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Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Parameters That Influence The Performance Of Dispersion Barrier Coatings, Randy Raditya May 2019

Parameters That Influence The Performance Of Dispersion Barrier Coatings, Randy Raditya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Barrier coating layers are important in many paper grades used in food packaging and have the potential to help reduce our use of plastics in some situations. Barrier layers to produce water proof packaging such as milk or juice cartons or coffee cups are common. Water based dispersion barrier coatings have the potential to be a low-cost alternative to extrusion coated layers. Water borne coatings are reported to be easy to recycle and break down in the environment. However, barrier properties are often less than what is desired and expected for these water borne coatings. The reason for this poor ...


Global Packaging Trends, Bekir Keskin, Bilge N. Altay, Merve Akyol, Guven Meral, Olgun Uyar, Paul D. Fleming Oct 2018

Global Packaging Trends, Bekir Keskin, Bilge N. Altay, Merve Akyol, Guven Meral, Olgun Uyar, Paul D. Fleming

Bilge Nazli Altay

The packaging sector is one of the massive traditional fields in the printing industry. The rapid developments in technology and environmental regulations have been affecting the expectations from packaging. User demands and the concerns to protect the environment are the two main factors that now demanding change in material properties. The choice used to depend on the physical and chemical requirements of the products, although today’s global mind set on the concepts such as biodegradability, recyclability, reusability, sustainability and carbon footprint reduction are becoming the reason to tailor packaging properties. In general, the choices have been switching from petroleum ...


Experimental Tests And Numerical Simulations For Failure Investigation On Corrugated Boxes Used On Household Appliance Packaging, Diego Fernandes Rodrigues, José Carlos Pereira Sep 2018

Experimental Tests And Numerical Simulations For Failure Investigation On Corrugated Boxes Used On Household Appliance Packaging, Diego Fernandes Rodrigues, José Carlos Pereira

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Packages made of corrugated paper are fundamental to the protection, transportation and handling of the appliance product market. During the storage and sales stages of a product, the package must resist compressive loads in different directions beyond moderate impacts. In this context, the objective of this work is to develop and implement a post-processor that allows the simultaneous analysis of two of the most common failure modes of packages made of corrugated paper: failure due to tensile or compressive stress limit, and failure due to local buckling, when the buckling of the faces of the corrugated paper between two peaks ...


Developments And Properties Of Plastic Mimicking Biopolymers For Food Packaging Application, Daniel I. Hefft Apr 2017

Developments And Properties Of Plastic Mimicking Biopolymers For Food Packaging Application, Daniel I. Hefft

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Sustainability takes an ever increasing importance in the food industry. Here not only the selection of raw materials plays a role, but also packaging materials. Nowadays there is an increasing number of biodegradable and bio-compostable packaging materials available.

However, these materials are still not able to replace mineral oil based packaging materials completely, nevertheless they are becoming increasingly important, since there must be solutions to problems such as pollution of the oceans by plastic waste, growing piles of rubbish from growing population, etc.

The following literature review shows briefly recent developments on plastic mimicking biopolymers, as these materials guarantee great ...


The Effect Of Creasing Lines On The Compression Strength Of Adjustable Height Corrugated Boxes, Péter Csavajda, Péter Böröcz, Ákos Mojzes, Bence Molnár Jan 2017

The Effect Of Creasing Lines On The Compression Strength Of Adjustable Height Corrugated Boxes, Péter Csavajda, Péter Böröcz, Ákos Mojzes, Bence Molnár

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Due to its high strength and low density, the corrugated fibreboard (CFB) box is one of the most popular types of packaging all over the world. This packaging device is able to fulfil a huge number of requirements of the logistic process, during the phases of handling, shipping and storage. In addition to this, corrugated packaging is easily machinable, so it is also suitable for special supply chains and products. These special needs include the requirement to fit to the inner measurements of the shipping device, e.g. the shipping container. This is particularly expected in case of less than ...


Adding A Polymer Film Barrier Layer In The Press Forming Process Of Paperboard Trays, Ville Leminen, Panu Tanninen, Mika Kainusalmi, Kirubel Bogale, Juha Varis Jan 2017

Adding A Polymer Film Barrier Layer In The Press Forming Process Of Paperboard Trays, Ville Leminen, Panu Tanninen, Mika Kainusalmi, Kirubel Bogale, Juha Varis

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility to add a barrier layer in the press forming phase of paperboard trays by sealing a polymer film to a paperboard substrate. Plastic coating is often an important part of packages manufactured for food packaging. Traditionally the paperboards for food packaging are coated in the paper mill before the actual forming of the package. Experiments with coated and uncoated boards were made and the bonding and adhesion of materials was observed. The results indicate that adhesion between the board and the film can be achieved in the forming process. However ...


Elevated Test Pressure Significantly Reduces Dynamic Accumulation Oxygen Transmission Rate (Astm F3136) Measurement Time For Barrier Packaging Films, Bruce A. Welt Sep 2015

Elevated Test Pressure Significantly Reduces Dynamic Accumulation Oxygen Transmission Rate (Astm F3136) Measurement Time For Barrier Packaging Films, Bruce A. Welt

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Measurement of gas transmission rates of materials is important for successful package design. The dynamic accumulation (DA) method (ASTM F3136) is becoming increasingly popular for measuring oxygen transmission rate (OTR) due to its simplicity and low cost. However, measurement time increases with barrier properties of materials, limiting measurement throughput. A dynamic accumulation measurement prototype capable of operating up to 1,000 psig was developed in order to accelerate gas transfer by boosting concentration gradients via elevated absolute pressures. Results show that measurement results were independent of test pressure while measurement times were substantially reduced. These results also suggest that gas ...


Effects Of Transportation Hazards On Package Performance And Food Product Shelf Life, Kyle Dunno Dec 2014

Effects Of Transportation Hazards On Package Performance And Food Product Shelf Life, Kyle Dunno

All Dissertations

This research studied the effect of transportation hazards on food product shelf life and package performance. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of package headspace volume, product viscosity and storage temperature on package integrity. Finally, accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) was utilized to determine how simulated transportation hazards affected the shelf life of a specific food product. Institutional retort pouches containing either water or 5% starch solution were filled with varying amounts of headspace volume to determine if package headspace volume could aid in package performance during simulated engineering tests for packaged products. Fixed displacement vibration testing and compression ...


Microanalysis Of Polymer Chain Diffusion In Heat Seals, Russell Cooper Dec 2014

Microanalysis Of Polymer Chain Diffusion In Heat Seals, Russell Cooper

All Theses

Heat sealing is an integral method for the closure and protection of packaging. Previous work has shown that seal strength is developed by the interdiffusion of polymer chains within heat seals. Heat seals were made between two dissimilar materials. Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EAA) was heat sealed to ionomer. Diffusion within the EAA-ionomer heat seals was estimated. The diffusion estimates were then related to resulting seal strength in the EAA-ionomer sealant system. Heated tooling sealing was utilized to make heat seals at 40 psi (275.79 kPa), 0.5 seconds, and a range of temperatures between 180˚F (82.22˚C ...


Is It Time To Dump Your Vendor Management System?, Rihaz Z. Chughatta Jul 2013

Is It Time To Dump Your Vendor Management System?, Rihaz Z. Chughatta

Rihaz Z Chughatta

Most companies today have either implemented, or are exploring, some form of a Vendor Management System (VMS) to consolidate their external suppliers. Companies that sell a VMS point out that this system allows a Customer to get the most cost-effective solution for their needs within a certain category of suppliers; the “when suppliers compete, you win” mentality prevails. Some of the VMS even have performance metrics by which suppliers are measured and then rated in the system; thus making the case that not only does a VMS provide the most cost-effective, but also the best performing and most efficient solution ...


The Effect Of Applying Established Color Theory To Packaging When Visible Product And External Labels Exist Simultaneously, Rachel Randall May 2013

The Effect Of Applying Established Color Theory To Packaging When Visible Product And External Labels Exist Simultaneously, Rachel Randall

All Theses

Color is affected by what is around it. A color doesn't necessarily look the same when its placed against two different colored backgrounds (Ryan, William, and Theodore Conover, 2004) Oftentimes, designers are given a blank package and given the task of creating a label or package for the product. What is missing is the product, which can be an integral part of this design process. What is not yet to be determined by current packaging research is how colors work together through the product and package. One way to determine this would be through transparent bottled packages that contain ...


Measuring Arousal Through Physiological Responses To Packaging Designs: Investigating The Validity Of Electrodermal Activity As A Measure Of Arousal In A Realistic Shopping Environment, Daniel Hutcherson May 2013

Measuring Arousal Through Physiological Responses To Packaging Designs: Investigating The Validity Of Electrodermal Activity As A Measure Of Arousal In A Realistic Shopping Environment, Daniel Hutcherson

All Theses

The validity of electrodermal activity is investigated in the context of packaging design evaluation as a sensitive measure of arousal. Analysts agree that purchasing decisions are subconscious and emotional decisions, contrasted against the popular belief that consumers make purely rational decisions. To understand the personal and rapid character of a consumer's purchasing decisions we must find methods of which to measure and interpret consumer reactions to various packaging designs. Focus groups are discussed as antiquated research methods and new, advanced technologies are outlined as physiological responses. Past literature displays methodological approaches to using electrodermal activity measures in consumer studies ...


The Effect Of Packaging Material Properties On Consumer Food Quality Perception In Quick-Service Restaurants, Emily Thackston May 2013

The Effect Of Packaging Material Properties On Consumer Food Quality Perception In Quick-Service Restaurants, Emily Thackston

All Theses

The majority of menu items available in quick-service restaurants (QSR) are consumed directly from a container or package. The main reasons consumers choose to eat fast food are because it is convenient, prepared quickly, a good value, and inexpensive. Therefore, the packaging becomes an integral part of the food product and from a consumer perspective must be consistent with their expectations and motives for choosing to eat fast food. Prior research has directly linked characteristics of consumer food packaging experience to their perception of its contents. The purpose of this research is to determine if consumer quality perception of food ...


Product Display Versus Graphical Representation On Packaging, Joshua Galvarino Dec 2012

Product Display Versus Graphical Representation On Packaging, Joshua Galvarino

All Theses

ABSTRACT
Previous research conducted (Hurley, et al., 2012) concerning physical and graphical product visibility from the primary display panel (PDP) is limited to one product category. This research expands previous peer-reviewed research, which indicates that there is a significant difference between consumer preferences of graphical display vs. physical product display on packaging.
The shelf presence of packages showing actual product visibility versus packages showing only a graphical representation of the product was evaluated. Both shopping results and quantitative data using eye-tracking technology were collected and cross-referenced with a qualitative, post-experiment survey.
Specifically, variables of packaging within pasta, snacks, prepared frozen ...


Determining The Proper Point Size For Display Type On Packaging, Joanna Fischer Aug 2012

Determining The Proper Point Size For Display Type On Packaging, Joanna Fischer

All Theses

Through the use of a preference test, the proper point size of display text on a package was evaluated in relation to a package's proportions. The test involved the examination of packaging images displaying the product or brand name in various point sizes by 150 participants who were then asked to choose the option they most preferred. The participants were then provided with a post-survey intended to gather additional information regarding potential preference motives.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the most preferred display type size of a package based on its relationship with the package ...


The Effect Of Food Ingredients On The Oxygen Barrier Properties Of Retort Materials, Amanda Ward Aug 2012

The Effect Of Food Ingredients On The Oxygen Barrier Properties Of Retort Materials, Amanda Ward

All Theses

An unexplored area in research is addressing how retorted food ingredients interact with retort packaging's oxygen barrier. Ten common food ingredients (whey protein isolate, soy protein isolate, bovine gelatin, fish gelatin, high molecular weight fish gelatin, water, air, oil, potato starch, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) were assessed to find their effect on the barrier properties of CPP, PET, and high barrier commercial retort pouches. OxySense Gen III 300 and Mocon OxTran 2/21 were used to evaluate the samples. CPP pouches were first assessed with the OxTran 2/21 and indicated that treatments affected the OTR's of the film ...


Cushop: A Simulated Shopping Environment Fostering Consumer-Centric Packaging Design & Testing, Charles Tonkin Aug 2011

Cushop: A Simulated Shopping Environment Fostering Consumer-Centric Packaging Design & Testing, Charles Tonkin

All Dissertations

Consumer product packaging provides product damage protection, extends product shelf life, and communicates product usage instructions to the consumer. Its collective contribution to the waste stream is notorious, but its role in product salability is much less understood. Consumers now make the majority of product purchase decisions while present at the shelf, and since they do it very quickly (within 5-8 seconds), and do not appear to adhere to strong brand loyalty as was once more common, packaging (and more specifically, its aesthetics and contrast with its competitors) plays a dominant role in the decision-making process. It is difficult, however ...


Effect Of Different Oxygen Barrier Pouches On The Quality Of Retorted Carrots, Sarah Khor Aug 2011

Effect Of Different Oxygen Barrier Pouches On The Quality Of Retorted Carrots, Sarah Khor

All Theses

Thermally processed (TP) baby carrots were packaged in pouches with varying oxygen transmission rate (OTR) pouches. The pouches were four layer laminate (PET-Nylon-Barrier-CPP) with barrier layer being foil, aluminum oxide (AlOx), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), and nylon. Retort pouches were placed in boxes that were stored in an environmental chamber (43 °C, 50%RH). The objective of the study was to determine an alternative barrier retort pouch that is microwavable and still had similar barrier functions to foil for baby carrots and determine how the alternative compare with regard to shelf life. Instrumental analysis of color (L*, a*, b*) and ...


Forest Products Laboratory: Supporting The Nation's Armed Forces With Valuable Wood Research For 90 Years, Christopher D. Risbrudt, Robert J. Ross, Julie J. Blankenburg, Charles A. Nelson Jan 2007

Forest Products Laboratory: Supporting The Nation's Armed Forces With Valuable Wood Research For 90 Years, Christopher D. Risbrudt, Robert J. Ross, Julie J. Blankenburg, Charles A. Nelson

Julie Blankenburg

Founded in 1910 by the U.S. Forest Service to serve as a centralized, national wood research laboratory, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has a long history of providing technical services to other government agencies, including those within the Department of Defense (DoD). A recent search of FPL’s library and correspondence files revealed that approximately 10,000 articles, reports, manuals, other technical publications, and communications have been generated and provided to the DoD since 1910. FPL has provided support on a broad array of technical questions—from designporting materiel to Europe and the South Pacific during World War ...