Yehao Deng, Qi Wang, Jingjing Zhao, Xiaopeng Zheng, Yang Zhang, Jinsong Huang Jan 2016

Low Temperature Solution-Processed Sb:Sno2 Nanocrystals For Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells, Yang Bai, Yanjun Fang, Yehao Deng, Qi Wang, Jingjing Zhao, Xiaopeng Zheng, Yang Zhang, Jinsong Huang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Inorganic metal oxide electron-transport layers (ETLs) have the potential to yield perovskite solar cells with improved stability, but generally need high temperature to form conductive and defect-less forms, which is not compatible with the fabrication of flexible and tandem solar cells. Here, we demonstrate a facile strategy for developing efficient inorganic ETLs by doping SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) with a small amount of Sb using a low-temperature solution-processed method. The electrical conductivity was remarkably enhanced by Sb-doping, which increased the carrier concentration in Sb:SnO2 NCs. Moreover, the upward shift of the Fermi level owing to doping results in ...


Pulsed Laser Cutting Of Magnesium-Calcium For Biodegradable Stents, M. P. Sealy, Y. B. Guo, J. F. Liu, C. Li Jan 2016

Pulsed Laser Cutting Of Magnesium-Calcium For Biodegradable Stents, M. P. Sealy, Y. B. Guo, J. F. Liu, C. Li

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

There is growing interests in the use of biodegradable magnesium implants for cardiovascular and pulmonary applications such as stents. Magnesium is a metal that has the ability to gradually dissolve and absorb into the human body after implantation. There is very little work discussing the relationship between process parameters and cut quality of magnesium stents by laser cutting. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of laser cutting conditions including peak laser power and cutting speed of a millisecond range pulsed laser on kerf geometry, surface topography, surface roughness, and microstructure. An assessment on the experimental work ...


Impact Of Patient Factors On Operative Duration During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Evaluation From The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database, Bethany Rose Lowndes, Cornelius A. Thiels, Elizabeth B. Habermann, Juliane Bingener, M. Susan Hallbeck, Denny Yu Jan 2016

Impact Of Patient Factors On Operative Duration During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Evaluation From The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database, Bethany Rose Lowndes, Cornelius A. Thiels, Elizabeth B. Habermann, Juliane Bingener, M. Susan Hallbeck, Denny Yu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Patient factors impact laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) difficulty, specifically operative duration. This study quantifies the impact of patient factors on LC duration.

METHODS: The national surgery database (American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program) was reviewed for all elective LC for biliary colic from 2005 to 2013. Multivariate general linear model and logistic regression were used to evaluate patient factors as predictors of operative duration greater than 60 minutes, adjusted for resident involvement and cholangiography.

RESULTS: A total of 24,099 LC met inclusion criteria. Regression analysis found procedure duration greater than 60 minutes was less likely for ...