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Engineering Science and Materials Commons

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2009

Materials Science and Engineering

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Articles 1 - 30 of 34

Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Hydrometallurgical Process For Extraction Of Metals From Electronic Waste-Part I: Material Characterization And Process Option Selection, Zeljko J. Kamberovic Dec 2009

Hydrometallurgical Process For Extraction Of Metals From Electronic Waste-Part I: Material Characterization And Process Option Selection, Zeljko J. Kamberovic

Zeljko J Kamberovic

Used electronic equipment became one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world. In the past two decades recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) has been based on pyrometallurgy, higly polluting recycling technology whic causes a variety of environmental problems. The most of the contemporary research activities on recovery of base and precious metals from waste PCBs are focused on hydrometallurgical techniques as more exact, predictable and easily controlled. In this paper mechanically pretrated PCBs are leached with nitric acid. Pouring density, percentage of magnetic fraction, particle size distribution, metal content and leachability are determined using optical microscopy, atomic ...


Doppler Broadening Analysis Of Steel Specimens Using Accelerator Based In Situ Pair Production, V. Makarashvili, Douglas P. Wells, Ajit K. Roy Aug 2009

Doppler Broadening Analysis Of Steel Specimens Using Accelerator Based In Situ Pair Production, V. Makarashvili, Douglas P. Wells, Ajit K. Roy

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) techniques can be utilized as a sensitive probe of defects in materials. Studying these microscopic defects is very important for a number of industries in order to predict material failure or structural integrity. We have been developing gamma‐induced pair‐production techniques to produce positrons in thick samples ( ∼4–40 g/cm2, or ∼0.5–5 cm in steel). These techniques are called ‘Accelerator‐based Gamma‐induced Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy’ (AG‐PAS). We have begun testing the capabilities of this technique for imaging of defect densities in thick structural materials. As a first step, a linear ...


Abstracts, Review Of Progress In Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (Kingston, Ri, July 26–31, 2009), Center For Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University Jul 2009

Abstracts, Review Of Progress In Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (Kingston, Ri, July 26–31, 2009), Center For Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Abstracts of papers presented at the 2009 Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) conference held in Kingston, Rhode Island from July 26–31, 2009.


Recent Advances In Model-Assisted Probability Of Detection, R. Bruce Thompson, Lisa H. Brasche, D. Forsyth, E. Lindgren, P. Swindell, W. Winfree Jun 2009

Recent Advances In Model-Assisted Probability Of Detection, R. Bruce Thompson, Lisa H. Brasche, D. Forsyth, E. Lindgren, P. Swindell, W. Winfree

Center for Nondestructive Evaluation Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

The increased role played by probability of detection (POD) in structural integrity programs, combined with the significant time and cost associated with the purely empirical determination of POD, provides motivation for alternate means to estimate this important metric of NDE techniques. One approach to make the process of POD estimation more efficient is to complement limited empirical experiments with information from physics-based models of the inspection process or controlled laboratory experiments. The Model-Assisted Probability of Detection (MAPOD) Working Group was formed by the Air Force Research Laboratory, the FAA Technical Center, and NASA to explore these possibilities. Since the 2004 ...


Droplet Assisted Self-Assembly Of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Kimberly Annosha Sablon May 2009

Droplet Assisted Self-Assembly Of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Kimberly Annosha Sablon

Theses and Dissertations

There is increasing interest in quantum dot (QD) structures for a plethora of applications, including optoelectronic devices, quantum computing and energy harvesting. While strain driven surface diffusion via stranski-krastanow (SK) method has been commonly used to fabricate these structures, a more recent technique, droplet epitaxy (DE) does not require mismatch strain and is therefore much more flexible in the combination of materials utilized for the formation of QDs.

As reported in this work, a hybrid approach that combines DE and SK techniques for realizing lateral ordering of QDs was explored. First, the droplet formation of various materials was discussed and ...


Multiscale Modeling Of Impact On Heterogeneous Viscoelastic Solids With Evolving Microcracks, Flavio V. Souza Apr 2009

Multiscale Modeling Of Impact On Heterogeneous Viscoelastic Solids With Evolving Microcracks, Flavio V. Souza

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Multiscale computational techniques play a major role in solving problems related to viscoelastic composite materials due to the complexities inherent to these materials. In the present work, a numerical procedure for multiscale modeling of impact on heterogeneous viscoelastic solids containing evolving microcracks is proposed in which the (global scale) homogenized viscoelastic incremental constitutive equations have the same form as the local scale viscoelastic incremental constitutive equations, but the homogenized tangent constitutive tensor and the homogenized incremental history dependent stress tensor depend on the amount of damage accumulated at the local scale. Furthermore, the developed technique allows the computation of the ...


The Effect Of Silicon Content On Impact Toughness Of T91 Grade Steels, Ajit K. Roy, Pankaj Kumar, Debajyoti Maitra Mar 2009

The Effect Of Silicon Content On Impact Toughness Of T91 Grade Steels, Ajit K. Roy, Pankaj Kumar, Debajyoti Maitra

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

The impact resistance of silicon (Si)-containing modified 9Cr-1Mo steels has been investigated within a temperature regime of -40 to 440°C using the Charpy method. The results indicate that the energies absorbed in fracturing the tested specimens were substantially lower at temperatures of -40, 25, and 75°C compared to those at elevated temperatures. Lower impact energies and higher ductile-to-brittle-transition-temperatures (DBTTs) were observed with the steels containing 1.5 and 1.9 wt.% Si. The steels containing higher Si levels exhibited both ductile and brittle failures at elevated temperatures. However, at lower temperatures, brittle failures characterized by cleavage and ...


Researches On Copper. History & Metallurgy, Fathi Habashi Feb 2009

Researches On Copper. History & Metallurgy, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

The present volume is a collection of selected papers dealing with the extractive metallurgy of copper published by the author and his coworkers. They are reproduced here in a facsimile edition in 240 pages. In addition ten new chapters were specially written in 150 pages. The book is fully illustrated by many colored pictures, flowsheets, and diagrams. It is hoped that it will be useful for students, engineers, chemists, geologists, and for research workers.


Non-Process And Chemical Free Offset Printing Plate, Bilge N. Altay, C. Koroglu, O. Yaman, C. Sahin Feb 2009

Non-Process And Chemical Free Offset Printing Plate, Bilge N. Altay, C. Koroglu, O. Yaman, C. Sahin

Bilge Nazli Altay

No abstract provided.


Gold. History, Metallurgy, Culture, Fathi Habashi Feb 2009

Gold. History, Metallurgy, Culture, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

Gold, the first metal used by man, has a special place among metals. It plays an important role in society and in world economics. It caused unprecedented mass migrations on three continents, and at least one war. It was responsible for creating many large cities, is highly prized, has been the inspiration of numerous myths, was the ultimate goal of alchemists, stored in the vaults of banks, widely on display in oriental bazaars, and is generously used in decorating churches and temples. The present volume is composed of two parts: a collection of selected papers published by the author on ...


Effect Of Non-Stationary Current Regimes On The Morphology Of Silver Electrodeposits, Zeljko J. Kamberovic Jan 2009

Effect Of Non-Stationary Current Regimes On The Morphology Of Silver Electrodeposits, Zeljko J. Kamberovic

Zeljko J Kamberovic

This work is concerned with the use of reverse current regimes in order to form small-grained and compact silver deposits during the electrorefining process. Several parameters were varied, i.e., i) anodic overpotential, ii) cathodic vs. anodic time ratio and iii) duration of the anodic pulse. After optimization of these parameters, phosphate ions were added and the electrolyte was stirred. The effects of a rise of the anodic overpotential on the grain sizes of the silver deposit and compactness were studied. Prolongation of the anodic time had a similar influence but with a decrease in current efficiency. An increase of ...


Chemistry And Metallurgy In The Great Empires, Fathi Habashi Jan 2009

Chemistry And Metallurgy In The Great Empires, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

It is remarkable that certain countries expand to become great empires then as time goes by they gradually decline while others rise. This book attempts to briefly trace the history of chemistry and metallurgy through the different empires that became at one time great and then faded away. In 272 pages 21.5 x 28 cm, the author outlines the inter-relation of chemistry, metallurgy, mining, and medicine, the idea of the divinity of kings and the formation of nations, and finally the rise and fall of the empires. He then covers the ancient and medieval empires, followed by the empires ...


Science, Technology, And Society, Fathi Habashi Jan 2009

Science, Technology, And Society, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

Science, technology, and society is a vast and complex question. It is discussed here from five points: social responsibility of scientists, migration and movement of scholars, philanthropy and its role in education and culture, enlightened despots and their influence on science and culture, and finally the social aspects of mining. The book is meant for the general reader but can benefit scientists as well. It is fully illustrated with colored pictures. It is hoped that it will serve as an introduction to this field to the young generation and inspire them to serve society.


Electronic And Structural Properties Of Molybdenum Thin Films As Determined By Real Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, J. D. Walker, H. Khatri, V. Ranjan, Jian Li, R. W. Collins, S. Marsillac Jan 2009

Electronic And Structural Properties Of Molybdenum Thin Films As Determined By Real Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, J. D. Walker, H. Khatri, V. Ranjan, Jian Li, R. W. Collins, S. Marsillac

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Walker, J.D., Khatri, H., Ranjan, V., Li, J., Collins, R.W., & Marsillac, S. (2009). Electronic and structural properties of molybdenum thin films as determined by real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry. Applied Physics Letters, 94(14). doi: 10.1063/1.3117222


Microstructural Characterization And Heat Treatment Of A-286 Turbine Buckets, Christopher Michael Bradley Jan 2009

Microstructural Characterization And Heat Treatment Of A-286 Turbine Buckets, Christopher Michael Bradley

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

A-286 is an iron-based superalloy used extensively in land-based gas turbines for 2nd stage (low pressure) buckets and 1st and 2nd stage wheels. Although A-286 may appear to some as just another austenitic stainless steel, its elevated temperature properties are attributed to ' precipitate structures, effective distributions of alloy carbides in the forms of M23C6, M6C and MC, and solid solution strengthening. Unfortunately over the course of these components service lives microstructural degradation develops in the form of η-phase formation. The presence of η-phase, especially in large quantities, can have a negative effect on stress rupture properties. Resistance to creep rupture ...


Spectroscopic Characterizations Of Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites, Jayesh Rasikalal Govani Jan 2009

Spectroscopic Characterizations Of Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites, Jayesh Rasikalal Govani

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Inorganic potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) is widely known for its value as a nonlinear optical material. In this study, pure and l-arginine-doped KDP single crystals were grown by the slow solvent evaporation technique and further subjected to infrared absorption and Raman studies for the confirmation of chemical group functionalization and possible bonding between the organic and inorganic materials. The appearance in the infrared absorption spectra of additional vibrational lines, which mostly originate from disturbed N-H, C-H, and C-N bonds of the l-arginine-doped salt, confirm the interaction between KDP and the organic material. This affirmation is supported by more evidence from ...


Computational Modeling Studies Of The Structures And Properties Of Organotin(Iv) And Stannyl-Thioether Systems With Comparisons To X-Ray Crystallography, Michelle R. Stem Joseph Jan 2009

Computational Modeling Studies Of The Structures And Properties Of Organotin(Iv) And Stannyl-Thioether Systems With Comparisons To X-Ray Crystallography, Michelle R. Stem Joseph

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Controlling the toxic effects of organotin(IV) compounds involves engineering the structure of the molecules to optimize their properties. Molecular engineering, coupled with improved capabilities to generate reliable computational optimization models (COMs), will enable researchers to have greater success at harnessing the highly specific cytotoxicity of organotins. For example, as the thion ligand phenyl groups were replaced with Cl atoms, the S-Sn intramolecularity was strengthened, the bond distance decreased, and the stannyl tetrahedral structure was deformed from its triphenyl conformation. With each substitution, conformation deformations lowered the damaging bioactivity levels of thion. Bonding various ligands to organotin(IV ...


Observed Superspin-Glass Behavior In Ni0.5zn0.5fe2o4 Nanoparticles, Antony Adair Jan 2009

Observed Superspin-Glass Behavior In Ni0.5zn0.5fe2o4 Nanoparticles, Antony Adair

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In this investigation we seek to identify the magnetic behavior of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles though AC-susceptibility and DC-magnetization measurements. Powder x-ray diffraction was performed to determine the purity and average diameter ( ~ 9nm) of the particles. Aditionally, structure was confirmed by comparison through the International Centre for Diffraction Data's Powder Diffraction File [52] (PDF # 08-0234).

Zero-field cooled and field cooled DC magnetization measurements (bifurcation and blocking temperature), as well as M(H) hysteresis (below and above the blocking temperature) lead us to initially suggest that the material may in fact be superparamagnetic. However, further investigation of the real AC ...


Temperature-Induced Phenomena In Systems Of Magnetic Nanoparticles, Abdul Wazed Bhuiya Jan 2009

Temperature-Induced Phenomena In Systems Of Magnetic Nanoparticles, Abdul Wazed Bhuiya

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Magnetic nanoparticle ensembles have received a lot of attention, stemming in part from their current and potential applications in biomedicine and in the development of high-density magnetic storage media. Key to the functionality of these systems are microscopic structures and mechanisms that make them exhibit unique properties and behave differently from their bulk counterparts.

We studied microscopic structures and processes that dictate macroscopic properties, behavior and functionality of magnetic nanoparticle ensembles. As the temperature T strongly influences the magnetic behavior of these systems, we studied temperature dependent magnetic properties using AC-susceptibility and DC-magnetization measurements carried out over a broad range ...


High Temperature Oxidation Behavior Of Nb-20mo-15si-5b-20cr Alloy, Julieta Angelica Ventura Jan 2009

High Temperature Oxidation Behavior Of Nb-20mo-15si-5b-20cr Alloy, Julieta Angelica Ventura

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Materials for high temperature applications, such as jet engines, gas turbines and turbine blades, require a balanced combination of physical and chemical properties to withstand the aggressive environments in which they are utilized. Some of the properties required are high strength, low density, high melting point and good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures [1-3]. For this reason, the microstructure and oxidation behavior of the Nb-20Mo-15Si-5B-20Cr alloy (at.%) has been studied as a potential candidate to replace Nickel-based alloys currently used in the aerospace industry.

Short term oxidation (STO) and long term oxidation (LTO) studies have been performed in air for ...


Failure Analysis And Materials Characterization Of Hip Implants, Amanda Marie Bastidos Jan 2009

Failure Analysis And Materials Characterization Of Hip Implants, Amanda Marie Bastidos

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This research focused on the microstructural characterization and failure analysis of hip implant components. The main hip components analyzed were the femoral heads and the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) liners. Previous research has shown that hip implants tend to fail by the PE liners due to adhesive and abrasive wear, delamination, and third body particles (metals, ceramics, and PE). The methods and procedures for analyzing the said failures consisted of non-destructive and destructive evaluations. Non-destructive evaluations included of techniques such as visual characterization and dye penetrant inspection (DPI)-which displayed macroscopic surface details and presented initial clues as to ...


High Temperature Oxidation Characteristics Of Nb-10w-Xcr Alloys, Maria Del Pilar Moricca Jan 2009

High Temperature Oxidation Characteristics Of Nb-10w-Xcr Alloys, Maria Del Pilar Moricca

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The use of refractory metals in high temperature applications has been attractive for several years. Systems based on niobium represent a potential new generation of refractory materials systems because of their low density, high melting points, and strength at elevated temperatures. Despite these desirable characteristics, the widespread use of niobium-based alloys is limited because its oxidation resistance is still inadequate for structural applications. Understanding the oxidation kinetics of Nb-based alloys and the role of the different phases in the oxidation process is of crucial importance to improve the oxidation resistance of these materials.

The effect of Cr content on the ...


Impacting Testing Of High Temperature Ceramics Through The Use Of A Vitiated Heater For Hot And Cold Fire Collisions, Adrian Trejo Jan 2009

Impacting Testing Of High Temperature Ceramics Through The Use Of A Vitiated Heater For Hot And Cold Fire Collisions, Adrian Trejo

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Material testing is a crucial step during the design process as particular materials serve as safety and life saving conditions. In this study, a MoSi2 is chosen as the target specimen to undergo impact under high temperatures. An impact apparatus is designed and constructed for the purpose of propelling alumina particles at high velocities. A nozzle using compressed nitrogen gas is used to fire the particle at the desired velocities. Due to the possibility of thermal shock occurring at higher temperatures, a separate nozzle utilizing vitiation heating is designed to fire the particle at equally higher temperatures to prove the ...


Assessing Repeatability Of Four-Point Bending Method For Estimating Fatigue Cracking Of Hot Mix Asphalt, Sara -. Montazeri Jan 2009

Assessing Repeatability Of Four-Point Bending Method For Estimating Fatigue Cracking Of Hot Mix Asphalt, Sara -. Montazeri

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The objective of this thesis was to assess the repeatability of four-point bending method for estimating fatigue cracking of hot mix asphalt. This experimental research examined the influence of mix proportions, specifically asphalt and air void contents, on fatigue behavior of asphalt beam specimens in the laboratory tested with four-point bending method of loading. Following the relevant specifications, the strain-controlled mode of loading was selected. Fatigue failure is expected to occur at the cycle which the flexural stiffness of asphalt specimen reduced to 50% of initial amount. Up to a 1,000,000 cycles of loading were applied to each ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Zirconium Oxide Thin Films, Vemnkata Rama Sesha Ravi Kumar Vemuri Jan 2009

Fabrication And Characterization Of Zirconium Oxide Thin Films, Vemnkata Rama Sesha Ravi Kumar Vemuri

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) is an important material with a potential for a wide range of technological applications. The outstanding chemical stability, electrical and mechanical properties, high dielectric constant, and wide band gap of ZrO2 make it suitable for several industrial applications in the field of optics, electronics, magneto-electronics, and optoelectronics. ZrO2 is frequently used as a high refractive index material in multilayer optical coatings in high power laser systems. ZrO2 is employed in super plastic structural ceramics that demonstrate excellent strength and fracture toughness. ZrO2 has been considered as a promising dielectric to replace SiO2 in advanced metal oxide semiconductor ...


Experimental Study Of The Response Of Semiconductor Detectors For Edxrf Analysis., Sunil Kumar Valaparla Jan 2009

Experimental Study Of The Response Of Semiconductor Detectors For Edxrf Analysis., Sunil Kumar Valaparla

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This present work relates to the study and characterization of the response function of an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. The problems of energy, efficiency and resolution calibration of the system operating in the energy (5-60 keV) range are discussed. We present the operation characteristics of the portable pyro-electric x-ray generator (COOL-X) and the application of the calibrated response spectrum in the elemental analysis using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF).

We study the response of the Si(Li)-Pin XR-100CR semiconductor detector to low energy photons. The photopeak efficiency was determined experimentally by using radioisotopes and compared against a theoretical efficiency curve. The efficiency ...


Art In A New Light: Design And Assessment Of Illuminants To Reduce Photochemical Degradation Of Works Of Art, Monica Fabiola Delgado Jan 2009

Art In A New Light: Design And Assessment Of Illuminants To Reduce Photochemical Degradation Of Works Of Art, Monica Fabiola Delgado

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to design the best lighting that will minimize long term photochemical degradation of Old Master Drawings and/or other works of art, while maintaining the patron's appreciation of the object's color and detail. The present approach is a technological refinement to the basic underlying earlier work on fluorescent lighting by W. A. Thornton, W.A. at General Electric1. Thin-film dielectric, multi-coating technology is used to create filters that eliminate ultraviolet light, near infrared light and significant unnecessary parts from the visible spectrum, thus maximizing the reduction in photochemical degradation, while maintaining optimal ...


Effects Of Build Orientation, Aging, And Pre-Conditioning On Mechanical Properties For Stereolithography-Manufactured Astm Type I Specimens Using A Design Of Experiments Approach, Karina Puebla Jan 2009

Effects Of Build Orientation, Aging, And Pre-Conditioning On Mechanical Properties For Stereolithography-Manufactured Astm Type I Specimens Using A Design Of Experiments Approach, Karina Puebla

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

With industry's growing focus on the rapid manufacturing (RM) of end-use products, rapid prototyping (RP) or layered manufacturing (LM) machines that were originally designed to build prototypes may now be required to build functional end-use products. To successfully accomplish the transition, the available materials utilized in RP must provide the performance required for RM. The specific technology used must also be capable of producing repeatable and reproducible parts in regards to mechanical and dimensional properties.

A design of experiments approach was performed to determine the effects of build orientation, aging, and pre-conditioning on the mechanical properties. To perform the ...


Exploring Poly(Ethylene Glycol) As A Suitable Material For Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Scaffolds Manufactured By Stereolithography, Nubia Zuverza Jan 2009

Exploring Poly(Ethylene Glycol) As A Suitable Material For Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Scaffolds Manufactured By Stereolithography, Nubia Zuverza

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

One of the challenges in tissue engineering is to have spatial and temporal control over the biological elements within a scaffold used to guide regeneration for example of transected nerves. Some of the physical and chemical characteristics to regulate include incorporation of bioactive domains and release of chemical signals. This study presents the use of stereolithography (SL) to incorporate localized domains for cell adhesion in addition to include releasable nerve growth factor (NGF) in the process of building poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGda) hydrogel scaffolds. Besides providing sites for cell attachment, an ideal nerve guidance conduit (NGC) should be able ...


Characterization And Cytotoxic Assessment Of Ballistic Aerosolized Particulates For Tungsten Alloy Penetrators Interacting With Steel Targets, Brenda Ivette Machado Jan 2009

Characterization And Cytotoxic Assessment Of Ballistic Aerosolized Particulates For Tungsten Alloy Penetrators Interacting With Steel Targets, Brenda Ivette Machado

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The aerosolized particulates produced during an impact of depleted uranium munitions can potentially contaminate extensive areas around the impact sites and cause a wide spectrum of civilian and military damage. Thus materials such as WHA have been prompted for consideration. The present research is concerned with the regular collection of aerosol particulates associated with ballistic WHA rod penetration into rolled homogeneous steel (RHA) or other related steel armor as armor plate sequences. Particulate size characterization via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) along with chemical compositions via energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were the focus of this research ...