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2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 220

Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Turning An Organic Semiconductor Into A Low-Resistance Material By Ion Implantation, Beatrice Fraboni, Alessandra Scidà, Piero Cosseddu, Yongqiang Wang, Michael Nastasi, Silvia Milita, Annalisa Bonfiglio Dec 2015

Turning An Organic Semiconductor Into A Low-Resistance Material By Ion Implantation, Beatrice Fraboni, Alessandra Scidà, Piero Cosseddu, Yongqiang Wang, Michael Nastasi, Silvia Milita, Annalisa Bonfiglio

NCESR Publications and Research

We report on the effects of low energy ion implantation on thin films of pentacene, carried out to investigate the efficacy of this process in the fabrication of organic electronic devices. Two different ions, Ne and N, have been implanted and compared, to assess the effects of different reactivity within the hydrocarbon matrix. Strong modification of the electrical conductivity, stable in time, is observed following ion implantation. This effect is significantly larger for N implants (up to six orders of magnitude), which are shown to introduce stable charged species within the hydrocarbon matrix, not only damage as is the case ...


Electromechanics Of An Ocean Current Turbine, Vasileios Tzelepis Dec 2015

Electromechanics Of An Ocean Current Turbine, Vasileios Tzelepis

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The development of a numeric simulation for predicting the performance of an Ocean Current Energy Conversion System is presented in this thesis along with a control system development using a PID controller for the achievement of specified rotational velocity set-points. In the beginning, this numeric model is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink® and it is used to predict the performance of a three phase squirrel single-cage type induction motor/generator in two different cases. The first case is a small 3 meter rotor diameter, 20 kW ocean current turbine with fixed pitch blades, and the second case a 20 meter, 720 ...


Failure Simulations At Multiple Length Scales In High Temperature Structural Alloys, Chao Pu Dec 2015

Failure Simulations At Multiple Length Scales In High Temperature Structural Alloys, Chao Pu

Doctoral Dissertations

A number of computational methodologies have been developed to investigate the deformation and damage mechanism of various structural materials at different length scale and under extreme loading conditions, and also to provide insights in the development of high-performance materials.

In microscopic material behavior and failure modes, polycrystalline metals of interest include heterogeneous deformation field due to crystalline anisotropy, inter/intra grain or phase and grain boundary interactions. Crystal plasticity model is utilized to simulate microstructure based polycrystalline materials, and micro-deformation information, such as lattice strain evolution, can be captured based on crystal plasticity finite element modeling (CPFEM) in ABAQUS. The ...


Finite Element Analysis (Fea) Study Of The Thermal Stress Concentrations In Planar-Type Sodium Sulfur (Nas) Secondary Batteries, Jeffrey P. Colker Dec 2015

Finite Element Analysis (Fea) Study Of The Thermal Stress Concentrations In Planar-Type Sodium Sulfur (Nas) Secondary Batteries, Jeffrey P. Colker

Theses and Dissertations

The importance of a reliable and safe way to store energy, and allow for on-demand usage, has led to much research in the field of secondary battery development. The thesis herein explores a technology that has shown promising results when implemented in large-scale energy grid applications. Though the technology has proven viable in both load-leveling on existing grids as well as serving to legitimize renewable energy sources, the development of such advanced battery systems is not without challenge. Sodium-sulfur (NaS) secondary cells have shown promising results when implemented in the aforementioned energy storage applications. One of the main drawbacks to ...


Field And Laboratory Study Of The Flàajökull Glacier, Iceland, William Russell Jacobson, Jr. Dec 2015

Field And Laboratory Study Of The Flàajökull Glacier, Iceland, William Russell Jacobson, Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

The increased surface melting of the outlet glaciers of the Vatnajökull Ice Cap has a profound affect on the dynamics of the ice-bed couple and landform genesis. Soft-bedded glaciers are largely inaccessible, which creates a problem. One challenge is to understand the complex interactions of the glacier bed and its resultant depositional and deformational landform systems. This study investigates an outlet glacier from the Vatnajökull Ice Cap, described herein as the Fláajökull glacier system. To circumvent some of these problems, three separate projects were conducted in this dissertation: (1) magnetic fabric study of effective pressure (difference between the ice-overburden pressure ...


Advancing Caloric Materials For Efficient Cooling: Key Scientific And Device-Related Materials Challenges For Impact, Jun Cui, Duane D. Johnson, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Ichiro Takeuchi, Qiming Zhang Dec 2015

Advancing Caloric Materials For Efficient Cooling: Key Scientific And Device-Related Materials Challenges For Impact, Jun Cui, Duane D. Johnson, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Ichiro Takeuchi, Qiming Zhang

Materials Science and Engineering Reports

Workshop Goal: Assess current status of caloric materials and address key basic science challenges to advance reversible caloric materials exhibiting improved performance and long cycle life for transformational efficient caloric cooling technologies, and a systems approach for the use of the materials in device application. In addition, report on necessary paths forward for materials and systems design success for societal impact – a 20-30% drop in energy needs for cooling.


Investigation Of A Numerical Algorithm For A Discretized Rubber-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission Dynamic Model And Techniques For The Measurement Of Belt Material Properties., Brian Gene Ballew Dec 2015

Investigation Of A Numerical Algorithm For A Discretized Rubber-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission Dynamic Model And Techniques For The Measurement Of Belt Material Properties., Brian Gene Ballew

Theses and Dissertations

A numerical algorithm for modeling the dynamic response of a rubber-belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) belt is recreated. The numerical attributes applied to the algorithm and difficulties with numerical stability are discussed in detail. The degrees of freedom of the system have been expanded to include the dynamics of the engine torque output and vehicle loads such as rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. This was done to emphasize the use of the model as an analysis tool for simulating CVT/engine/vehicle response. The increased degrees of freedom require the addition of a linear dampening element between belt nodes to ...


Spare Parts On Demand Using Additive Manufacturing : A Simulation Model For Cost Evaluation., Stefan Jedeck Dec 2015

Spare Parts On Demand Using Additive Manufacturing : A Simulation Model For Cost Evaluation., Stefan Jedeck

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Little is known about the impact of additive manufacturing in the spare part supply chain. A few studies are available, but they focus on specific parts and their applications only. A general model, which can be adapted to different applications, is nonexistent. This dissertation proposes a decision making framework that enables an interested practitioner/manager to decide whether using additive manufacturing to make spare parts on demand is economical when compared to conventional warehousing strategy. The framework consists of two major components: a general discrete event simulation model and a process of designing a wide range of simulation scenarios. The ...


The Influence Of Iron On Arctic Thule Migration Patterns, Alina T. Aquino Dec 2015

The Influence Of Iron On Arctic Thule Migration Patterns, Alina T. Aquino

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Arctic scholars have yet to fully understand the reasons behind the migration of Thule culture from the western to the eastern Arctic. This rapid movement across such a vast area into environmentally diverse regions marks a critical period of cultural change that is usually summarized by two theoretical positions. Ecological theories postulated environmental changes placed selective pressures on traditional food sources that required Thule hunters to follow migrating prey. Theories that focused on material acquisition alternately proposed the Thule followed the trail of meteoric iron eastward into northwestern Greenland.

This research sought to examine the eastward Thule migration from another ...


Chemical And Electronic Structure Of Surfaces And Interfaces In Cadmium Telluride Based Photovoltaic Devices, Douglas Arthur Duncan Dec 2015

Chemical And Electronic Structure Of Surfaces And Interfaces In Cadmium Telluride Based Photovoltaic Devices, Douglas Arthur Duncan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The surface and interface properties are of the upmost importance in the understanding, optimization, and application for photovoltaic devices. Often the chemical, electronic, and morphological properties of the films are empirically optimized, however when progress slows, a fundamental understanding of these properties can lead to breakthroughs. In this work, surfaces and interfaces of solar cell-relevant films are probed with a repertoire of X-ray analytical and microanalysis techniques including X-ray photoelectron (XPS), X-ray excited Auger electron (XAES), X-ray emission (XES) spectroscopies, and atomic force (AFM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies.

Silicon-based devices currently dominate the solar market, which is rather inflexible ...


Process Development For Compression Molding Of Hybrid Continuous And Chopped Carbon Fiber Prepreg For Production Of Functionally Graded Composite Structures, Corinne Marie Warnock Dec 2015

Process Development For Compression Molding Of Hybrid Continuous And Chopped Carbon Fiber Prepreg For Production Of Functionally Graded Composite Structures, Corinne Marie Warnock

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Composite materials offer a high strength-to-weight ratio and directional load bearing capabilities. Compression molding of composite materials yields a superior surface finish and good dimensional stability between component lots with faster processing compared to traditional manufacturing methods. This experimental compression molding capability was developed for the ME composites lab using unidirectional carbon fiber prepreg composites. A direct comparison was drawn between autoclave and compression molding methods to validate compression molding as an alternative manufacturing method in that lab. A method of manufacturing chopped fiber from existing unidirectional prepreg materials was developed and evaluated using destructive testing methods. The results from ...


Experimental Investigation And Thermal Modeling On Electro Discharge Drilling Of Pcd, Farnaz Nourbakhsh Dec 2015

Experimental Investigation And Thermal Modeling On Electro Discharge Drilling Of Pcd, Farnaz Nourbakhsh

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This study presents an experimental investigation and finite element simulation of Electro Discharge Drilling (ED-Drilling) of Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD). PCD has many outstanding properties including uniformly high hardness, high wear resistance and strong corrosion which are the main causes of widely using PCD. While PCD has many advantages and an important role in industrial applications, its high level of hardness and wear resistance cause this material to be difficult to form and machine by using traditional machining methods. EDM as a nontraditional machining process is an effective method among other non-traditional methods for PCDs due to its low cost and ...


An Approach To Model Plastic Deformation Of Metallic Plates In Hypervelocity Impact Experiments, Shawoon Kumar Roy Dec 2015

An Approach To Model Plastic Deformation Of Metallic Plates In Hypervelocity Impact Experiments, Shawoon Kumar Roy

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Space structures are subjected to micro-meteorite impact at extremely high velocities of several kilometers per second. Similarly, design of military equipment requires understanding of material behavior under extremely high pressure and temperature. Study of material behavior under hypervelocity impact (HVI) poses many challenges since few researchers so far have approached this problem. Material models, equations of the state, and fracture mechanics are not well understood under these conditions.

The objective of this research is to present an approach for studying plastic deformation of metallic plates under HVI conditions. A two-stage light gas gun can be used to simulate these conditions ...


Crystalline Phase Change In Steel Alloys Due To High Speed Impact, Muna Slewa Dec 2015

Crystalline Phase Change In Steel Alloys Due To High Speed Impact, Muna Slewa

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The effect of hypervelocity projectile impact on the crystalline grain structure near the target impact location of A36 steel has been studied. A36 steel is a mostly single phase body centered cubic material (BCC). Impact velocities ranged from 3.54 to 6.70 km/sec. Target materials were studied before and after impact to determine if these impact conditions result in a phase change of the A36. Scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and x-ray diffraction methods were used to investigate deformation, lattice defects, twinning, and phase transformation. A limited number of impacted targets made from 304L and HY100 steels ...


Imaging Thermal Conductivity With Nanoscale Resolution Using A Scanning Spin Probe, Abdelghani Laraoui, Halley Aycock-Rizzo, Yang Gao, Xi Lu, Elisa Riedo, Carlos A. Meriles Nov 2015

Imaging Thermal Conductivity With Nanoscale Resolution Using A Scanning Spin Probe, Abdelghani Laraoui, Halley Aycock-Rizzo, Yang Gao, Xi Lu, Elisa Riedo, Carlos A. Meriles

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps ...


Development Of A Two-Fluid Drag Law For Clustered Particles Using Direct Numerical Simulation And Validation Through Experiments, Ahmadreza Abbasi Baharanchi Nov 2015

Development Of A Two-Fluid Drag Law For Clustered Particles Using Direct Numerical Simulation And Validation Through Experiments, Ahmadreza Abbasi Baharanchi

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focused on development and utilization of numerical and experimental approaches to improve the CFD modeling of fluidization flow of cohesive micron size particles. The specific objectives of this research were: (1) Developing a cluster prediction mechanism applicable to Two-Fluid Modeling (TFM) of gas-solid systems (2) Developing more accurate drag models for Two-Fluid Modeling (TFM) of gas-solid fluidization flow with the presence of cohesive interparticle forces (3) using the developed model to explore the improvement of accuracy of TFM in simulation of fluidization flow of cohesive powders (4) Understanding the causes and influential factor which led to improvements and ...


Effect Of Processing History And Material Properties On The Growth Of Wrinkle Amplitude, Yu-Cheng Chen Nov 2015

Effect Of Processing History And Material Properties On The Growth Of Wrinkle Amplitude, Yu-Cheng Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

Wrinkling has been employed by many organisms to form unique topography, such as fingerprints, gut villi, and surface of flower petal cells. The wavy wrinkle structure provides friction enhancement, surface area increase, optical, and wetting properties improvement. Inspired by Nature, scientists have created wrinkles synthetically and proposed numerous uses for them. However, wrinkling surfaces encounters limitations on achieving massive area and high amplitude-to-wavelength ratio (aspect ratio).

The three phase contact line wrinkling technique creates well-defined wrinkles in a continuous fashion, and has great potential to scale-up for massive production. In addition to the velocity dependent adhesion force, we find the ...


Umass Amherst Green Building Guidelines 2013, Ludmilla Pavlova-Gillham, Ted Mendoza, Ezra Small, Patricia O'Flaherty, Nariman Mostafavi, Mohamed Farzinmoghadam, Somayeh Tabatabaee Pozveh Oct 2015

Umass Amherst Green Building Guidelines 2013, Ludmilla Pavlova-Gillham, Ted Mendoza, Ezra Small, Patricia O'Flaherty, Nariman Mostafavi, Mohamed Farzinmoghadam, Somayeh Tabatabaee Pozveh

Ludmilla D Pavlova

Facilities & Campus Services, Sustainable UMass and Campus Planning support sustainability and energy conservation initiatives by providing in-house resources to campus staff as well as designers and contractors working with the University. The UMass Amherst Green Building Guidelines provide a framework for approaching new construction and major renovation projects at UMass Amherst that are undergoing LEED certification by focusing the conversation on green building aspects that are most important to the campus. They are intended to be the beginning of a dynamic conversation between designers, environmental consultants and constructors, university stakeholders, and users of new high performance buildings.


Pre-Construction Rock Treatment And Soil Modification Program Using Low Mobility Grout To Mitigate Future Sinkhole Development In A 2,787.1 Square Meter (30,000 Sf) Maintenance Facility, Steven W. Shifflett Oct 2015

Pre-Construction Rock Treatment And Soil Modification Program Using Low Mobility Grout To Mitigate Future Sinkhole Development In A 2,787.1 Square Meter (30,000 Sf) Maintenance Facility, Steven W. Shifflett

Sinkhole Conference 2015

The US Army required construction of a 2,787.1 square meters (30,000 sf) maintenance facility supported on shallow foundations at the Fort Campbell Military Installation. During the subsurface investigation a seven foot air-filled void was encountered in the bedrock within the building footprint. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) was conducted in an attempt to determine the lateral extent of the encountered void and to establish the general prevalence of karst features at the site. Due to uncertainty in the subsurface conditions, a rock treatment and soil modification program was developed which consisted of a series of targeted exploratory grout ...


An Approach For The Development Of Complex Systems Archetypes, Walter Lee Akers Oct 2015

An Approach For The Development Of Complex Systems Archetypes, Walter Lee Akers

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to explore the principles and concepts of systems theory in pursuit of a collection of complex systems archetypes that can be used for system exploration and diagnostics. The study begins with an examination of the archetypes and classification systems that already exist in the domain of systems theory. This review includes a critique of their purpose, structure, and general applicability. The research then develops and employs a new approach to grounded theory, using a visual coding model to explore the origins, relationships, and meanings of the principles of systems theory. The goal of the ...


Biomechanical Characerization And Evaluation Of Conservative Clubfoot Correction, Tamara Loren Cohen Oct 2015

Biomechanical Characerization And Evaluation Of Conservative Clubfoot Correction, Tamara Loren Cohen

Dissertations (2009 -)

Congential talipes equinovarus, or clubfoot, affects approximately 200,000 newborns worldwide each year and presents with equinovarus of the hindfoot, as well as cavus and adduction of the midfoot. In addition to bone malformation and displacement, soft tissue contractures encapsulate the medial and posterior aspects of the affected foot. The Ponseti method is a conservative treatment that progressively repositions the clubfoot through weekly casting, followed by bracing. Concerns exist regarding the variability in outcomes, resistance to treatment, and risk of relapse, which occur in approximately 10% of the population. Potential factors contributing to variability and resistant clubfoot include cast material ...


Pattern Formation Of Elastic Waves And Energy Localization Due To Elastic Gratings, A. Berezovski, J. Engelbrecht, Mihhail Berezovski Oct 2015

Pattern Formation Of Elastic Waves And Energy Localization Due To Elastic Gratings, A. Berezovski, J. Engelbrecht, Mihhail Berezovski

Publications

Elastic wave propagation through diffraction gratings is studied numerically in the plane strain setting. The interaction of the waves with periodically ordered elastic inclusions leads to a self-imaging Talbot effect for the wavelength equal or close to the grating size. The energy localization is observed at the vicinity of inclusions in the case of elastic gratings. Such a localization is absent in the case of rigid gratings.


Elevated Test Pressure Significantly Reduces Dynamic Accumulation Oxygen Transmission Rate (Astm F3136) Measurement Time For Barrier Packaging Films, Bruce A. Welt Sep 2015

Elevated Test Pressure Significantly Reduces Dynamic Accumulation Oxygen Transmission Rate (Astm F3136) Measurement Time For Barrier Packaging Films, Bruce A. Welt

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Measurement of gas transmission rates of materials is important for successful package design. The dynamic accumulation (DA) method (ASTM F3136) is becoming increasingly popular for measuring oxygen transmission rate (OTR) due to its simplicity and low cost. However, measurement time increases with barrier properties of materials, limiting measurement throughput. A dynamic accumulation measurement prototype capable of operating up to 1,000 psig was developed in order to accelerate gas transfer by boosting concentration gradients via elevated absolute pressures. Results show that measurement results were independent of test pressure while measurement times were substantially reduced. These results also suggest that gas ...


A Nonequilibrium Finite-Rate Carbon Ablation Model For Radiating Earth Re-Entry Flows, Christopher R. Alba Sep 2015

A Nonequilibrium Finite-Rate Carbon Ablation Model For Radiating Earth Re-Entry Flows, Christopher R. Alba

Theses and Dissertations

Vehicles entering planetary atmospheres at high speed require an ablative heat shield in order to withstand the high thermal energy flux to the body. The interaction between the ablative products and the flow field is not well characterized. Numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of carbon ablation on shock layer radiation. Data collected from experiments performed in the X-2 expansion tunnel at the University of Queensland was used to compare to the simulations. The model was a short half-cylinder made of isomolded graphite and was tested in 8.6 km/s Earth entry flow. The model surface was ...


Electromechanical Coupling Behavior Of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers, Jianyou Zhou Sep 2015

Electromechanical Coupling Behavior Of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers, Jianyou Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dielectric elastomer transducers with large deformation, high energy output, light weight and low cost have been drawing great interest from both the research and industry communities, and shown potential for versatile applications in biomimetics, dynamics, robotics and energy harvesting. However, in addition to multiple failure modes such as electrical breakdown, electromechanical instability, loss-of-tension and fatigue, the performance of dielectric elastomer transducers are also strongly influenced by the hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of the material. Also, the interplay among these material properties and the failure modes is rather difficult to predict. Therefore, in order to provide guidelines for the optimal design ...


Me-Em Enewsbrief, September 2015, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Sep 2015

Me-Em Enewsbrief, September 2015, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


Iron Pigments Through The Ages, Fathi Habashi Aug 2015

Iron Pigments Through The Ages, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

Naturally occurring iron oxides were used since ancient times as ochre yellow and red pigments. It was only in the 18th century that artificially prepared Prussian blue was discovered. This discovery opened up a new field of chemistry - - cyano compounds.


Analytical And Numerical Analysis Of Low Velocity Impact On Metallic Sandwich Panel With Polyurethane Foam Core, Mohsen Mahdian, Hossein Ebrahimi Aug 2015

Analytical And Numerical Analysis Of Low Velocity Impact On Metallic Sandwich Panel With Polyurethane Foam Core, Mohsen Mahdian, Hossein Ebrahimi

Hossein Ebrahimi

No abstract provided.


System And Method For Estimating States Of Spacecraft In Planet-Moon Environment, Piyush Grover Aug 2015

System And Method For Estimating States Of Spacecraft In Planet-Moon Environment, Piyush Grover

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

A method estimates a state of a spacecraft in a planet-moon environment by executing iteratively a particle filter. The particle filter comprising integrates individually states of each particle of the particle filter according to a probability-evolution equation using a model of the state of the spacecraft represented as a planar circular restricted three-body problem and determines a prior probability of each particle as a previous posterior probability of a corresponding particle during a previous iteration. A joint probability distribution of the state of the spacecraft is determines using the states of each particle and the prior probabilities of each particle ...


Mimicking The Arterial Microenvironment With Peg-Pc To Investigate The Roles Of Physicochemical Stimuli In Smc Phenotype And Behavior, William G. Herrick Aug 2015

Mimicking The Arterial Microenvironment With Peg-Pc To Investigate The Roles Of Physicochemical Stimuli In Smc Phenotype And Behavior, William G. Herrick

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation was to parse the roles of physical, mechanical and chemical cues in the phenotype plasticity of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in atherosclerosis. We first developed and characterized a novel synthetic hydrogel with desirable traits for studying mechanotransduction in vitro. This hydrogel, PEG-PC, is a co-polymer of poly(ethylene glycol) and phosphorylcholine with an incredible range of Young’s moduli (~1 kPa - 9 MPa) that enables reproduction of nearly any tissue stiffness, exceptional optical and anti-fouling properties, and support for covalent attachment of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. To our knowledge, this combination of mechanical range, low ...