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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

The Effect Of A Powered Ankle Foot Orthosis On Walking In A Stroke Subject: A Case Study, Ali Pourghasem, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Mohammad Kamali, Mohammad Jannesari, Iman Salafian Dec 2016

The Effect Of A Powered Ankle Foot Orthosis On Walking In A Stroke Subject: A Case Study, Ali Pourghasem, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Mohammad Kamali, Mohammad Jannesari, Iman Salafian

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

[Purpose] Standing and walking are impaired in stroke patients. Therefore, assisted devices are required to restore their walking abilities. The ankle foot orthosis with an external powered source is a new type of orthosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a powered ankle foot orthosis compared with unpowered orthoses in a stroke patient.

[Subjects and Methods] A single stroke subject participated in this study. The subject was fitted with three types of ankle foot orthosis (powered, posterior leg spring, and carbon ankle foot orthoses). He was asked to walk with and without the three types ...


Self-Patterning Gd Nano-Fibers In Mg-Gd Alloys, Yangxin Li, Jian Wang, Kaiguo Chen, Meiyue Shao, Yao Shen, Li Jin, Guo-Zhen Zhu Dec 2016

Self-Patterning Gd Nano-Fibers In Mg-Gd Alloys, Yangxin Li, Jian Wang, Kaiguo Chen, Meiyue Shao, Yao Shen, Li Jin, Guo-Zhen Zhu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Manipulating the shape and distribution of strengthening units, e.g. particles, fibers, and precipitates, in a bulk metal, has been a widely applied strategy of tailoring their mechanical properties. Here, we report self-assembled patterns of Gd nano-fibers in Mg-Gd alloys for the purpose of improving their strength and deformability. 1-nm Gd nano-fibers, with a 〈c〉-rod shape, are formed and hexagonally patterned in association with Gd segregations along dislocations that nucleated during hot extrusion. Such Gd-fiber patterns are able to regulate the relative activities of slips and twinning, as a result, overcome the inherent limitations in strength and ductility of ...


Single Site Robotc Device And Related Systems And Methods, Jack Mondry, Shane M. Farritor, Eric Markvicka, Thomas Frederick, Joseph Bartels Nov 2016

Single Site Robotc Device And Related Systems And Methods, Jack Mondry, Shane M. Farritor, Eric Markvicka, Thomas Frederick, Joseph Bartels

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The embodiments disclosed herein relate to various medical device components, including components that can be incor porated into robotic and/or in vivo medical devices. Certain embodiments include various medical devices for in vivo medical procedures.


Video Capture And Post-Processing Technique For Approximating 3d Projectile Trajectory, Chase M. Pfeifer, Judith M. Burnfield, Guilherme M. Cesar, Max H. Twedt, Jeff A. Hawks Nov 2016

Video Capture And Post-Processing Technique For Approximating 3d Projectile Trajectory, Chase M. Pfeifer, Judith M. Burnfield, Guilherme M. Cesar, Max H. Twedt, Jeff A. Hawks

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

In this paper we introduce a low-cost procedure and methodology for markerless projectile tracking in three-dimensional (3D) space. Understanding the 3D trajectory of an object in flight can often be essential in examining variables relating to launch and landing conditions. Many systems exist to track the 3D motion of projectiles but are often constrained by space or the type of object the system can recognize (Qualisys, Göteborg, Sweden; Vicon, Oxford, United Kingdom; Opti-Track, Corvallis, Oregon USA; Motion Analysis, Santa Rosa, California USA; Flight Scope, Orlando, Florida USA). These technologies can also be quite expensive, often costing hundreds of thousand dollars ...


Thermal Analysis Of Continuous And Patterned Multilayer Films In The Presence Of A Nanoscale Hot Spot, Jia-Yang Juang, Jinglin Zheng Oct 2016

Thermal Analysis Of Continuous And Patterned Multilayer Films In The Presence Of A Nanoscale Hot Spot, Jia-Yang Juang, Jinglin Zheng

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Thermal responses of multilayer films play essential roles in state-of-the-art electronic systems, such as photo/micro-electronic devices, data storage systems, and silicon-on-insulator transistors. In this paper, we focus on the thermal aspects of multilayer films in the presence of a nanoscale hot spot induced by near field laser heating. The problem is set up in the scenario of heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR), the next-generation technology to overcome the data storage density limit imposed by superparamagnetism. We characterized thermal responses of both continuous and patterned multilayer media films using transient thermal modeling. We observed that material configurations, in particular, the ...


Case Study Of Quantifying Energy Loss Through Ceiling-Attic Recessed Lighting Fixtures Through 3d Numerical Simulation, Ri Na, Shengmao Lin, Zhigang Shen, Linxia Gu Sep 2016

Case Study Of Quantifying Energy Loss Through Ceiling-Attic Recessed Lighting Fixtures Through 3d Numerical Simulation, Ri Na, Shengmao Lin, Zhigang Shen, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Abstract Air leakage through recessed lighting fixtures has been identified as a common issue that causes extra energy consumption in residential buildings. However, few quantitative studies in this area were found. As such, a preliminary assessment of the magnitude of this type of energy loss was conducted by using three-dimensional (3D) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. A hypothetical layout of recessed lighting fixtures was designed with boundary conditions of four different seasons, which were obtained from recorded roof/attic temperature data sets. The results of the study indicate that leakage of recessed lighting fixtures could be a significant channel ...


Compositionally Graded Bulk Heterojunction Devices And Methods Of Manufacturing The Same, Jinsong Huang, Zhengguo Xiao Sep 2016

Compositionally Graded Bulk Heterojunction Devices And Methods Of Manufacturing The Same, Jinsong Huang, Zhengguo Xiao

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Systems and methods are described to form compositionally graded BHJ structures utilizing solvent-fluxing techniques. In implementations, the systems and methods described herein involve a high boiling point additive, a solution of a polymer donor and an acceptor, a substrate material, a working solvent, and a flux solvent for formation of compositionally graded BHJ structures.


Bioink Properties Before, During And After 3d Bioprinting, Katja Hölzl, Shengmao Lin, Liesbeth Tytgat, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Linxia Gu, Aleksandr Ovsianikov Sep 2016

Bioink Properties Before, During And After 3d Bioprinting, Katja Hölzl, Shengmao Lin, Liesbeth Tytgat, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Linxia Gu, Aleksandr Ovsianikov

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Bioprinting is a process based on additive manufacturing from materials containing living cells. These materials, often referred to as bioink, are based on cytocompatible hydrogel precursor formulations, which gel in a manner compatible with different bioprinting approaches. The bioink properties before, during and after gelation are essential for its printability, comprising such features as achievable structural resolution, shape fidelity and cell survival. However, it is the final properties of the matured bioprinted tissue construct that are crucial for the end application. During tissue formation these properties are influenced by the amount of cells present in the construct, their proliferation, migration ...


Optical Patterning Of Trapped Charge In Nitrogen-Doped Diamond, Harishankar Jayakumar, Jacob Henshaw, Siddharth Dhomkar, Daniela Pagliero, Abdelghani Laraoui, Neil B. Manson, Remus Albu, Marcus W. Doherty, Carlos A. Meriles Aug 2016

Optical Patterning Of Trapped Charge In Nitrogen-Doped Diamond, Harishankar Jayakumar, Jacob Henshaw, Siddharth Dhomkar, Daniela Pagliero, Abdelghani Laraoui, Neil B. Manson, Remus Albu, Marcus W. Doherty, Carlos A. Meriles

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond is emerging as a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing and nanoscale metrology. Of interest in these applications is the manipulation of the NV charge, which can be attained by optical excitation. Here, we use two-colour optical microscopy to investigate the dynamics of NV photo-ionization, charge diffusion and trapping in type-1b diamond. We combine fixed-point laser excitation and scanning fluorescence imaging to locally alter the concentration of negatively charged NVs, and to subsequently probe the corresponding redistribution of charge. We uncover the formation of spatial patterns of trapped charge, which we qualitatively reproduce ...


Contribution Of Fiber Undulation To Mechanics Of Three-Dimensional Collagen-I Gel, Shengmao Lin, Linxia Gu Jul 2016

Contribution Of Fiber Undulation To Mechanics Of Three-Dimensional Collagen-I Gel, Shengmao Lin, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The collagen-I gel is extensively used as a scaffold material in tissue engineering due to its ability to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, the mechanics of collagen-I gel is investigated using a numerical model of three-dimensional collagen network. The resulted mechanical behavior was validated against the published experimental data. Results illustrated that fiber alignment was dominated in the low strain region, and its transition to stretching dominated phenomena at higher strain led to the strain stiffening of collagen gel. The collagen undulation at the microscopic level was found to delay the initiation of strain stiffening


Effects Of Electrode Off Centre On Trapped Thickness-Shear Modes In Contoured At-Cut Quartz Resonators, Junjie Shi, Cuiying Fan, Minghao Zhao, Jiashi S. Yang Jun 2016

Effects Of Electrode Off Centre On Trapped Thickness-Shear Modes In Contoured At-Cut Quartz Resonators, Junjie Shi, Cuiying Fan, Minghao Zhao, Jiashi S. Yang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

We investigated thickness-shear vibrations of a contoured, AT-cut quartz resonator with a pair of electrodes displaced from the resonator centre. The scalar differential equations by Stevens and Tiersten for thickness-shear vibrations of electroded and unelectroded quartz plates were employed. Based on the variational formulation of the scalar differential equations established in a previous paper and the variation-based Ritz method with trigonometric functions as basis functions, free vibration resonance frequencies and trapped thickness-shear modes were obtained. The effects of the electrode off centre on resonance frequencies and mode shapes were examined. When the electrode off centre is about one hundredth of ...


Focal Adhesion Kinase Regulation In Stem Cell Alignment And Spreading On Nanofibers, Mohammad Nahid Andalib, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Yuris A. Dzenis, Jung Yul Lim May 2016

Focal Adhesion Kinase Regulation In Stem Cell Alignment And Spreading On Nanofibers, Mohammad Nahid Andalib, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Yuris A. Dzenis, Jung Yul Lim

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

While electrospun nanofibers have demonstrated the potential for novel tissue engineering scaffolds, very little is known about the molecular mechanism of how cells sense and adapt to nanofibers. Here, we revealed the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), one of the key molecular sensors in the focal adhesion complex, in regulating mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) shaping on nanofibers. We produced uniaxially aligned and randomly distributed nanofibers from poly(L-lactic acid) to have the same diameters (about 130 nm) and evaluated MSC behavior on these nanofibers comparing with that on flat PLLA control. C3H10T1/2 murine MSCs exhibited upregulations in FAK ...


Molecular Combing Of Dna Nanofibers And Comparison To Electrospinning, Tanner L. Buresh Apr 2016

Molecular Combing Of Dna Nanofibers And Comparison To Electrospinning, Tanner L. Buresh

UCARE Research Products

The goal of these experiments was to create DNA nanofibers through the method of molecular combing (MC) and then compare the MC fibers to fibers created with electrospinning (ES). The experiment was designed and initial samples were created. After confirming that the method would succeed in creating DNA fibers, several parametric studies were performed in order to optimize the experiment and create the most uniform fibers possible. The parametric studies were done on the following variables: substrate material, pH level of DNA solution, and DNA solution concentration. After completion of all experiments, it was determined that although fibers could be ...


Method For Hyper-Polarizing Nuclear Spns At Arbtrary Magnetic Felds, Carlos A. Meriles, Daniela Pagliero, Abdelghani Laraoui Jan 2016

Method For Hyper-Polarizing Nuclear Spns At Arbtrary Magnetic Felds, Carlos A. Meriles, Daniela Pagliero, Abdelghani Laraoui

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

A method of dynamically polarizing the nuclear spin host of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is provided. The method uses optical, microwave and radio-frequency pulses to recursively transfer spin polarization from the NV electronic spin. Nitrogen nuclear spin initialization approaching 80% at room temperature is demonstrated both in ensemble and single NV centers without relying on level anti-crossings. This makes the method applicable at arbitrary magnetic fields.


Advances In Perovskite Solar Cells, Chuantian Zuo, Henk J. Bolink, Hongwei Han, Jinsong Huang, David Cahen, Liming Ding Jan 2016

Advances In Perovskite Solar Cells, Chuantian Zuo, Henk J. Bolink, Hongwei Han, Jinsong Huang, David Cahen, Liming Ding

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Organolead halide perovskite materials possess a combination of remarkable optoelectronic properties, such as steep optical absorption edge and high absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes. Taken together with the ability for low temperature preparation, also from solution, perovskite-based devices, especially photovoltaic (PV) cells have been studied intensively, with remarkable progress in performance, over the past few years. The combination of high efficiency, low cost and additional (non-PV) applications provides great potential for commercialization. Performance and applications of perovskite solar cells often correlate with their device structures. Many innovative device structures were developed, aiming at large-scale fabrication, reducing ...


Biomimetic Substrate Control Of Cellular Mechanotransduction, Mohammad Nahid Andalib, Yuris A. Dzenis, Henry J. Donahue, Jung Yul Lim Jan 2016

Biomimetic Substrate Control Of Cellular Mechanotransduction, Mohammad Nahid Andalib, Yuris A. Dzenis, Henry J. Donahue, Jung Yul Lim

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Extracellular mechanophysical signals from both static substrate cue and dynamic mechanical loading have strong potential to regulate cell functions. Most of the studies have adopted either static or dynamic cue and shown that each cue can regulate cell adhesion, spreading, migration, proliferation, lineage commitment, and differentiation. However, there is limited information on the integrative control of cell functions by the static and dynamic mechanophysical signals. For example, a majority of dynamic loading studies have tested mechanical stimulation of cells utilizing cultures on flat surfaces without any surface modification. While these approaches have provided significant information on cell mechanotransduction, obtained outcomes ...


Bioink Properties Before, During And After 3d Bioprinting, Katja Holzl, Shengmao Lin, Liesbeth Tytgat, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Linxia Gu, Aleksandr Ovsianikov Jan 2016

Bioink Properties Before, During And After 3d Bioprinting, Katja Holzl, Shengmao Lin, Liesbeth Tytgat, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Linxia Gu, Aleksandr Ovsianikov

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Bioprinting is a process based on additive manufacturing from materials containing living cells. These materials, often referred to as bioink, are based on cytocompatible hydrogel precursor formulations, which gel in a manner compatible with different bioprinting approaches. The bioink properties before, during and after gelation are essential for its printability, comprising such features as achievable structural resolution, shape fidelity and cell survival. However, it is the final properties of the matured bioprinted tissue construct that are crucial for the end application. During tissue formation these properties are influenced by the amount of cells present in the construct, their proliferation, migration ...


Comparison Between Direct And Reverse Electroporation Of Cells In Situ: A Simulation Study, Leila Towhidi, Delaram Khodadadi, Nataly Maimari, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Henry Ip, Zoltan Kis, Brenda R. Kwak, Tatiana W. Petrova, Mauro Delorenzi, Rob Krams Jan 2016

Comparison Between Direct And Reverse Electroporation Of Cells In Situ: A Simulation Study, Leila Towhidi, Delaram Khodadadi, Nataly Maimari, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Henry Ip, Zoltan Kis, Brenda R. Kwak, Tatiana W. Petrova, Mauro Delorenzi, Rob Krams

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The discovery of the human genome has unveiled new fields of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, which has produced paradigm shifts on how to study disease mechanisms, wherein a current central focus is the understanding of how gene signatures and gene networks interact within cells. These gene function studies require manipulating genes either through activation or inhibition, which can be achieved by temporarily permeabilizing the cell membrane through transfection to deliver cDNA or RNAi. An efficient transfection technique is electroporation, which applies an optimized electric pulse to permeabilize the cells of interest. When the molecules are applied on top of seeded ...


Development Of A Synthetic Gene Network To Modulate Gene Expression By Mechanical Forces, Zoltan Kis, Tania Rodin, Asma Zafar, Zhangxing Lai, Grace Freke, Oliver Fleck, Armando Del Rio Hernandez, Leila Towhidi, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Takayuki Homma, Rob Krams Jan 2016

Development Of A Synthetic Gene Network To Modulate Gene Expression By Mechanical Forces, Zoltan Kis, Tania Rodin, Asma Zafar, Zhangxing Lai, Grace Freke, Oliver Fleck, Armando Del Rio Hernandez, Leila Towhidi, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Takayuki Homma, Rob Krams

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The majority of (mammalian) cells in our body are sensitive to mechanical forces, but little work has been done to develop assays to monitor mechanosensor activity. Furthermore, it is currently impossible to use mechanosensor activity to drive gene expression. To address these needs, we developed the first mammalian mechanosensitive synthetic gene network to monitor endothelial cell shear stress levels and directly modulate expression of an atheroprotective transcription factor by shear stress. The technique is highly modular, easily scalable and allows graded control of gene expression by mechanical stimuli in hard-to-transfect mammalian cells. We call this new approach mechanosyngenetics. To insert ...


Integration Of Flow Studies For Robust Selection Of Mechanoresponsive Genes, Nataly Maimari, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Alessandra Russo, Krysia Broda, Rob Krams Jan 2016

Integration Of Flow Studies For Robust Selection Of Mechanoresponsive Genes, Nataly Maimari, Ryan M. Pedrigi, Alessandra Russo, Krysia Broda, Rob Krams

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Blood flow is an essential contributor to plaque growth, composition and initiation. It is sensed by endothelial cells, which react to blood flow by expressing >1000 genes. The sheer number of genes implies that one needs genomic techniques to unravel their response in disease. Individual genomic studies have been performed but lack sufficient power to identify subtle changes in gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether a systematic meta-analysis of available microarray studies can improve their consistency.

We identified 17 studies using microarrays, of which 6 were performed in vivo and 11 in vitro. The in vivo studies were ...


Experimental Explanation Of The Formation Mechanism Of Surface Mound-Structures By Femtosecond Laser On Polycrystalline Ni60Nb40, Edwin Peng, A. Tsubaki, Craig A. Zuhlke, Meiyu Wang, Ryan Bell, Michael J. Lucis, Troy P. Anderson, Dennis R. Alexander, George Gogos, Jeffrey E. Shield Jan 2016

Experimental Explanation Of The Formation Mechanism Of Surface Mound-Structures By Femtosecond Laser On Polycrystalline Ni60Nb40, Edwin Peng, A. Tsubaki, Craig A. Zuhlke, Meiyu Wang, Ryan Bell, Michael J. Lucis, Troy P. Anderson, Dennis R. Alexander, George Gogos, Jeffrey E. Shield

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) is an emerging technique for creating functionalized surfaces with specialized properties, such as broadband optical absorption or superhydrophobicity/ superhydrophilicity. It has been demonstrated in the past that FLSP can be used to form two distinct classes of mound-like, self-organized micro/nanostructures on the surfaces of various metals. Here, the formation mechanisms of below surface growth (BSG) and above surface growth (ASG) mounds on polycrystalline Ni60Nb40 are studied. Cross-sectional imaging of these mounds by focused ion beam milling and subsequent scanning electron microscopy revealed evidence of the unique formation processes for each class ...


Characterizing The Boundary Lateral To The Shear Direction Of Deformation Twins In Magnesium, Y. Liu, N. Li, S. Shao, M. Gong, J Wang, R.J. Mccabe, Y. Jiang, C.N. Tome Jan 2016

Characterizing The Boundary Lateral To The Shear Direction Of Deformation Twins In Magnesium, Y. Liu, N. Li, S. Shao, M. Gong, J Wang, R.J. Mccabe, Y. Jiang, C.N. Tome

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The three-dimensional nature of twins, especially the atomic structures and motion mechanisms of the boundary lateral to the shear direction of the twin, has never been characterized at the atomic level, because such boundary is, in principle, crystallographically unobservable.We thus refer to it here as the dark side of the twin. Here, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomistic simulations, we characterize the dark side of {1012} deformation twins in magnesium. It is found that the dark side is serrated and comprised of {1012} coherent twin boundaries and semi-coherent twist prismatic–prismatic {2110} boundaries that control twin growth. The ...


Stress-Dependent Ultrasonic Scattering In Polycrystalline Materials, Christopher M. Kube, Christopher A Turner Jan 2016

Stress-Dependent Ultrasonic Scattering In Polycrystalline Materials, Christopher M. Kube, Christopher A Turner

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Stress-dependent elastic moduli of polycrystalline materials are used in a statistically based model for the scattering of ultrasonic waves from randomly oriented grains that are members of a stressed polycrystal. The stress is assumed to be homogeneous and can be either residual or generated from external loads. The stress-dependent elastic properties are incorporated into the definition of the differential scattering cross-section, which defines how strongly an incident wave is scattered into various directions. Nine stress-dependent differential scattering cross-sections or scattering coefficients are defined to include all possibilities of incident and scattered waves, which can be either longitudinal or (two) transverse ...


Graphene Platform For Neural Regenerative Medicine, Tasneem Bouzid, Alexander Sinitskii, Jung Yul Lim Jan 2016

Graphene Platform For Neural Regenerative Medicine, Tasneem Bouzid, Alexander Sinitskii, Jung Yul Lim

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Graphene is a material composed of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. The unique electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of graphene are extensively exploited for various applications in electronics, energy, and sensors. Studies also proposed the potential of graphene for biomedical applications. The intrinsic characteristics of graphene and its availability for chemical and physical modifications make graphene a promising vehicle for various biomedical applications including drug delivery, bioimaging, disease diagnostics, etc. The chemical structure of graphene and, in turn, its functionality, can be altered by attaching functional groups, which not only modify the ...


Expanded 3d Nanofiber Scaffolds: Cell Penetration, Neovascularization, And Host Response, Jiang Jiang, Zhuoran Li, Hongjun Wang, Yue Wang, Mark A. Carlson, Matthew J. Teusink, Matthew R. Macewan, Linxia Gu, Jingwei Xie Jan 2016

Expanded 3d Nanofiber Scaffolds: Cell Penetration, Neovascularization, And Host Response, Jiang Jiang, Zhuoran Li, Hongjun Wang, Yue Wang, Mark A. Carlson, Matthew J. Teusink, Matthew R. Macewan, Linxia Gu, Jingwei Xie

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Herein, a robust method to fabricate expanded nanofiber scaffolds with controlled size and thickness using a customized mold during the modified gas-foaming process is reported. The expansion of nanofiber membranes is also simulated using a computational fluid model. Expanded nanofiber scaffolds implanted subcutaneously in rats show cellular infiltration, whereas non-expanded scaffolds only have surface cellular attachment. Compared to unexpanded nanofiber scaffolds, more CD68+ and CD163+ cells are observed within expanded scaffolds at all tested time points post-implantation. More CCR7+ cells appear within expanded scaffolds at week 8 post-implantation. In addition, new blood vessels are present within the expanded scaffolds at ...


Active Stiffening Of F-Actin Network Dominated By Structural Transition Of Actin Filaments Into Bundles, Shengmao Lin, Xinwei Han, Gary C.P. Tsui, David Hui, Linxia Gu Jan 2016

Active Stiffening Of F-Actin Network Dominated By Structural Transition Of Actin Filaments Into Bundles, Shengmao Lin, Xinwei Han, Gary C.P. Tsui, David Hui, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Molecular motor regulated active contractile force is key for cells sensing and responding to their mechanical environment, which leads to characteristic structures and functions of cells. The F-actin network demonstrates a two-order of magnitude increase in its modulus due to contractility; however, the mechanism for this active stiffening remains unclear. Two widely acknowledged hypotheses are that active stiffening of F-actin network is caused by (1) the nonlinear force-extension behavior of cross-linkers, and (2) the loading mode being switched from bending to stretching dominated regime. Direct evidence supporting either theory is lacking. Here we examined these hypotheses and showed that a ...


Temperature-Dependent Helium Ion-Beam Mixing In An Amorphous Sioc/Crystalline Fe Composite, Qing Su, Lloyd Price, Lin Shao, Michael Nastasi Jan 2016

Temperature-Dependent Helium Ion-Beam Mixing In An Amorphous Sioc/Crystalline Fe Composite, Qing Su, Lloyd Price, Lin Shao, Michael Nastasi

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Temperature dependent He-irradiation-induced ion-beam mixing between amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) and crystalline Fe was examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The Fe marker layer (7.2 ± 0.8 nm) was placed in between two amorphous SiOC layers (200 nm). The amount of ion-beam mixing after 298, 473, 673, 873, and 1073 K irradiation was investigated. Both TEM and RBS results showed no ion-beam mixing between Fe and SiOC after 473 and 673 K irradiation and a very trivial amount of ion-beam mixing (~2 nm) after 298 K irradiation. At irradiation temperatures higher than ...


Stabilized Wide Bandgap MapbbrXI3– X Perovskite By Enhanced Grain Size And Improved Crystallinity, Miao Hu, Cheng Bi, Yongbo Yuan, Yang Bai, Jinsong Huang Jan 2016

Stabilized Wide Bandgap MapbbrXI3– X Perovskite By Enhanced Grain Size And Improved Crystallinity, Miao Hu, Cheng Bi, Yongbo Yuan, Yang Bai, Jinsong Huang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Methylammonium lead trihalide perovskite (MAPbX3, where MA is methylammonium, and X is a halide)-based solar cells have been intensively investigated recently, with the demonstrated certified solar power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 20%. To further boost the PCE to beyond the Schockley–Queisser limit, tandem structured solar cells have been investigated based on integrating MAPbX3 and low bandgap solar cells. However, the efficiency of the two-terminal integrated perovskite-silicon tandem cells is still low. The best reported efficiency of 13.7% for this type of tandem cells is far smaller than the individual cells yet, partially due to the ...


Ultrahigh Sensitivity Of Methylammonium Lead Tribromide Perovskite Single Crystals To Environmental Gases, Hong-Hua Fang, Sampson Adjokatse, Haotong Wei, Jie Yang, Graeme R. Blake, Jinsong Huang, Jacky Even, Maria Antonietta Loi Jan 2016

Ultrahigh Sensitivity Of Methylammonium Lead Tribromide Perovskite Single Crystals To Environmental Gases, Hong-Hua Fang, Sampson Adjokatse, Haotong Wei, Jie Yang, Graeme R. Blake, Jinsong Huang, Jacky Even, Maria Antonietta Loi

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

One of the limiting factors to high device performance in photovoltaics is the presence of surface traps. Hence, the understanding and control of carrier recombination at the surface of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite is critical for the design and optimization of devices with this material as the active layer. We demonstrate that the surface recombination rate (or surface trap state density) inmethylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) single crystals can be fully and reversibly controlled by the physisorption of oxygen and water molecules, leading to a modulation of the photoluminescence intensity by over two orders of magnitude.We report an unusually low surface ...


Low Temperature Solution-Processed Sb:Sno2 Nanocrystals For Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells, Yang Bai, Yanjun Fang, Yehao Deng, Qi Wang, Jingjing Zhao, Xiaopeng Zheng, Yang Zhang, Jinsong Huang Jan 2016

Low Temperature Solution-Processed Sb:Sno2 Nanocrystals For Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells, Yang Bai, Yanjun Fang, Yehao Deng, Qi Wang, Jingjing Zhao, Xiaopeng Zheng, Yang Zhang, Jinsong Huang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Inorganic metal oxide electron-transport layers (ETLs) have the potential to yield perovskite solar cells with improved stability, but generally need high temperature to form conductive and defect-less forms, which is not compatible with the fabrication of flexible and tandem solar cells. Here, we demonstrate a facile strategy for developing efficient inorganic ETLs by doping SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) with a small amount of Sb using a low-temperature solution-processed method. The electrical conductivity was remarkably enhanced by Sb-doping, which increased the carrier concentration in Sb:SnO2 NCs. Moreover, the upward shift of the Fermi level owing to doping results in ...