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2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 146

Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Implementation Of Magnetic Resonance Elastography For The Investigation Of Traumatic Brain Injuries, Thomas Boulet Dec 2012

Implementation Of Magnetic Resonance Elastography For The Investigation Of Traumatic Brain Injuries, Thomas Boulet

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a potentially transformative imaging modality allowing local and non-invasive measurement of biological tissue mechanical properties. It uses a specific phase contrast MR pulse sequence to measure induced vibratory motion in soft material, from which material properties can be estimated. Compared to other imaging techniques, MRE is able to detect tissue pathology at early stages by quantifying the changes in tissue stiffness associated with diseases. In an effort to develop the technique and improve its capabilities, two inversion algorithms were written to evaluate viscoelastic properties from the measured displacements fields. The first one was based on ...


Me-Em Enewsbrief, December 2012, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Dec 2012

Me-Em Enewsbrief, December 2012, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


Quantum Dot Deposition Into Pdms And Application Onto A Solar Cell, Christopher Marcus Botros, Richard N. Savage Dec 2012

Quantum Dot Deposition Into Pdms And Application Onto A Solar Cell, Christopher Marcus Botros, Richard N. Savage

Master's Theses

Research to increase the efficiency of conventional solar cells is constantly underway. The goal of this work is to increase the efficiency of conventional solar cells by incorporating quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles in the absorption mechanism. The strategy is to have the QDs absorb UV and fluoresce photons in the visible region that are more readily absorbed by the cells. The outcome is that the cells have more visible photons to absorb and have increased power output. The QDs, having a CdSe core and a ZnS shell, were applied to the solar cells as follows. First, the QDs were synthesized ...


Validation Of Weak Form Thermal Analysis Algorithms Supporting Thermal Signature Generation, Elton Lewis Freeman Dec 2012

Validation Of Weak Form Thermal Analysis Algorithms Supporting Thermal Signature Generation, Elton Lewis Freeman

Masters Theses

Extremization of a weak form for the continuum energy conservation principle differential equation naturally implements fluid convection and radiation as flux Robin boundary conditions associated with unsteady heat transfer. Combining a spatial semi-discretization via finite element trial space basis functions with time-accurate integration generates a totally node-based algebraic statement for computing. Closure for gray body radiation is a newly derived node-based radiosity formulation generating piecewise discontinuous solutions, while that for natural-forced-mixed convection heat transfer is extracted from the literature. Algorithm performance, mathematically predicted by asymptotic convergence theory, is subsequently validated with data obtained in 24 hour diurnal field experiments for ...


Energy Trapping Of Thickness-Shear And Thickness-Twist Modes In A Partially Electroded At-Cut Quartz Resonator, Huijing He, Guoquan Nie, Jinxi Liu, Jiashi Yang Dec 2012

Energy Trapping Of Thickness-Shear And Thickness-Twist Modes In A Partially Electroded At-Cut Quartz Resonator, Huijing He, Guoquan Nie, Jinxi Liu, Jiashi Yang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The thickness-shear and thickness-twist vibrations of a finite and partially electroded AT-cut quartz resonator are investigated. The equations of anisotropic elasticity are used with the omission of the small elastic constant c56 . An analytical solution is obtained using Fourier series from which the free vibration resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and energy trapping are calculated and examined.


Material Behavior Characterization Of A Thin Film Polymer Used In Lithium-Ion Batteries, Michael James Martinsen Dec 2012

Material Behavior Characterization Of A Thin Film Polymer Used In Lithium-Ion Batteries, Michael James Martinsen

Theses and Dissertations

The use of lithium-ion batteries in the automotive industry has become increasingly popular. As more hybrid and electric vehicles take to the road an understanding of how these batteries will behave structurally will be of greater concern. Impact testing can give a valuable overview of the strengths and weaknesses of a battery's design, however, these tests can be time consuming, expensive, and dangerous. Finite element analysis can deliver a reliable low cost approximation of physical testing results. The accuracy of FE results depends greatly on the mathematical representation of the material properties of Li-ion battery components. In this study ...


Analysis Of Multi-Directional Recycled Jute Fiber Composite Behavior Using Experimental, Numerical, And Analytical Methods, Patrick Severson Dec 2012

Analysis Of Multi-Directional Recycled Jute Fiber Composite Behavior Using Experimental, Numerical, And Analytical Methods, Patrick Severson

Theses and Dissertations

Composite materials are increasing in popularity as a material of choice in many engineering applications. Major industries using composites include automotive, construction, and sports equipment. Most of the knowledge, research, and technology that will help decrease the cost of composite materials have been aimed at developing synthetic fibers as the reinforcing constituent.

This thesis characterizes jute fibers obtained as a byproduct from the coffee industry to determine if they can be viable in composite manufacturing. Experimental analysis, finite element analysis, and analytical modeling are used to characterize jute fiber based composites. Experimental analysis consists of jute fiber bundle tensile testing ...


Product Display Versus Graphical Representation On Packaging, Joshua Galvarino Dec 2012

Product Display Versus Graphical Representation On Packaging, Joshua Galvarino

All Theses

ABSTRACT
Previous research conducted (Hurley, et al., 2012) concerning physical and graphical product visibility from the primary display panel (PDP) is limited to one product category. This research expands previous peer-reviewed research, which indicates that there is a significant difference between consumer preferences of graphical display vs. physical product display on packaging.
The shelf presence of packages showing actual product visibility versus packages showing only a graphical representation of the product was evaluated. Both shopping results and quantitative data using eye-tracking technology were collected and cross-referenced with a qualitative, post-experiment survey.
Specifically, variables of packaging within pasta, snacks, prepared frozen ...


Vibrations Of Crystal Plates With Surface Structures For Resonator And Sensor Applications, Nan Liu Nov 2012

Vibrations Of Crystal Plates With Surface Structures For Resonator And Sensor Applications, Nan Liu

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

This dissertation is mainly on the theoretical analysis of vibrating crystal plates for acoustic wave resonator and sensor applications. The frequency and mode effects of different surface structures on either or both sides of the crystal plates are the main concerns in this dissertation. These effects are fundamental to the improvement of existing acoustic wave devices, or to the design of new acoustic wave devices, especially new sensors based on these effects.

At first, two-dimensional equations of motion for an anisotropic crystal plate with two thin films on its surfaces are derived by reduction from the three-dimensional equations of anisotropic ...


Calcium Phosphate-Based Resorbable Biomaterials For Bone Regeneration, Daniel O. Costa Oct 2012

Calcium Phosphate-Based Resorbable Biomaterials For Bone Regeneration, Daniel O. Costa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bone defects are a prevalent problem in orthopedics and dentistry. Calcium phosphate-based coatings and nanocomposites offer unique solutions towards producing scaffolds with suitable physical, mechanical and biological properties for bone regeneration.

We developed a novel method to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA) particles with high aspect ratio using sol-gel chemistry and hydrothermal treatment. We obtained tunable pure-phase carbonated-HA in the form of micro/nanorods and nanowires (diameters 25-800 nm). To mimic the structure of bone, HA nanowires were homogenously mixed within poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to produce nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties as determined by uniaxial tensile testing.

Surface chemistry and topography of ...


Development Of A Novel Handheld Device For Active Compensation Of Physiological Tremor, Abhijit Saxena Oct 2012

Development Of A Novel Handheld Device For Active Compensation Of Physiological Tremor, Abhijit Saxena

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In microsurgery, the human hand imposes certain limitations in accurately positioning the tip of a device such as scalpel. Any errors in the motion of the hand make microsurgical procedures difficult and involuntary motions such as hand tremors can make some procedures significantly difficult to perform. This is particularly true in the case of vitreoretinal microsurgery. The most familiar source of involuntary motion is physiological tremor. Real-time compensation of tremor is, therefore, necessary to assist surgeons to precisely position and manipulate the tool-tip to accurately perform a microsurgery. In this thesis, a novel handheld device (AID) is described for compensation ...


Green Scheduling For Radiant Systems In Buildings, Truong X. Nghiem, Madhur Behl, George J. Pappas, Rahul Mangharam Oct 2012

Green Scheduling For Radiant Systems In Buildings, Truong X. Nghiem, Madhur Behl, George J. Pappas, Rahul Mangharam

Madhur Behl

In this report we look at the problem of peak power reduction for buildings with electric radiant floor heating systems. Uncoordinated operation of a multi-zone radiant floor heating system can result in temporally correlated electricity demand surges or peaks in the building’s electricity consumption. As peak power prices are 200-400 times that of the nominal rate, this uncoordinated activity can result in high electricity costs and expensive system operation. We have previously presented green scheduling as an approach for reducing the aggregate peak power consumption in buildings while ensuring that indoor thermal comfort is always maintained. This report extends ...


Green Scheduling For Radiant Systems In Buildings, Truong Nghiem, Madhur Behl, George Pappas, Rahul Mangharam Oct 2012

Green Scheduling For Radiant Systems In Buildings, Truong Nghiem, Madhur Behl, George Pappas, Rahul Mangharam

Rahul Mangharam

In this report we look at the problem of peak power reduction for buildings with electric radiant floor heating systems. Uncoordinated operation of a multi-zone radiant floor heating system can result in temporally correlated electricity demand surges or peaks in the building’s electricity consumption. As peak power prices are 200-400 times that of the nominal rate, this uncoordinated activity can result in high electricity costs and expensive system operation. We have previously presented green scheduling as an approach for reducing the aggregate peak power consumption in buildings while ensuring that indoor thermal comfort is always maintained. This report extends ...


Green Scheduling For Radiant Systems In Buildings, Truong X. Nghiem, Madhur Behl, George J. Pappas, Rahul Mangharam Oct 2012

Green Scheduling For Radiant Systems In Buildings, Truong X. Nghiem, Madhur Behl, George J. Pappas, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

In this report we look at the problem of peak power reduction for buildings with electric radiant floor heating systems. Uncoordinated operation of a multi-zone radiant floor heating system can result in temporally correlated electricity demand surges or peaks in the building’s electricity consumption. As peak power prices are 200-400 times that of the nominal rate, this uncoordinated activity can result in high electricity costs and expensive system operation. We have previously presented green scheduling as an approach for reducing the aggregate peak power consumption in buildings while ensuring that indoor thermal comfort is always maintained. This report extends ...


Steering Adaptation In A Driving Simulator, Brian P. Moran Sep 2012

Steering Adaptation In A Driving Simulator, Brian P. Moran

Undergraduate Research Posters 2012

Steering adaptation in a driving simulator occurs when participants, who possess the skills necessary to control a vehicle, modify their use of the steering controls to successfully interact with a driving simulator. This approach is sensitive to individual driving styles, as it is free of any threshold, criterion, or benchmark value and can be applied to any steering task at any driving speed.


Me-Em Enewsbrief, September 2012, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Sep 2012

Me-Em Enewsbrief, September 2012, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


Maximal Force Characteristics Of The Ca2+-Powered Actuator Of Vorticella Convallaria, Sangjin Ryu, Matthew J. Lang, Paul Matsudaira Sep 2012

Maximal Force Characteristics Of The Ca2+-Powered Actuator Of Vorticella Convallaria, Sangjin Ryu, Matthew J. Lang, Paul Matsudaira

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The millisecond stalk contraction of the sessile ciliate Vorticella convallaria is powered by energy from Ca2+ binding to generate contractile forces of ~10 nN. Its contractile organelle, the spasmoneme, generates higher contractile force under increased stall resistances. By applying viscous drag force to contracting V. convallaria in a microfluidic channel, we observed that the mechanical force and work of the spasmoneme depended on the stalk length, i.e., the maximum tension (150–350 nN) and work linearly depended on the stalk length (~2.5 nN and ~30 fJ per 1 mm of the stalk). This stalk-length dependency suggests that ...


Friction Stir Spot Welding Of Ultra-High Strength Steel, Trent J. Hartman Aug 2012

Friction Stir Spot Welding Of Ultra-High Strength Steel, Trent J. Hartman

Theses and Dissertations

Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is quickly becoming a method of interest for welding of high strength steel (HSS) and ultra high strength steel (UHSS). FSSW has been shown to produce high quality welds in these materials, without the drawbacks associated with fusion welding. Tool grade for polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) tools has a significant impact on wear resistance, weld quality, and tool failure in FSSW of DP 980 steel sheet. More specifically, for a nominal composition of 90% CBN, the grain size has a significant impact on the wear resistance of the tool. A-type tools performed the best ...


Dynamical Properties Of Ferroelectric Perovskites (Ba,Sr)Tio3 And Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Systems From First Principles, Jeevaka Weerasinghe Aug 2012

Dynamical Properties Of Ferroelectric Perovskites (Ba,Sr)Tio3 And Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Systems From First Principles, Jeevaka Weerasinghe

Theses and Dissertations

A first-principles-based effective Hamiltonian scheme which incorporates coupling between ferroelectric (FE) and antiferrodistortive (AFD) motions is applied to Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 alloys. It validates the existence of two modes of E symmetry (rather than the single E(1TO) soft mode) in the 50-75 cm-1 range for temperatures smaller than 200 K and for compositions falling within the Rhombohedral R3c phase. Coupling between long-range-ordered FE and AFD motions is shown to be the cause of the additional mode and more insight into its nature is provided. This scheme is further used to reveal a field-induced anticrossing involving FE ...


Measurement Of Power-Law Creep Parameters By Instrumented Indentation Methods, Caijun Su Aug 2012

Measurement Of Power-Law Creep Parameters By Instrumented Indentation Methods, Caijun Su

Doctoral Dissertations

New experimental methods have been developed to measure the uniaxial power-law creep parameters α [alpha] and n in the relation έ[epsilon dot]=α[alpha]σn[sigma] (έ [epsilon dot] is the creep strain rate and σ [sigma] is the creep stress) from the load, time, displacement and stiffness data recorded during an instrumented indentation experiment performed with a conical or pyramidal indenter. The methods are based on an analysis of Bower et al., which relates the indentation creep rate to the uniaxial creep parameters based on simple assumptions about the constitutive behavior (Bower et al., 1993). Using finite ...


Development And Characterization Of Shellac-Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Composite Films With Acid Catalyst, Sana Asrar Aug 2012

Development And Characterization Of Shellac-Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Composite Films With Acid Catalyst, Sana Asrar

All Theses

The objective of this research was to develop a shellac-hydroproyl methyl cellulose (Sh-HPMC) composite film with enhanced water vapor barrier. Citric acid (CA) was used as an acid catalyst, to promote miscibility between HPMC and shellac. In a preliminary test, three different concentrations of CA (1000:1, 200:1, 100:1) were tested to identify the best Sh:CA ratio. Based on the Water vapor permeability properties and mechanical properties, Sh-CA (1000:1 ratio) had the most enhanced water vapor barrier and the lowest reduction in tensile strength compared to the pure HPMC film (control). In the later part of ...


Determining The Proper Point Size For Display Type On Packaging, Joanna Fischer Aug 2012

Determining The Proper Point Size For Display Type On Packaging, Joanna Fischer

All Theses

Through the use of a preference test, the proper point size of display text on a package was evaluated in relation to a package's proportions. The test involved the examination of packaging images displaying the product or brand name in various point sizes by 150 participants who were then asked to choose the option they most preferred. The participants were then provided with a post-survey intended to gather additional information regarding potential preference motives.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the most preferred display type size of a package based on its relationship with the package ...


The Effect Of Food Ingredients On The Oxygen Barrier Properties Of Retort Materials, Amanda Ward Aug 2012

The Effect Of Food Ingredients On The Oxygen Barrier Properties Of Retort Materials, Amanda Ward

All Theses

An unexplored area in research is addressing how retorted food ingredients interact with retort packaging's oxygen barrier. Ten common food ingredients (whey protein isolate, soy protein isolate, bovine gelatin, fish gelatin, high molecular weight fish gelatin, water, air, oil, potato starch, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) were assessed to find their effect on the barrier properties of CPP, PET, and high barrier commercial retort pouches. OxySense Gen III 300 and Mocon OxTran 2/21 were used to evaluate the samples. CPP pouches were first assessed with the OxTran 2/21 and indicated that treatments affected the OTR's of the film ...


Selective Laser Sintering; A Design Of Experiments, Philip David Hopkins, Victor Castillo Phd Aug 2012

Selective Laser Sintering; A Design Of Experiments, Philip David Hopkins, Victor Castillo Phd

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Additive Manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D Printing or Rapid Prototyping, is a method of manufacturing that provides for the ability to make intricate internal features and easily customizable parts. The concept is to break a Computer Aided Design (CAD) file into a series of thin layers that are sent to the machine and laid down one layer at a time. Just like any other form of processing, material properties can alter by undergoing this process. Manipulating various parameters of the AM process can allow for different properties to be achieved. For this reason, an in depth study will ...


Shear-Horizontal Vibration Modes Of An Oblate Elliptical Cylinder And Energy Trapping In Contoured Acoustic Wave Resonators, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang, John A. Kosinski Aug 2012

Shear-Horizontal Vibration Modes Of An Oblate Elliptical Cylinder And Energy Trapping In Contoured Acoustic Wave Resonators, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang, John A. Kosinski

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

We study shear-horizontal free vibrations of an elastic cylinder with an oblate elliptical cross section and a traction-free surface. Exact vibration modes and frequencies are obtained. The results show the existence of thickness-shear and thickness-twist modes. The energy-trapping behavior of these modes is examined. Trapped modes are found wherein the vibration energy is largely confined to the central portion of the cross section and little vibration energy is found at the edges. It is also shown that face-shear modes are not allowed in such a cylinder. The results are useful for the understanding of the energy trapping phenomenon in contoured ...


A Resistance Based Structural Health Monitoring System For Composite Structure Applications, Dennis N. Boettcher Aug 2012

A Resistance Based Structural Health Monitoring System For Composite Structure Applications, Dennis N. Boettcher

Master's Theses

This research effort explored the possibility of using interwoven conductive and nonconductive fibers in a composite laminate for structural health monitoring (SHM). Traditional SHM systems utilize fiber optics, piezoelectrics, or detect defects by nondestructive test methods by use of sonar graphs or x-rays. However, these approaches are often expensive, time consuming and complicated.

The primary objective of this research was to apply a resistance based method of structural health monitoring to a composite structure to determine structural integrity and presence of defects.

The conductive properties of fiber such as carbon, copper, or constantan - a copper-nickel alloy - can be utilized as ...


Relating Burst Pressure To Seal Peel Strength In Pouches, William Bernal Aug 2012

Relating Burst Pressure To Seal Peel Strength In Pouches, William Bernal

All Theses

This work was aimed at studying the relationship between burst pressure and seal peel strength. Past researchers developed a force balance equation based on the analysis of a force diagram to relate burst pressure to seal strength. The theoretical formula S=P(D/2) (S=Seal Strength, P=Burst Pressure, D=Restraining Plate Gap) has been studied by past researchers with contrasting results.
The theoretical formula was tested by varying dwell time to produce seals of varying strength. Pouches were burst tested at each of these dwell times to obtain burst pressures, burst peeling times, and burst locations. Corresponding peel ...


Investigation Of Thermomechanical Effects Of Lighting Conditions On Canvas Paintings By Laser Shearography, Morteza Khaleghi, Ivo Dobrev, Philip Klausmeyer, Ellery Harrington, Cosme Furlong Jul 2012

Investigation Of Thermomechanical Effects Of Lighting Conditions On Canvas Paintings By Laser Shearography, Morteza Khaleghi, Ivo Dobrev, Philip Klausmeyer, Ellery Harrington, Cosme Furlong

Morteza Khaleghi

Quantitative techniques to characterize thermomechanical effects of light on canvas paintings are necessary in order to better understand the deleterious effects that light has on precious art collections in museum exhibitions. In this paper, we present advances in the development of a customized laser shearography system for temporal characterization of in-plane displacements of canvas paintings when subjected to specific lighting conditions. The shearography system is synchronized with a thermal IR camera and concomitant measurements of derivatives of displacements along two orthogonal shearing directions as well as thermal fields are performed. Due to the nature of the measurements, we have developed ...


Abstracts, Review Of Progress In Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (Denver, Co, July 15–20, 2012), Center For Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University Jul 2012

Abstracts, Review Of Progress In Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (Denver, Co, July 15–20, 2012), Center For Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Abstracts of papers presented at the 2012 Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) conference held in Denver, Colorado from July 15–20, 2012.


Switch Yard Operation In Thermal Power Plant(Katpp Jhalawar Rajasthan), Radhey Shyam Meena Er. Jul 2012

Switch Yard Operation In Thermal Power Plant(Katpp Jhalawar Rajasthan), Radhey Shyam Meena Er.

Radhey Shyam Meena

Switchyard Provides the facilities for switching ,protection & Control of electric power. To handle high Voltage power with proper Safety measures. To isolate the noises coming from the grid with true 50Hz power SWITCH YARD IS IMPORTANT PART IN THERMAL PLANT. IN KALISINDH THERMAL 400KV AND 220KV SWITCH YARD LOCATED.