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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 114

Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Investigation Of Gallium Nitride Transistor Reliability Through Accelerated Life Testing And Modeling, Bradley D. Christiansen Dec 2011

Investigation Of Gallium Nitride Transistor Reliability Through Accelerated Life Testing And Modeling, Bradley D. Christiansen

Theses and Dissertations

Gallium nitride high electron mobility transistors are attractive to the DoD for their ability to operate at high frequencies, voltages, temperatures, and power. Yet, there are concerns about the reliability of these devices. Various degradation mechanisms and their causes are proposed in the literature. A variety of reliability tests were conducted to understand these mechanisms and causes. A multi-stressor experiment revealed different failure mechanisms than are in the literature. In particular, the devices tested at high voltage in the OFF state did not degrade significantly as suggested by others' reports. The validity of temperature-accelerated life testing when applied to GaN ...


Generic Strategies To Implement Material Grading In Finite Element Methods For Isotropic And Anisotropic Materials, Ke Yu Dec 2011

Generic Strategies To Implement Material Grading In Finite Element Methods For Isotropic And Anisotropic Materials, Ke Yu

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

We look at generic strategies to transfer material grading into finite element methods. Three strategies are proposed to transfer material grading into the finite element analysis. These strategies are node-centered, element-centered, and the definition of material grading through external functions. The process to achieve each strategy is stated, and examples are used to illustrate each strategy, and to compare them. The strategies are implemented in finite-deformation nonlinear elastic analysis.

Several examples are used to illustrate the implementation of each strategy for graded isotropic materials. For these examples, the results obtained from finite element models are compared with those obtained from ...


Nanozeolites Doped Photopolymer Layers With Reduced Shrinkage, Mohesh Moothanchery, Izabela Naydenova, Svetlana Mintova, Vincent Toal Dec 2011

Nanozeolites Doped Photopolymer Layers With Reduced Shrinkage, Mohesh Moothanchery, Izabela Naydenova, Svetlana Mintova, Vincent Toal

Articles

An acrylamide based photopolymer doped with pure silica MFI-type zeolite (silicalite-1) nanoparticles has been characterized for holographic recording purposes. The concentrations of the silicalite-1 nanoparticles in the photopolymer layers were 1, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt.%. The inclusion of silicalite-1 nanoparticle in the photopolymer has resulted in an increase of the diffraction efficiency by up to 40%, and decrease of the shrinkage from 1.32% to 0.57%. The best results were obtained in layers doped with 5 wt.% silicalite-1 nanoparticles.


Me-Em Enewsbrief, December 2011, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Dec 2011

Me-Em Enewsbrief, December 2011, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


The Sources Of Heat Generation In Vibrothermography, Jeremy Blake Renshaw, John C. Chen, Stephen D. Holland, R. Bruce Thompson Dec 2011

The Sources Of Heat Generation In Vibrothermography, Jeremy Blake Renshaw, John C. Chen, Stephen D. Holland, R. Bruce Thompson

Center for Nondestructive Evaluation Publications

Vibrothermography, or sonic IR, is a nondestructive evaluation technique used to find surface and near surface defects—such as cracks and delaminations—through observations of vibration-induced heat generation. This method has significant interest as an industrial inspection method, however, a lack of understanding of the fundamental physics governing the heat generation process has limited its application despite extensive theoretical, numerical simulation, and experimental work. Significant theoretical and numerical simulation work has been performed, but has yet to be rigorously verified experimentally. This paper presents experimental verification of the sources of heat generation in vibrothermography; specifically friction, plasticity, and viscoelasticity. Specific ...


The Effects Of Solvent Mixture On The Thermal And Mechanical Properties Of Solvent Cast Poly-Lactic Acid (Pla) Film, Jeremy Hughes Dec 2011

The Effects Of Solvent Mixture On The Thermal And Mechanical Properties Of Solvent Cast Poly-Lactic Acid (Pla) Film, Jeremy Hughes

All Theses

CH 1 ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of various solvents on the crystallinity and thermal expansion stability of PLA film. Three different PLA films were produced by the solvent casting technique; PLA in chloroform (PLA-C), PLA in methylene chloride (PLA-M), and PLA in methylene chloride: acetonitrile = 50: 50 (PLA-MA). The PLA-MA had higher % crystallinity, 46.15, than the PLA-C, 24.03, and the PLA-M, 14.25. With this increase in crystallinity, the PLA-MA had improved thermal expansion stability as shown by very low accumulated dimensional changes at 20-100 ¡C. Wide angle x-ray diffraction identified ...


Development Of A Structured Concrete Thermocline Thermal Energy Storage System, Bradley M. Brown Dec 2011

Development Of A Structured Concrete Thermocline Thermal Energy Storage System, Bradley M. Brown

Theses and Dissertations

The past couple of decades have shown a concern when considering the way the world obtains its power. The focus has been switching from fossil fuels that have been used for hundreds of years to renewable energy sources, such as the sun. Solar energy is readily and infinitely available for harnessing. One problem with solar energy, though, is its inability to be used during the night time and during cloud covered weather. A solution to this problem is the use of energy storage mechanisms. For solar plants that use solar thermal energy (concentrating solar power plants), thermal energy storage (TES ...


In-Situ Ellipsometry Characterization Of Anodically Grown Silicon Dioxide And Lithium Intercalation Into Silicon, Eric A. Montgomery Nov 2011

In-Situ Ellipsometry Characterization Of Anodically Grown Silicon Dioxide And Lithium Intercalation Into Silicon, Eric A. Montgomery

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from Electrical & Computer Engineering

In this thesis, in-situ ellipsometry and electroanalytical investigations of two electrochemical processes are reported: including the formation of anodically grown silicon dioxide and the intercalation of lithium into silicon. Analysis of the ellipsometry data shows that the anodically grown silicon dioxide layer is uniform and has similar properties as thermally grown silicon dioxide. The lithium-ion intercalation data reveals non-uniform thin film formation, which requires further studies and development of appropriate ellipsometric optical models.

Advisers: Eva Schubert and Mathias Schubert


Relationship Between Impact Energy And Fracture Toughness Of Prestressed Concrete Railway Sleepers, Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Alexander Remennikov Nov 2011

Relationship Between Impact Energy And Fracture Toughness Of Prestressed Concrete Railway Sleepers, Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Alexander Remennikov

Alex Remennikov

The prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties), which are installed in railway track systems as the crosstie beam support, are designed to carry and transfer the wheel loads from the rails to the ground. It is well known that railway tracks are subject to impact loading conditions, which are attributable to the train operations with either wheel or rail abnormalities such as flat wheels, dipped rails, etc. These loads are of very high magnitude but short duration. In addition, there exists the potential of repeated load experience during the design life of prestressed concrete sleepers. Prestressed concrete has played a ...


Dynamic Design Guidelines For Prestressed Concrete Sleepers, Alexander Remennikov, Martin H. Murray, Sakdirat Kaewunruen Nov 2011

Dynamic Design Guidelines For Prestressed Concrete Sleepers, Alexander Remennikov, Martin H. Murray, Sakdirat Kaewunruen

Alex Remennikov

Current design philosophy, outlined in AS 1085.14, is based on the analysis of permissible stresses resulting from quasi-static wheel loads and essentially the static response of concrete sleepers. In general, cracking can incur when the bottom fibre stress is larger than tensile strength of concrete. Premature cracking of prestressed concrete sleepers has been detected in railway tracks. The major cause of cracking is the infrequent but high-magnitude wheel loads produced by a small percentage of “out-of-round” wheels or railhead surface defects, which are crudely accounted for in AS 1085.14 by a single load factor. Based on the current ...


Dc Pulsed Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Image Information, Denis P. Dowling, F T. O'Neill, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Victor J. Law Nov 2011

Dc Pulsed Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Image Information, Denis P. Dowling, F T. O'Neill, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Victor J. Law

Articles

This paper presents optical imaging and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) data of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. It is shown how the visual information and OES information of the air discharge are related as the blown arc extends from the nozzle (2-4 mm) with a molecular nitrogen rotational temperature on the order of 1700 K and the flowing afterglow beyond this region is dominated by the cooler (300-K) NO-O chemiluminescent reaction that produces NO2 species.


Thickness-Shear And Thickness-Twist Vibrations Of An At-Cut Quartz Mesa Resonator, Huijing He, Jinxi Liu, Jiashi Yang Oct 2011

Thickness-Shear And Thickness-Twist Vibrations Of An At-Cut Quartz Mesa Resonator, Huijing He, Jinxi Liu, Jiashi Yang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

We study thickness-shear and thickness-twist vibrations of an AT-cut quartz plate mesa resonator with stepped thickness. The equations of anisotropic elasticity are used with the omission of the small elastic constant c56. An analytical solution is obtained using Fourier series from which the resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and energy trapping are calculated and examined. The solution shows that a mesa resonator exhibits strong energy trapping of thickness-shear and thickness-twist modes, and that the trapping is sensitive to some of the structural parameters of the resonator.


In Vivo Three-Dimensional Blood Velocity Profile Shapes In The Human Common, Internal, And External Carotid Arteries, Alexey Kamenskiy, Yuris A. Dzenis, Jason N. Mactaggart, Anastasia Desyatova, Iraklis I. Pipinos Oct 2011

In Vivo Three-Dimensional Blood Velocity Profile Shapes In The Human Common, Internal, And External Carotid Arteries, Alexey Kamenskiy, Yuris A. Dzenis, Jason N. Mactaggart, Anastasia Desyatova, Iraklis I. Pipinos

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Objective: True understanding of carotid bifurcation pathophysiology requires a detailed knowledge of the hemodynamic conditions within the arteries. Data on carotid artery hemodynamics are usually based on simplified, computer-based, or in vitro experimental models, most of which assume that the velocity profiles are axially symmetric away from the carotid bulb. Modeling accuracy and, more importantly, our understanding of the pathophysiology of carotid bifurcation disease could be considerably improved by more precise knowledge of the in vivo flow properties within the human carotid artery. The purpose of this work was to determine the three-dimensional pulsatile velocity profiles of human carotid arteries ...


Construction Of The Next Generation Of Energy Efficient Light Boxes - Sponsored By Bayer Environmental Science, Gregory Keith Bartley Jr. Sep 2011

Construction Of The Next Generation Of Energy Efficient Light Boxes - Sponsored By Bayer Environmental Science, Gregory Keith Bartley Jr.

Gregory Keith Bartley Jr.

This short presentation includes an overview of features that went into constructing a new type of light box technology utilizing low-power usage LEDs and Low Density flexible Polymers. This light box was constructed for digital image analysis of plant health and ground cover using a Canon Powershot G12 camera and Sigma Scan Digital Image Analysis Software.


Electronic And Magnetic Excitations In Graphene And Magnetic Nano-Ribbons, Maher Zakaria Ahmed Selim Sep 2011

Electronic And Magnetic Excitations In Graphene And Magnetic Nano-Ribbons, Maher Zakaria Ahmed Selim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The discovery of graphene - a 2D material with superior physical properties - in 2004 was important for the intensive global research to find alternatives to three-dimensional (3D) semiconductor materials in industry. At the same time there have been exciting advances for 2D magnetic materials on the nanometer scale. The superior properties of graphene are mainly attributed to its crystal structure and its relatively short-range interactions. These properties show that natural and artificial 2D materials are promising for new applications.

In this thesis we have carried out a comprehensive investigation of the effects of the 2D lattice structures, the roles of nearest ...


Me-Em Enewsbrief, September 2011, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University Sep 2011

Me-Em Enewsbrief, September 2011, Department Of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics eNewsBrief

No abstract provided.


Two-Scale Microstructure Dynamics, Arkadi Berezovski, Mihhail Berezovski, Juri Engelbrecht Sep 2011

Two-Scale Microstructure Dynamics, Arkadi Berezovski, Mihhail Berezovski, Juri Engelbrecht

Publications

Wave propagation in materials with embedded two different microstructures is considered. Each microstructure is characterized by its own length scale. The dual internal variables approach is adopted yielding in a Mindlin-type model including both microstructures. Equations of motion for microstructures are coupled with the balance of linear momentum for the macromotion, but not coupled with each other. Corresponding dispersion curves are provided and scale separation is pointed out.


Vibration-Based Health Monitoring Of Multiple-Stage Gear Train And Differential Planetary Transmission Involving Teeth Damage And Backlash Nonlinearity, Andrew Patrick Sommer Sep 2011

Vibration-Based Health Monitoring Of Multiple-Stage Gear Train And Differential Planetary Transmission Involving Teeth Damage And Backlash Nonlinearity, Andrew Patrick Sommer

Master's Theses

The objective of this thesis is to develop vibration-based fault detection strategies for on-line condition monitoring of gear transmission systems. The study divides the thesis into three sections. First of all, the local stresses created by a root fatigue crack on a pinion spur gear are analyzed using a quasi-static finite element model and non-linear contact mechanics simulation. Backlash between gear teeth which is essential to provide better lubrication on tooth surfaces and to eliminate interference is included as a defect and a necessary part of transmission design. The second section is dedicated to fixed axis power trains. Torsional vibration ...


Rehabilitation And Exercise Machine, Judith M. Burnfield, Yu Shu, Adam P. Taylor, Thad W. Buster, Carl Nelson Aug 2011

Rehabilitation And Exercise Machine, Judith M. Burnfield, Yu Shu, Adam P. Taylor, Thad W. Buster, Carl Nelson

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

An improved rehabilitation and exercise machine is provided which allows a person with physical limitations, disabilities or chronic conditions to use the machine in order to rehabilitate their muscles, improve joint flexibility, and enhance cardiovascular fitness.


Coordination Of Multirobot Teams And Groups In Constrained Environments: Models, Abstractions, And Control Policies, Nora Ayanian Aug 2011

Coordination Of Multirobot Teams And Groups In Constrained Environments: Models, Abstractions, And Control Policies, Nora Ayanian

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Robots can augment and even replace humans in dangerous environments, such as search and rescue and reconnaissance missions, yet robots used in these situations are largely tele-operated. In most cases, the robots' performance depends on the operator's ability to control and coordinate the robots, resulting in increased response time and poor situational awareness, and hindering multirobot cooperation.

Many factors impede extended autonomy in these situations, including the unique nature of individual tasks, the number of robots needed, the complexity of coordinating heterogeneous robot teams, and the need to operate safely. These factors can be partly addressed by having many ...


Hydrometallurgical Process For Extraction Of Metals From Electronic Waste-Part Ii: Development Of The Processes For The Recovery Of Copper From Printed Circuit Boards (Pcb), Zeljko J. Kamberovic Aug 2011

Hydrometallurgical Process For Extraction Of Metals From Electronic Waste-Part Ii: Development Of The Processes For The Recovery Of Copper From Printed Circuit Boards (Pcb), Zeljko J. Kamberovic

Zeljko J Kamberovic

Rapid technological development induces increase of generation of used electric and electronic equipment waste, causing a serious threat to the environment. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), as the main component of the waste, are significant source of base and precious metals, especially copper and gold. In recent years, most of the activities on the recovery of base and precious metals from waste PCBs are focused on hydrometallurgical techniques as more exact, predictable and easily controlled compared to conventional pyrometallurgical processes. In this research essential aspects of the hydrometallurgical processing of waste of electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) using sulfuric acid ...


Modeling And Development Of A Mems Device For Pyroelectric Energy Scavenging, Salwa Mostafa Aug 2011

Modeling And Development Of A Mems Device For Pyroelectric Energy Scavenging, Salwa Mostafa

Doctoral Dissertations

As the world faces an energy crisis with depleting fossil fuel reserves, alternate energy sources are being researched ever more seriously. In addition to renewable energy sources, energy recycling and energy scavenging technologies are also gaining importance. Technologies are being developed to scavenge energy from ambient sources such as vibration, radio frequency and low grade waste heat, etc. Waste heat is the most common form of wasted energy and is the greatest potential source of energy scavenging.

Pyroelectricity is the property of some materials to change the surface charge distribution with the change in temperature. These materials produce current as ...


Effect Of Different Oxygen Barrier Pouches On The Quality Of Retorted Carrots, Sarah Khor Aug 2011

Effect Of Different Oxygen Barrier Pouches On The Quality Of Retorted Carrots, Sarah Khor

All Theses

Thermally processed (TP) baby carrots were packaged in pouches with varying oxygen transmission rate (OTR) pouches. The pouches were four layer laminate (PET-Nylon-Barrier-CPP) with barrier layer being foil, aluminum oxide (AlOx), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), and nylon. Retort pouches were placed in boxes that were stored in an environmental chamber (43 °C, 50%RH). The objective of the study was to determine an alternative barrier retort pouch that is microwavable and still had similar barrier functions to foil for baby carrots and determine how the alternative compare with regard to shelf life. Instrumental analysis of color (L*, a*, b*) and ...


The Effect Of Barrier Properties Of Non-Foil Retort Films On Shelf Life Of Oxygen Sensitive Foods, Mahalaxmi Dharman Aug 2011

The Effect Of Barrier Properties Of Non-Foil Retort Films On Shelf Life Of Oxygen Sensitive Foods, Mahalaxmi Dharman

All Theses

A simulated food product sensitive to oxygen, which was a mixture of tomato paste, water, and corn oil (2:2:1), was filled into five different barrier coated pouches, a foil barrier and a low barrier pouch. These pouches were thermally processed at 250¡F for 30 minutes and stored in darkness under accelerated conditions (45±2¡C and 50±2%RH) for up to 180 days.
The simulant was analyzed for lipid oxidation by TBARS and lycopene degradation by colorimetry (L*,a*,b* values and Hue angle). The oxygen permeability (OP) in all the pouches increased by 5 to ...


Cushop: A Simulated Shopping Environment Fostering Consumer-Centric Packaging Design & Testing, Charles Tonkin Aug 2011

Cushop: A Simulated Shopping Environment Fostering Consumer-Centric Packaging Design & Testing, Charles Tonkin

All Dissertations

Consumer product packaging provides product damage protection, extends product shelf life, and communicates product usage instructions to the consumer. Its collective contribution to the waste stream is notorious, but its role in product salability is much less understood. Consumers now make the majority of product purchase decisions while present at the shelf, and since they do it very quickly (within 5-8 seconds), and do not appear to adhere to strong brand loyalty as was once more common, packaging (and more specifically, its aesthetics and contrast with its competitors) plays a dominant role in the decision-making process. It is difficult, however ...


Effects Of Mass Layer Dimension On A Finite Quartz Crystal Microbalance, Y. P. Kong, Jinxi Liu, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang Aug 2011

Effects Of Mass Layer Dimension On A Finite Quartz Crystal Microbalance, Y. P. Kong, Jinxi Liu, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

In this paper, we investigate free thickness-shear and thickness-twist vibrations of a finite crystal resonator of AT-cut quartz carrying a thin mass layer at the central portion of its top surface operating as a quartz crystal microbalance. The equations of anisotropic elasticity are used with the omission of the small elastic constant c56. An analytical solution is obtained using Fourier series from which the resonant frequencies, mode shapes and vibration confinement by the mass layer are calculated and examined.


Vertical Track Modulus Trending, Shane Michael Farritor, Sheng Lu Jul 2011

Vertical Track Modulus Trending, Shane Michael Farritor, Sheng Lu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Systems and methods for determining a trend in Vertical track modulus are disclosed in accordance with embodiments of the present invention. Vertical deflection data is collected along a particular section of railroad track. A first set of Vertical track modulus is determined, based in part, on the collected vertical deflection data. At a second time, vertical deflection data is again collected along the particular section of railroad track to be used in determining a second set of vertical track modulus. At least the first and second sets of Vertical track modulus are analyzed to determine a math ematical algorithm that ...


Friction Bit Joining Of 5754 Aluminum To Dp980 Ultra-High Strength Steel: A Feasibility Study, Britney Weickum Jul 2011

Friction Bit Joining Of 5754 Aluminum To Dp980 Ultra-High Strength Steel: A Feasibility Study, Britney Weickum

Theses and Dissertations

In this study, the dissimilar metals 5754 aluminum and DP980 ultra-high strength steel were joined using the friction bit joining (FBJ) process. The friction bits were made using one of three steels: 4140, 4340, or H13. Experiments were performed in lap shear, T-peel, and cross tension configurations, with the 0.070" thick 5754 aluminum alloy as the top layer through which the friction bit cut, and the 0.065" thick DP980 as the bottom layer to which the friction bit welded. All experiments were performed using a computer controlled welding machine that was purpose-built and provided by MegaStir Technologies. Through ...


Design, Modeling And Control Strategy Of Pv/Fc Hybrid Power System, Dr. Adel A. Elbaset Jul 2011

Design, Modeling And Control Strategy Of Pv/Fc Hybrid Power System, Dr. Adel A. Elbaset

Dr. Adel A. Elbaset

This paper describes development of a general methodology of an autonomous PV/FC system composed of photovoltaic (PV), electrolyzer, hydrogen storage tank and fuel cell (FC). The aim of this paper is to determine optimum design, control strategy, economic and performance of a PV/FC hybrid power generation system without battery storage taking into account all losses in the system. The paper also presents a computer program based on Matlab software to determine optimum design, control strategy, economic and performance of an autonomous PV/FC hybrid power generation system. The computer program develops to size system components in order to ...


A Digital Hydraulic Valve, Actuated Using A Piezoelectric Linear Motor, Brian C. Bevill Jul 2011

A Digital Hydraulic Valve, Actuated Using A Piezoelectric Linear Motor, Brian C. Bevill

Purdue Polytechnic Directed Projects

Proportional control in hydraulics is widely utilized. The most widely used current types of proportional valves utilize solenoid technology. While this technology has been around for decades and has been proven an effective means of control, there is always a demand for improved performance of advancing technologies. Integrating piezoelectric devices as a means to control hydraulic systems helps advance control for hydraulic systems.

Piezoelectric stack devices have been used to control hydraulic systems with success. Advantages of these stacks include being relatively small with a high power to weight ratio, using less energy than solenoid operations, and being fast acting ...