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Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Structure And Optical Properties Of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (Tmds) – Mx2 (M = Mo, W & X = S, Se) Under High Pressure And High Temperature Conditions, Nirup Reddy Bandaru Aug 2015

Structure And Optical Properties Of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (Tmds) – Mx2 (M = Mo, W & X = S, Se) Under High Pressure And High Temperature Conditions, Nirup Reddy Bandaru

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Layered structured materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have gained immense interest in recent times due to their exceptional structural, electrical and optical properties. Recent studies show semiconducting TMDs such as MX2 (M= Mo, W & X = S, Se) could be used as potential shock absorbing material, which has resulted in extensive studies on structural stability of these materials under the influence of high pressure. Understanding the structural stability of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 under high pressure has been very challenging due to contradicting observations and interpretations reported in the past. Hence ...


High Pressure Behavior Of Mullite-Type Oxides: Phase Transitions, Amorphization, Negative Linear Compressibility And Microstructural Implications, Patricia Kalita May 2015

High Pressure Behavior Of Mullite-Type Oxides: Phase Transitions, Amorphization, Negative Linear Compressibility And Microstructural Implications, Patricia Kalita

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Even though mullite occurs rarely in nature, it is perhaps one of the most important phases in both traditional and advanced ceramics. Existing and emerging applications of mullite and mullite-type materials include: high-temperature composites, aerospace materials, ballistic shielding for military applications and even non-linear optical materials. There are many uncertainties regarding the basic physical properties of mullite-type materials, particularly in terms of their high-pressure structural stability and mechanical behavior that are important to address for emerging applications of mullites as engineering materials. This work is the first reported comprehensive investigation of the high –pressure structural behavior of several different mullites ...


Energy Selective Neutron Imaging For The Characterization Of Polycrystalline Materials, Robin Woracek May 2015

Energy Selective Neutron Imaging For The Characterization Of Polycrystalline Materials, Robin Woracek

Doctoral Dissertations

This multipart dissertation focuses on the development and evaluation of advanced methods for material testing and characterization using neutron diffraction and imaging techniques. A major focus is on exploiting diffraction contrast in energy selective neutron imaging (often referred to as Bragg edge imaging) for strain and phase mapping of crystalline materials. The dissertation also evaluates the use of neutron diffraction to study the effect of multi-axial loading, in particular the role of applying directly shear strains from the application of torsion. A portable tension-torsion-tomography loading system has been developed for in-situ measurements and integrated at major user facilities around the ...


Phase Dynamics Of Locset Control Methodology, Brendan Neschke May 2015

Phase Dynamics Of Locset Control Methodology, Brendan Neschke

Masters Theses

Single-mode fiber amplifiers produce diffraction-limited beams very efficiently. Maximum beam intensity requires that an array of these amplifiers have their beams coherently combined at the target. Optical path differences and noise adversely affect beam quality. An existing closed loop phase control methodology, called the locking of optical coherence by single-detector electronic-frequency tagging (LOCSET), corrects phase errors in real time by electronically detecting path length differences and sending signals to lithium niobate phase adjusters. Broadening the line-width using “jitter” of the input signal can increase the output power of an individual amplifier by suppressing nonlinearity. The system dynamics of LOCSET are ...


Inżynieria Chemiczna Ćw., Wojciech M. Budzianowski Jan 2015

Inżynieria Chemiczna Ćw., Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

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Tematyka Prac Doktorskich, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Jan 2015

Tematyka Prac Doktorskich, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Improving The Signal-To-Noise Of Nanopore Sensors, Matthew Puster Jan 2015

Improving The Signal-To-Noise Of Nanopore Sensors, Matthew Puster

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Over the last five years, solid state nanopore technology advanced to rival biological pores as a platform for next generation DNA sequencing. Fabrication improvements led to a reduction in nanopore diameter and membrane thickness, offering high precision sensing. Custom electronics were developed concomitant with low capacitance membranes for low-noise, high-bandwidth measurements. These advances improved our ability to detect small differences between translocating molecules and to measure short molecules translocating at high speeds.

This work focuses specifically on the challenge of maximizing the signal magnitude generated by the solid state nanopore. One way that this can be achieved is by thinning ...


Crystal-Amorphous Transformation Via Defect-Templating In Phase-Change Materials, Pavan Nukala Jan 2015

Crystal-Amorphous Transformation Via Defect-Templating In Phase-Change Materials, Pavan Nukala

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Phase-change materials (PCM) such as GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te alloys are potential candidates for non-volatile memory applications, because they can reversibly and rapidly transform between a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase with medium-range order. Traditionally, crystal-amorphous transformation in these materials has been carried out via melt-quench pathway, where the crystalline phase is heated beyond its melting point by the rising edge of an electric pulse, and the melt phase is quenched by the falling edge into a glassy phase. Formation of an intermediate melt phase in this transformation pathway requires usage of large switching current densities, resulting in energy wastage ...


Electronic And Structural Investigation Of Nanocrystal Thin Films Tuned Via Surface Chemistry, Elizabeth Ashley Gaulding Jan 2015

Electronic And Structural Investigation Of Nanocrystal Thin Films Tuned Via Surface Chemistry, Elizabeth Ashley Gaulding

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Monodisperse colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) provide an opportunity to access physical properties that cannot be realized in bulk materials, simply by tuning the particle size or shape. These NCs form the basis of an artificial periodic table that can be used as building blocks to engineer a new class of solid-state materials with emergent properties. The monodispersity offers a structural advantage for assembling NCs into an ordered superlattice, in addition to a narrow distribution of band energies which in principle promote more efficient transport when the NCs are electronically coupled in a thin film solid after undergoing surface chemistry treatments. However ...


Optomechanical Devices And Sensors Based On Plasmonic Metamaterial Absorbers, Hai Zhu Jan 2015

Optomechanical Devices And Sensors Based On Plasmonic Metamaterial Absorbers, Hai Zhu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Surface plasmon resonance is the resonant oscillations of the free electrons at the interface between two media with different signs in real permittivities, e.g. a metal and a dielectric, stimulated by light. Plasmonics is a promising field of study, because electron oscillations inside a subwavelength space at optical frequencies simultaneously overcome the limit of diffraction in conventional photonics and carrier mobilities in semiconductor electronics. Due to the subwavelength confinement, plasmonic resonances can strongly enhance local fields and, hence, magnify light-matter interactions. Optical absorbers based on plasmonic metamaterials can absorb light resonantly at the operating wavelengths with up to 100 ...


Phase Field Approach For Multiphase Phase Transformations, Twinning, And Variant-Variant Transformations In Martensite, Arunabha Mohan Roy Jan 2015

Phase Field Approach For Multiphase Phase Transformations, Twinning, And Variant-Variant Transformations In Martensite, Arunabha Mohan Roy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

New advanced phase field model of transformations between martensitic variants and multiple twinning within martensitic variants is developed for large strains and lattice rotations. It resolves numerous existing problems. The model, which involves just one order parameter for the description of each variant-variant transformation and multiple twinnings within each martensitic variant, provides a well-controlled description of variant-variant transformations and multiple twinning, including expressions for interface tension which are consistent with the sharp interface limit. The finite element approach is developed and applied to the solution of a number of examples of twinning and combined austenite-martensite and martensite-martensite phase transformations (PTs ...


Effects Of Gravity On The Acceleration And Pair Statistics Of Inertial Particles In Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence, H. Parishani, O. Ayala, B. Rosa, L.-P. Wang, W. W. Grabowski Jan 2015

Effects Of Gravity On The Acceleration And Pair Statistics Of Inertial Particles In Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence, H. Parishani, O. Ayala, B. Rosa, L.-P. Wang, W. W. Grabowski

Engineering Technology Faculty Publications

Within the context of heavy particles suspended in a turbulent airflow, we study the effects of gravity on acceleration statistics and radial relative velocity (RRV) of inertial particles. The turbulent flow is simulated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) on a 2563 grid and the dynamics of O(106) inertial particles by the point-particle approach. For particles/droplets with radius from 10 to 60 µm, we found that the gravity plays an important role in particle acceleration statistics: (a) a peak value of particle acceleration variance appears in both the horizontal and vertical directions at a particle Stokes number ...


Effects Of Forcing Time Scale On The Simulated Turbulent Flows And Turbulent Collision Statistics Of Inertial Particles, B. Rosa, H. Parishani, O. Ayala, L.-P. Wang Jan 2015

Effects Of Forcing Time Scale On The Simulated Turbulent Flows And Turbulent Collision Statistics Of Inertial Particles, B. Rosa, H. Parishani, O. Ayala, L.-P. Wang

Engineering Technology Faculty Publications

In this paper, we study systematically the effects of forcing time scale in the large-scale stochastic forcing scheme of Eswaran and Pope ["An examination of forcing in direct numerical simulations of turbulence," Comput. Fluids 16, 257 (1988)] on the simulated flow structures and statistics of forced turbulence. Using direct numerical simulations, we find that the forcing time scale affects the flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number. Other flow statistics can be predicted using the altered flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number, except when the forcing time scale is made unrealistically large to yield a Taylor microscale flow Reynolds ...


Development Of Bond-Order Potentials For Body-Centered-Cubic Transition Metals And Their Application In Atomistic Studies Of Plastic Properties Mediated By Dislocations, Yi-Shen Lin Jan 2015

Development Of Bond-Order Potentials For Body-Centered-Cubic Transition Metals And Their Application In Atomistic Studies Of Plastic Properties Mediated By Dislocations, Yi-Shen Lin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

DEVELOPMENT OF BOND-ORDER POTENTIALS FOR BODY-CENTERED-CUBIC TRANSITION METALS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN ATOMISTIC STUDIES OF PLASTIC PROPERTIES MEDIATED BY DISLOCATIONS

Yi-Shen Lin

Professor Vaclav Vitek

Bond-order potentials (BOPs), based on the tight binding (TB) approach for the evaluation of bonding, are an real-space method. They are eminently suitable for atomistic simulations of extended defects in transition metals in which the bonding is mixed nearly free electron and covalent. The latter requires a rigorous quantum mechanical treatment performed within the TB. In this Thesis, new BOPs were developed for non-magnetic BCC transition metals, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W ...


Chirality And Its Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking In Two Liquid Crystal Systems, Louis Kang Jan 2015

Chirality And Its Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking In Two Liquid Crystal Systems, Louis Kang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Chirality, or handedness, is a key concept spanning all fields of natural science, from biology to mathematics. Chiral structures can arise from achiral building blocks that lack a handedness if their assembly is unstable to chiral deformations, a phenomenon called spontaneous symmetry breaking. We theoretically study the role of chirality in two systems composed of liquid crystals dissolved or suspended in water, and our results match those obtained experimentally by our collaborators. In the first system, we study achiral liquid crystals whose Frank twist modulus is much lower than their splay and bend Frank moduli and which are confined in ...


The Interaction Mechanisms Of A Screw Dislocation With A Defective Coherent Twin Boundary In Copper, Qiongjiali Fang Jan 2015

The Interaction Mechanisms Of A Screw Dislocation With A Defective Coherent Twin Boundary In Copper, Qiongjiali Fang

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Σ3{111} coherent twin boundary (CTB) in face-centered-cubic (FCC) metals and alloys have been regarded as an efficient way to simultaneously increase strength and ductility at the nanoscale. Extensive study of dislocation-CTB interaction has been carried out by a combination of computer simulations, experiments and continuum theory. Most of them, however, are based on the perfect CTB assumption. A recent study [Wang YM, Sansoz F, LaGrange T, et al. Defective twin boundaries in nanotwinned metals. Nat Mater. 2013;12(8):697-702.] has revealed the existence of intrinsic kink-like defects in CTBs of nanotwinned copper through nanodiffraction mapping technique, and has ...


Exchange Mechanisms In Macroscopic Ordered Organic Magnetic Semiconductors, Naveen Rawat Jan 2015

Exchange Mechanisms In Macroscopic Ordered Organic Magnetic Semiconductors, Naveen Rawat

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Small molecule organic semiconductors such as phthalocyanines and their derivatives represent a very interesting alternative to inorganic semiconductor materials for the development of flexible electronic devices such as organic thin field effect transistors, organic Light Emitting Diodes and photo-voltaic cells. Phthalocyanine molecules can easily accommodate a variety of metal atoms as well in the central core of the molecule, resulting in wide range of magnetic properties. Exploration of optical properties of organic crystalline semiconductors thin films is challenging due to sub-micron grain sizes and the presence of numerous structural defects, disorder and grain boundaries. However, this can be overcome by ...


Step Growth And Meandering In A Precursor-Mediated Epitaxy With Anisotropic Attachment Kinetics And Terrace Diffusion, Mikhail Khenner Dec 2014

Step Growth And Meandering In A Precursor-Mediated Epitaxy With Anisotropic Attachment Kinetics And Terrace Diffusion, Mikhail Khenner

Mikhail Khenner

Step meandering instability in a Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type model for the growth of an isolated, atomically high step on a crystal surface is analyzed. It is assumed that the growth is sustained by the molecular precursors deposition on a terrace and their decomposition into atomic constituents; both processes are explicitly modeled. A strongly nonlinear evolution PDE for the shape of the step is derived in the long-wave limit and without assuming smallness of the amplitude; this equation may be transformed into a convective Cahn-Hilliard-type PDE for the step slope. Meandering is studied as a function of the precursors diffusivity and ...


Electromigration-Driven Evolution Of The Surface Morphology And Composition For A Bi-Component Solid Film, Mikhail Khenner, Mahdi Bandegi Dec 2014

Electromigration-Driven Evolution Of The Surface Morphology And Composition For A Bi-Component Solid Film, Mikhail Khenner, Mahdi Bandegi

Mikhail Khenner

A two PDEs-based model is developed for studies of a morphological and compositional evolution of a thermodynamically stable alloy surface in a strong electric field, assuming different and anisotropic diffusional mobilities of the two atomic components. The linear stability analysis of a planar surface and the computations of morphology coarsening are performed. It is shown that the conditions for instability and the characteristic wavelength and growth rate differ from their counterparts in a single-component film. Computational parametric analyses reveal the sensitivity of the scaling exponents to the electric field strength and to the magnitude of anisotropies difference.


Zespół Energii Odnawialnej I Zrównoważonego Rozwoju (Eozr), Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2014

Zespół Energii Odnawialnej I Zrównoważonego Rozwoju (Eozr), Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.