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2010

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Mapping Trabecular Bone Fabric Tensor By In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Michael J. Wald Dec 2010

Mapping Trabecular Bone Fabric Tensor By In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Michael J. Wald

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The mechanical competence of bone depends upon its quantity, structural arrangement, and chemical composition. Assessment of these factors is important for the evaluation of bone integrity, particularly as the skeleton remodels according to external (e.g. mechanical loading) and internal (e.g. hormonal changes) stimuli. Micro magnetic resonance imaging (µMRI) has emerged as a non-invasive and non-ionizing method well-suited for the repeated measurements necessary for monitoring changes in bone integrity. However, in vivo image-based directional dependence of trabecular bone (TB) has not been linked to mechanical competence or fracture risk despite the existence of convincing ex vivo evidence. The objective ...


Patterning Of Alloy Precipitation Through External Pressure, Jack A. Franklin Dec 2010

Patterning Of Alloy Precipitation Through External Pressure, Jack A. Franklin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Due to the nature of their microstructure, alloyed components have the benefit of meeting specific design goals across a wide range of electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In general by selecting the correct alloy system and applying a proper heat treatment it is possible to create a metallic sample whose properties achieve a unique set of design requirements. This dissertation presents an innovative processing technique intended to control both the location of formation and the growth rates of precipitates within metallic alloys in order to create multiple patterned areas of unique microstructure within a single sample. Specific experimental results for ...


Leaching Mechanism Of Semiconducting Minerals, Fathi Habashi Dec 2010

Leaching Mechanism Of Semiconducting Minerals, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

The mechanism of leaching of semiconducting minerals such as PbS, ZnS, UO2, etc., has been the subject of intensive speculation by hydrometallurgists in the early 1950s. The electrochemical mechanism proposed in 1970 by the author in volume 2 of his Principles of Extractive Metallurgy avoids the assumption of forming intermediate complexes that cannot be isolated or identified.


Anomalous Loss Of Toughness Of Work Toughened Polycarbonate, Shawn E. Meagher Dec 2010

Anomalous Loss Of Toughness Of Work Toughened Polycarbonate, Shawn E. Meagher

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Glassy polymers such as polycarbonate (PC) can be toughened through compressive plastic deformation. The increase in toughness is substantial, showing as much as a fifteen fold increase in the amount of dissipated energy during failure for samples compressed to 50% plastic strain. This toughness increase can be reversed through thermal aging at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg = 147°C).

The combined effect of plastic compression and thermal aging has been studied using Charpy, Single Edge Notch Bending (SENB), and Compact Tension (CT) tests. The tests mapped the response of samples cut along different orientations relative to the ...


Hybrid Nanomanufacturing Process For High-Rate Polymer Nanofiber Production, Chad T. Peterson Dec 2010

Hybrid Nanomanufacturing Process For High-Rate Polymer Nanofiber Production, Chad T. Peterson

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Nanotechnology and nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize existing and create entirely new industries. Unique physical, mechanical, chemical, and biological properties of nanomaterials have been extensively documented in the last two decades. However, most nanomaterials are discontinuous in nature, creating problems with their processing and manipulation into devices and raising health concerns. Continuous nanofibers represent an emerging class of nanomaterials with critical advantages to applications. Continuous nanofibers are readily produced by electrospinning process comprising spinning polymer solutions in high electric fields. Electrospinning is a very economic top-down nanomanufacturing process that has been used to produce ultrafine continuous nanofibers from several ...


Effect Of Moisture Absorption On The Sinter Quality Of Central Solenoid (Cs) Coil Pack, Zeshaan Sher Mohammed Dec 2010

Effect Of Moisture Absorption On The Sinter Quality Of Central Solenoid (Cs) Coil Pack, Zeshaan Sher Mohammed

Masters Theses

Fusion energy has been said to be the solution to all the world’s energy problems. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the flagship project to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion energy. The Central Solenoid (CS), an important component of the reactor, is needed to induce plasma current, initiate, ramp-up, ramp-down, and sustain plasma in a very controlled manner. In order to achieve this, the CS coil packs must be manufactured under controlled conditions. The CS conductor is an advanced cable-in-conduit Nb3Sn superconductor. The CS cable will be made in long continuous sections but with thousands of meter of ...


Processing And Composition Effects On The Fracture Behavior Of Spray-Formed 7xxx Series Al Alloys, Mala M. Sharma, Constance W. Ziemian, Timothy J. Eden Dec 2010

Processing And Composition Effects On The Fracture Behavior Of Spray-Formed 7xxx Series Al Alloys, Mala M. Sharma, Constance W. Ziemian, Timothy J. Eden

Faculty Journal Articles

The fracture properties of high-strength spray-formed Al alloys were investigated, with consideration of the effects of elemental additions such as zinc,manganese, and chromium and the influence of the addition of SiC particulate. Fracture resistance values between 13.6 and 25.6 MPa (m)1/2 were obtained for the monolithic alloys in the T6 and T7 conditions, respectively. The alloys with SiC particulate compared well and achieved fracture resistance values between 18.7 and 25.6 MPa (m)1/2. The spray-formed materials exhibited a loss in fracture resistance (KI) compared to ingot metallurgy 7075 alloys but had an ...


Radiation-Curable Adhesives For Wood Composites, Timothy H. Starr Dec 2010

Radiation-Curable Adhesives For Wood Composites, Timothy H. Starr

Masters Theses

Wood composites are widely used in construction applications because of their superior dimensional and structural attributes over raw wood products. However, current wood composite manufacturing practices, which rely on thermal-curing of adhesives, are expensive, energy intensive, time consuming and are prone to manufacturing defects. Use of radiation curable adhesives (RCAs) could potentially answer all of these issues. Specifically, use of electron-beam (e-beam) radiation has been increasing in areas of research and industry where rapid, low-temperature polymerization is required and low energy consumption is desired. For e-beams to be used in wood composites, however, it must be determined whether or not ...


Design Decisions Under Risk And Uncertainty, Sravya Thoomu Dec 2010

Design Decisions Under Risk And Uncertainty, Sravya Thoomu

All Theses

In the contemporary world of engineering, engineers strive towards designing reliable and robust artifacts while considering and attempting to control manufacturing costs. In due course they have to deal with some sort of uncertainty. Many aspects of the design are the result of properties that are defined within some tolerances, of measurements that are appropriate, and of circumstances and environmental conditions that are out of their control. This uncertainty was typically handled by using factors of safety, and resulted in designs that may have been overly conservative. Therefore, understanding and handling the uncertainties is critical in improving the design, controlling ...


A Neural Network Based Speed Control Of A Linear Induction Motor Drive, Adel A. Elbaset, Ahmed A. Hassan, Yehia S. Mohamed, T. Hiyama,, T. H. Mohamed Nov 2010

A Neural Network Based Speed Control Of A Linear Induction Motor Drive, Adel A. Elbaset, Ahmed A. Hassan, Yehia S. Mohamed, T. Hiyama,, T. H. Mohamed

Dr. Adel A. Elbaset

In this paper, a general regression neural network (GRNN) based controller is used to control the speed and thrust output of the linear induction motor drive. The field orientation principle is used to asymptotically decouple the motor speed from the secondary flux. The idea of model predictive control technique is used for the training of the proposed controller. The motivation for using this control strategy for training the GRNN based controller is to reduce the effect of the uncertainty due to motor parameters variation and load disturbance. This newly developed design strategy combines the advantage of the neural networks and ...


Nanomanufacturing And Analysis Of Novel Integrated Continuous Nanofibers, John E. Hannappel Nov 2010

Nanomanufacturing And Analysis Of Novel Integrated Continuous Nanofibers, John E. Hannappel

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Complex nanostructured materials have great potential for applications in many areas of nanotechnology. This potential is being unlocked by precise control of their nanoscale architecture and properties. Most current methods of creating these nanostructures are expensive and difficult to control, with the majority of techniques resulting in non-continuous nanostructures and nanoparticles. Electrospinning is an economic nanomanufacturing method resulting in continuous nanofibers. The method consists of spinning fiber-forming liquids in high electric fields. In this work, a modified electrospinning process was analyzed. The process utilized two concentric liquids that resulted in integrated continuous hollow or composite nanofibers. A new adjustable co-axial ...


Use Of A Single Multiplexed Cmos Oscillator As Direct Frequency Read-Out For An Array Of Eight Aln Contour-Mode Nems Resonant Sensors, Matteo Rinaldi, Chiara Zuniga, Brandon Duick, Gianluca Piazza Nov 2010

Use Of A Single Multiplexed Cmos Oscillator As Direct Frequency Read-Out For An Array Of Eight Aln Contour-Mode Nems Resonant Sensors, Matteo Rinaldi, Chiara Zuniga, Brandon Duick, Gianluca Piazza

Departmental Papers (ESE)

This paper reports on the first demonstration of a single multiplexed CMOS oscillator circuit employed as direct frequency readout for an array of 8 nanoscaled aluminum nitride Contour-Mode Resonant Sensors (CMR-S). In this first prototype 8 thin-film (250 nm) AlN CMR-S operating at 186 MHz were fabricated on the same chip and simultaneously wire-bonded to a Pierce-like oscillator circuit (fabricated in the ON Semiconductor 0.5 µm CMOS process) by means of 8 CMOS transmission gates addressed via a 3 bit on-chip decoder. The 8 CMR-S were simultaneously exposed to different concentrations of methanol (0.1–1% of the saturated ...


Genetic Algorithm Based Optim-Al Sizing Of Pv-Diesel-Battery System Considering Co2 Emission And Reliability, Dr. Adel A. Elbaset, Heri Suryoatmojo, Prof. Dr. Takashi Hiyama Oct 2010

Genetic Algorithm Based Optim-Al Sizing Of Pv-Diesel-Battery System Considering Co2 Emission And Reliability, Dr. Adel A. Elbaset, Heri Suryoatmojo, Prof. Dr. Takashi Hiyama

Dr. Adel A. Elbaset

The reliability system concern and CO2 emission reduction are still the main targets of optimization problem in the hybrid generation system components. This pa- per utilizes Genetic Algorithm (GA) method to determine the optimal capacities of PV system, battery bank and diesel generator (DG) unit according to the minimum cost ob- jective functions that relate to these two factors. In this study, the cost objective function includes the annual capital cost (ACC), annual operation maintenance cost (AOM), an- nual replacement cost (ARC), annual fuel cost (AFC), annual emission cost (AEC) and annual customer damage cost (ADC). The proposed method has ...


Deformation Waves In Microstructured Materials: Theory And Numerics, Juri Engelbrecht, Arkadi Berezovski, Mihhail Berezovski Sep 2010

Deformation Waves In Microstructured Materials: Theory And Numerics, Juri Engelbrecht, Arkadi Berezovski, Mihhail Berezovski

Publications

A linear model of the microstructured continuum based on Mindlin theory is adopted which can be represented in the framework of the internal variable theory. Fully coupled systems of equations for macro-motion and microstructure evolution are represented in the form of conservation laws. A modification of wave propagation algorithm is used for numerical calculations. Results of direct numerical simulations of wave propagation in periodic medium are compared with similar results for the continuous media with the modelled microstructure. It is shown that the proper choice of material constants should be made to match the results obtained by both approaches


Energetyka Niskoemisyjna, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Sep 2010

Energetyka Niskoemisyjna, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Diffuse Ultrasonic Scattering In Advanced Composites, Christer Stenström Aug 2010

Diffuse Ultrasonic Scattering In Advanced Composites, Christer Stenström

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Non destructive testing (NDT) is a noninvasive technique used for characterization and inspection of the integrity of objects. NDT is an important tool for research, manufacturing monitoring and in-service inspections. Ultrasonic testing is the most used NDT technique, which for advanced composites can identify several types of defects, like delamination and interlaminar cracks. Diffuse ultrasonics has shown to be able to extract information at the microscale of metals and therefore it is believed it can be used for advanced composites to extract microstructural information, i.e. at the level of fibers.

In this thesis, diffuse ultrasonic methods, together with spatial ...


Characterization, Modeling, And Consequences Of The Development During Plastic Flow Of Large Anisotropy In The Wave-Speeds, Quentin Fichot Aug 2010

Characterization, Modeling, And Consequences Of The Development During Plastic Flow Of Large Anisotropy In The Wave-Speeds, Quentin Fichot

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

There is a substantial change in the anisotropy of some glassy polymers when they are subjected to large plastic deformations. The most pronounced case probably is seen in polycarbonate (PC), which is a tough thermoplastic used for many structural applications, including as a protective transparent armor for such applications as bulletproof glass. This development of anisotropy in the elastic response can be of the same order as the applied strains, and, therefore, becomes important in problems that show substantial plastic flow. In spite of this, this characteristic of glassy polymers has not been included in the current models. We propose ...


Modeling Of Cell Transfer And Process-Induced Cell Damage In Laser-Assisted Cell Direct Writing, Wei Wang Aug 2010

Modeling Of Cell Transfer And Process-Induced Cell Damage In Laser-Assisted Cell Direct Writing, Wei Wang

All Dissertations

Laser-assisted cell direct-write technique has been obtaining more and more attention in different biomaterial direct writing applications. A typical laser-assisted cell direct-write process can be divided into two main stages: the cell droplet ejection and cell droplet landing. The objective of this study is to model the cell mechanical profile during the cell droplet ejection and cell landing and further model the cell damage.
The possible cell damage during the droplet ejection process in laser-assisted cell direct writing may come from two different sources: the phase explosion-induced bubble expansion and the thermoelastic stress wave. The bubble expansion-induced stress wave is ...


Investigation Of Subgrid-Scale Mixing And Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction In Turbulent Partially Premixed Flames Using Experimental Data, Jian Cai Aug 2010

Investigation Of Subgrid-Scale Mixing And Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction In Turbulent Partially Premixed Flames Using Experimental Data, Jian Cai

All Dissertations

The filtered mass density function (FMDF) of mixture fraction, temperature and species used in large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent combustion is studied experimentally using line images obtained in turbulent partially premixed methane flames (Sandia flames D and E). Cross-stream filtering is employed to obtain the FMDF and other filtered variables. The mean of the FMDF conditional on the subgrid-scale (SGS) scalar variance at a given location are found to vary from unimodal to bimodal, corresponding to quasi-equilibrium distributed reaction zones and laminar flamelets (including extinguished flamelets), respectively. The conditionally filtered mixture fraction dissipation for small SGS variances has a ...


Nonlinear Acoustics Of Piston-Driven Gas-Column Oscillations, Andrew William Wilson Aug 2010

Nonlinear Acoustics Of Piston-Driven Gas-Column Oscillations, Andrew William Wilson

Masters Theses

The piston-driven oscillator is traditionally modeled by directly applying boundary conditions to the acoustic wave equations; with better models re-deriving the wave equations but retaining nonlinear and viscous effects. These better models are required as the acoustic solution exhibits singularity near the natural frequencies of the cavity, with an unbounded (and therefore unphysical) solution. Recently, a technique has been developed to model general pressure oscillations in propulsion systems and combustion devices. Here, it is shown that this technique applies equally well to the piston-driven gas-column oscillator; and that the piston experiment provides strong evidence for the validity of the general ...


Friction Measurement In Precision Glass Molding, Peiman Mosaddegh Aug 2010

Friction Measurement In Precision Glass Molding, Peiman Mosaddegh

All Dissertations

Extensive growth of state-of-the-art technologies has created a demand for high quality lenses and has driven the industry toward an inexpensive process for manufacturing of aspheric glass lenses called Precision Glass Molding (PGM). Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used to predict the right mold geometry. Having a realistic simulation to predict mold geometry depends on the correct model of material behavior and friction coefficient at elevated temperature.
Finding the static and dynamic coefficient of friction experimentally between two flat surfaces at elevated temperature is the subject of this research. The equipment used in this study was originally designed for ...


Development Of A Finite Element Model To Predict The Behavior Of A Prototype Wheel On Lunar Soil, Marisa Orr Aug 2010

Development Of A Finite Element Model To Predict The Behavior Of A Prototype Wheel On Lunar Soil, Marisa Orr

All Dissertations

The All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a mobile lunar lander under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lunar Architecture Team. While previous lunar missions have lasted only a few days, the ATHLETE is designed to last for 10 years, which will enable a sustained U.S. presence on the moon and exploration of the more treacherous regions which are not suitable for landing. Because the ATHLETE will carry entire astronaut habitats, its six wheels must be carefully designed to support a large load on soft lunar soil efficiently.
The purpose of this thesis is to develop ...


Combined Musculo-Skeletal Multi-Body Dynamics/Finite Element Analysis Of Several Ergonomics And Bio-Mechanics Problems, Xin Xie Aug 2010

Combined Musculo-Skeletal Multi-Body Dynamics/Finite Element Analysis Of Several Ergonomics And Bio-Mechanics Problems, Xin Xie

All Theses

Within this thesis, two ergonomics (i.e. seating comfort and long-distance driving fatigue problems) and two structural bio-mechanics (i.e. femur-fracture fixation and radius-fracture fixation) problems are investigated using musculo-skeletal multi-body dynamics and finite element computational analyses.
Within the seating comfort problem analyzed, a complete-body finite element model is constructed and used to assess the effect of seat geometry and seating posture on the feel of comfort experienced by a seated human.
Within the long-distance driving fatigue problem, musculo-skeletal analysis is employed to assess the extent of fatigue experienced by a driver through the evaluation of level of activity of ...


Methods For Characterizing Mechanical Properties Of Wood Cell Walls Via Nanoindentation, Yujie Meng Aug 2010

Methods For Characterizing Mechanical Properties Of Wood Cell Walls Via Nanoindentation, Yujie Meng

Masters Theses

Nanoindentation is a method of contacting a material whose mechanical properties are unknown with another material whose properties are known. Nanoindentation has the advantage of being able to probe a material’s microstructure while being sensitive enough to detect variations in mechanical properties. However, nanoindentation has some limitations as a testing technique due to the specific formation and structure of some biomaterials. The main objective of this research is to identify any factors that influence the nanoindentation measurement of wood cell walls (a typical biomaterial).

The function of the embedding media in describing the properties of wood cells is poorly ...


Non-Contact Spatially Constrained Optical Scanning Methods Applied For Depth, Width And Gap Measurements, Konda Reddy Thotti Reddy Aug 2010

Non-Contact Spatially Constrained Optical Scanning Methods Applied For Depth, Width And Gap Measurements, Konda Reddy Thotti Reddy

All Theses

The thesis presents the non-contact laser projection based systems utilized for quantifying the feature dimensions like width, depth and air gaps. Laser diode, Charge coupled device (CCD) and post-processing software using image processing tools are the major components of the non-contact measurement systems. The study involves two methods where the first method comprises of active laser-based triangulation and morphological edge detection for depth and width measurement applications. The second method uses edge detection technique and Dynamic Field of View (DFOV) for gap detection and tracking. Using the developed techniques, the case studies are conducted with smooth plastic fenders with induced ...


Design Method Development For The Design Of Traction Systems, Avinash Kolla Aug 2010

Design Method Development For The Design Of Traction Systems, Avinash Kolla

All Theses

The objective of this research is to develop a design method for rapid exploration of traction concepts primarily for off-road vehicles. Different approaches available to achieve this objective are discussed and compared, such as computational, analytical, and physical methods. Computational approaches are based on simulations performed using Finite Element Method (FEM), Discrete Element Method (DEM), and combined Finite Element-Discrete Element (FE-DE) methods. Analytical approaches are based on closed form mathematical models developed by previous researchers based on the theory of plasticity. Physical approaches include fabrication and testing of prototypes at different levels of abstraction. This thesis compares these different approaches ...


Determination Of Higher Order Coefficients For A Crack Parallel To An Interface, Venkata Lakshman Kolluru Aug 2010

Determination Of Higher Order Coefficients For A Crack Parallel To An Interface, Venkata Lakshman Kolluru

All Theses

A general method based on the singular integral equations is developed to
computationally determine the higher order coefficients in mixed mode fracture
mechanics. These 'k' and 'T' coefficients are defined with respect to a polar coordinate
system centered at a crack tip, and give asymptotic expressions for stresses and
displacements according to the William's eigenfunction expansions,
(r, ) (2r) k f (n, ) k f (n, ) IIk
ij
II
n
Ik
ij
I
n
n 0
2
1
n
ij      



1
(0, ) (2 ) ( , ) ( , ) , , ; , , I IT n I IT II IIT
ij n ij n ij
n
T f  r T f ...


Modeling And Optimization Of A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Venkat Vijay Kishore Turlapati Aug 2010

Modeling And Optimization Of A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Venkat Vijay Kishore Turlapati

All Theses

Today, the world is faced with a situation where new technologies have to be developed to decrease the dependence on natural non-renewable resources. Each day, as the demand for non-renewable resources increases, it puts great pressure on the scientific fraternity to develop new technologies that are aimed at reducing this dependence.
Today's road traffic plays a major part in the energy consumption worldwide. Hence it is imperative that we develop environmentally friendly solutions to this problem that arises in the transportation sector. Hybrid vehicle is one of the alternatives that can be seen as a viable solution to this ...


Electromechanical Modeling And Analysis Of A Self-Excited Micro-Power Generator, Amin Bibo Aug 2010

Electromechanical Modeling And Analysis Of A Self-Excited Micro-Power Generator, Amin Bibo

All Theses

Micro-power generators (MPGs) are compact, scalable, and low-maintenance energy harvesting devices that capture and transform wasted ambient energy into electricity.
Such devices, which are currently being researched as a possible replacement for batteries, can act as a power source to maintain and allow autonomous operations of
remote low-power consumption sensors. This thesis introduces a novel MPG which transforms wind energy into electricity via wind-induced self-excited oscillations
of piezoelectric cantilever beams. The operation concept of the device is simple: similar to music-playing harmonica that create tones via oscillations of reeds when
subjected to air blow, the proposed device uses flow-induced self-excited ...


Ultracapacitor Heavy Hybrid Vehicle: Model Predictive Control Using Future Information To Improve Fuel Consumption, Seneca Schepmann Aug 2010

Ultracapacitor Heavy Hybrid Vehicle: Model Predictive Control Using Future Information To Improve Fuel Consumption, Seneca Schepmann

All Theses

This research is concerned with the improvement in the fuel economy of heavy transport vehicles through the use of high power ultracapacitors in a mild hybrid electric vehicle platform. Previous work has shown the potential for up to 15% improvement on a hybrid SUV platform, but preliminary simulations have shown the potential improvement for larger vehicles is much higher.
Based on vehicle modeling information from the high fidelity, forward-looking modeling and simulation program Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), a mild parallel heavy ultracapacitor hybrid electric vehicle model is developed and validated to known vehicle performance measures. The vehicle is hybridized ...