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2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 76

Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Dynamic Design Guidelines For Prestressed Concrete Sleepers, Alexander Remennikov, Martin H. Murray, Sakdirat Kaewunruen Dec 2008

Dynamic Design Guidelines For Prestressed Concrete Sleepers, Alexander Remennikov, Martin H. Murray, Sakdirat Kaewunruen

Faculty of Engineering - Papers (Archive)

Current design philosophy, outlined in AS 1085.14, is based on the analysis of permissible stresses resulting from quasi-static wheel loads and essentially the static response of concrete sleepers. In general, cracking can incur when the bottom fibre stress is larger than tensile strength of concrete. Premature cracking of prestressed concrete sleepers has been detected in railway tracks. The major cause of cracking is the infrequent but high-magnitude wheel loads produced by a small percentage of “out-of-round” wheels or railhead surface defects, which are crudely accounted for in AS 1085.14 by a single load factor. Based on the current ...


Modeling And Control Of Piezoactive Micro And Nano Systems, Saeid Bashash Dec 2008

Modeling And Control Of Piezoactive Micro And Nano Systems, Saeid Bashash

All Dissertations

Piezoelectrically-driven (piezoactive) systems such as nanopositioning platforms, scanning probe microscopes, and nanomechanical cantilever probes are advantageous devices enabling molecular-level imaging, manipulation, and characterization in disciplines ranging from materials science to physics and biology. Such emerging applications require precise modeling, control and manipulation of objects, components and subsystems ranging in sizes from few nanometers to micrometers. This dissertation presents a comprehensive modeling and control framework for piezoactive micro and nano systems utilized in various applications.
The development of a precise memory-based hysteresis model for feedforward tracking as well as a Lyapunov-based robust-adaptive controller for feedback tracking control of nanopositioning stages are ...


Computional Modeling Of Precision Molding Of Aspheric Glass Optics, Balajee Ananthasayanam Dec 2008

Computional Modeling Of Precision Molding Of Aspheric Glass Optics, Balajee Ananthasayanam

All Dissertations

In this dissertation, research in two parallel directions is presented; the first involves the prediction of the final size and shape of a glass lens during a precision glass lens molding process and the second introduces a method to compute and quantify the importance of higher order terms in fracture mechanics for different modes of fracture.
The process of precision lens molding has received attention in recent years due to its potential to mass produce aspherical lenses. Aspherical lenses have significantly better optical properties and conventional lens making techniques are limited to manufacturing of spherical lenses only. The conventional technique ...


Modeling, Analysis And Control Of Flexible Solid-State Hysteretic Actuators, Kushan Vora Dec 2008

Modeling, Analysis And Control Of Flexible Solid-State Hysteretic Actuators, Kushan Vora

All Theses

A distributed parameters modeling and control framework for flexible solid-state hysteretic actuator is presented in this work. For the simplicity of analysis, the actuator dynamic behavior is decoupled and treated separately from the hysteresis nonlinearity. To include the effects of widely-used flexural mechanisms, a mass-spring-damper boundary condition is considered for system. Moreover, the effect of electromechanical actuation is included as a concentrate force at the boundary. The problem is then divided into two parts: first part deals with free motion analysis of system in order to obtain eigenvalues and eigenfunctions using the expansion theorem and a standard eigenvalue problem procedure ...


Computational Analysis Of Input-Shaping Control Of Microelectromechanical Mirrors, Thomas Starling Dec 2008

Computational Analysis Of Input-Shaping Control Of Microelectromechanical Mirrors, Thomas Starling

All Theses

Advances in micromachining technology have enabled the design and development of high performance microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). There is a pressing need for control techniques that can be used to improve the dynamic behavior of MEMS such as the response speed and precision. In MEMS applications, open-loop control is attractive as it computes a priori the required system input to achieve desired dynamic behavior without using feedback, thus eliminating the problems associated with closed-loop MEMS control. While the input-shaping control is attractive due to its simplicity, the effectiveness of this control approach depends on the accuracy of the model that is ...


Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis Of Tweel Geometric Parameter Modifications On Spoke Dynamics During High Speed Rolling, Maya Ramachandran Dec 2008

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis Of Tweel Geometric Parameter Modifications On Spoke Dynamics During High Speed Rolling, Maya Ramachandran

All Theses

The acoustic signature and noise produced by non-pnuematic wheels such as the Michelin TWEELTM is a critical design criteria for automotive and other mobility applications. The TWEELTM structure consists of three basic parts: (1) a circular deformable 'shear beam', (2) collapsible spokes and (3) a rigid hub. During high speed rolling the TWEELTM produces acoustic noise which is hypothesized to be due to resonant vibration of the TWEELTM spokes as they enter the contact region, buckle and then snap back into a state of tension. In order to identify and help understand the causes of acoustic noise for a rolling ...


Flexography Printing Of Silver Based Conductive Inks On Packaging Substrates, Ramesh Chandra Kattumenu Dec 2008

Flexography Printing Of Silver Based Conductive Inks On Packaging Substrates, Ramesh Chandra Kattumenu

Dissertations

Printing technologies for the production of flexible electronics have gained much interest due to its potential as a means to reduce the complexity and costs of present technology. High volume printing techniques like flexography are of great importance in order to produce rolls of flexible electronics printed directly on paper substrates. The proposed research will be focused on RFID components being in-line printed using flexography printing as the manufacturing platform. The properties of substrates and inks and printing process parameters are evaluated to study their effect on printed traces and RFID antenna. It was found in the study that properties ...


Independent Torque Distribution Management Systems For Vehicle Stability Control, Indrasen Karogal Dec 2008

Independent Torque Distribution Management Systems For Vehicle Stability Control, Indrasen Karogal

All Theses

Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) systems, also called Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems, are active on-board safety systems intended to stabilize the dynamics of vehicle lateral motion. In so doing, these systems reduce the possibility of the driver's loss of control of the vehicle in some critical or aggressive maneuvers. One approach to vehicle dynamics control is the use of appropriate drive torque distribution to the wheels of the vehicle. This thesis focuses on particular torque distribution management systems suitable for vehicles with independently driven wheels.
In conducting this study, a non-linear seven degree-of-freedom vehicle model incorporating a non-linear tire ...


Finite Element Analysis Of Carbon Fiber Composite Ripping Using Abaqus, Joy Pederson Dec 2008

Finite Element Analysis Of Carbon Fiber Composite Ripping Using Abaqus, Joy Pederson

All Theses

An energy dissipation system is proposed for use on consumer passenger automotive vehicles and auto racing stock cars. This system will be utilized to protect the occupants from frontal impacts with stationary or near stationary objects. The system will be affixed to the front of the car's primary structure. It is proposed to replace the traditional steel bumper currently in use. This system will not increase the weight of the car, nor will it adversely affect the aerodynamics of the body. The system will improve the crashworthiness of the vehicle. Advanced composites will be the primary sacrificial element in ...


An Investigation On Spot-Weld Modeling Complexity For Crash Simulation, Srinivasan Vimalanathan Dec 2008

An Investigation On Spot-Weld Modeling Complexity For Crash Simulation, Srinivasan Vimalanathan

All Theses

In order to design car body structures which are safe during crash, modern automotive manufacturers perform both full-scale experimental crash tests and computer simulation of vehicle crash events using commercially available Finite Element Analysis (FEA) packages such as ABAQUS or LS-DYNA. Use of crash simulations significantly reduces the number of real time crash experiments needed and reduces the time required for design changes. However, in order to capture accurately crash behavior during high-speed impact, a large amount of detailed FEA modeling features such as number and types of elements, mesh element size, number of components, different types of connectors, material ...


Hand-Held Flyback Driven Coaxial Dielectric Barrier Discharge: Development And Characterization, Victor J. Law, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Neil O’Connor, James F. Lalor, Steven Daniels Sep 2008

Hand-Held Flyback Driven Coaxial Dielectric Barrier Discharge: Development And Characterization, Victor J. Law, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Neil O’Connor, James F. Lalor, Steven Daniels

Articles

The development of a handheld single and triple chamber atmospheric pressure coaxial dielectric barrier discharge driven by Flyback circuitry for helium and argon discharges is described. The Flyback uses external metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor power switching technology and the transformer operates in the continuous current mode to convert a continuous dc power of 10–33 W to generate a 1.2–1.6 kV 3.5 μs pulse. An argon discharge breakdown voltage of ∼768 V is measured. With a 50 kHz, pulse repetition rate and an argon flow rate of 0.5–10 argon slm (slm denotes standard liters per ...


A Novel Method Characterizing The Impact Response Of Functionally Graded Plates, Reid A. Larson Sep 2008

A Novel Method Characterizing The Impact Response Of Functionally Graded Plates, Reid A. Larson

Theses and Dissertations

Functionally graded material (FGM) plates are advanced composites with properties that vary continuously through the thickness of the plate. Metal-ceramic FGM plates have been proposed for use in thermal protection systems where a metal-rich interior surface of the plate gradually transitions to a ceramic-rich exterior surface of the plate. The ability of FGMs to resist impact loads must be demonstrated before using them in high-temperature environments in service. This dissertation presents a novel technique by which the impact response of FGM plates is characterized for low-velocity, low- to medium-energy impact loads. An experiment was designed where strain histories in FGM ...


Investigation Of Uv-Led Initiated Photopolymerisation Of Bio-Compatible Hema, Sharon Mcdermott Sep 2008

Investigation Of Uv-Led Initiated Photopolymerisation Of Bio-Compatible Hema, Sharon Mcdermott

Doctoral

Ultraviolet (UV) fluorescent lamps are widely used in photopolymerisation processes. However, there a number of disadvantages to these lamps, namely, their intensity varies over time and has to be constantly monitored. This thesis is concerned with the possibility of replacing these lamps with UV Light Emitting Diodes (UV-LEDs). A number of emission characteristics of both the fluorescent lamp and the UV-LEDs were measured and compared to ensure that the optical properties of the UV-LEDs were equivalent to those of the lamps. From this study it was shown that the UV-LEDs have a quicker warm up time and exhibit a more ...


Ultracapacitor Assisted Powertrains: Modeling, Control, Sizing, And The Impact On Fuel Economy, Dean Rotenberg Sep 2008

Ultracapacitor Assisted Powertrains: Modeling, Control, Sizing, And The Impact On Fuel Economy, Dean Rotenberg

All Theses

This thesis investigates possible fuel economy gains attainable by a combination of high-power density ultracapacitors (also called supercapacitors) and an induction motor integrated into a conventional vehicle powertrain for power assistance.
Periods of quick acceleration require a much higher power output from an automobile than what is encountered under more typical driving conditions. A simple kinetic energy calculation can show that accelerating a 2000 kg vehicle (roughly the size of a Ford Explorer SUV) from 0 to 60 mph in 10 seconds requires almost 70 kW of power, in addition to the power needed to overcome road and air drag ...


A Comprehensive Multiphysics, Multiscale Modeling Framework For Carbon Nanotube Fabrication Process By Chemical Vapor Deposition, Mahmoud Reza Hosseini Aug 2008

A Comprehensive Multiphysics, Multiscale Modeling Framework For Carbon Nanotube Fabrication Process By Chemical Vapor Deposition, Mahmoud Reza Hosseini

All Dissertations

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are among the most promising nanosize materials as evidenced by the attention they have received since their discovery in 1991 and a wide range of scientific and industrial applications. Each of these applications requires unique CNTs with specific length, diameter and chirality. However, control of these parameters is considered as one of the main challenges for large scale production of CNTs. Furthermore, these processes are not well designed so as to limit the number of CNT defect sites or the production of unwanted byproducts such as amorphous carbon. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a controlled CNTs ...


Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis And Optimization For Light Weight Design Of An Automotive Seat Backrest, Prasanna Balaji Thiyagarajan Aug 2008

Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis And Optimization For Light Weight Design Of An Automotive Seat Backrest, Prasanna Balaji Thiyagarajan

All Theses

ABSTRACT
With the goal of reduced weight, free-size finite element based optimization with constraints on stresses and displacements of a commercially available automotive seat backrest frame manufactured from several stamped and welded low carbon ductile steel sheets is performed using OptiStruct linear optimization package from Altair under the loading requirements of mandatory ECE R-17 backrest-moment test and headrest test for vehicles sold in Europe. In the free-size optimization, sheet metal thickness in a finite element shell model of the backrest frame are design variables with stress and displacement limits as the constraints, with an objective to minimize mass. Using the ...


Similarity Metrics Applied To Graph Based Design Model Authoring, Srinivasan Anandan Aug 2008

Similarity Metrics Applied To Graph Based Design Model Authoring, Srinivasan Anandan

All Dissertations

Model reuse is typically facilitated by search and retrieval tools, matching the sought model with models in a database. This research aims at providing similar assistance to users authoring design exemplars, a data structure to represent parametric and geometric design problems. The design exemplar represents design problems in the form of a bi-partite graph consisting of entities and relations. Authoring design exemplars for relatively complex design problems can be time consuming and error prone. This forms the motivation of developing a search and retrieval tool, capable of retrieving exemplars that are similar to the exemplar that a user is trying ...


The Role Of Silicon Content On Environmental Degradations Of T91 Steels, Ajit K. Roy, D. Maitra, Pankaj Kumar Aug 2008

The Role Of Silicon Content On Environmental Degradations Of T91 Steels, Ajit K. Roy, D. Maitra, Pankaj Kumar

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

T91 grade steels showed a gradual enhancement in tensile ductility at ambient temperature due to an increase in Si content from 0.5 to 2.0 weight percent (wt.%). However, the ultimate tensile strength was reduced only above 1.5 wt.% Si. The corrosion potential became more active in an acidic solution with increasing temperature. The cracking susceptibility in a similar environment under a slow-strain-rate (SSR) condition was enhanced at higher temperatures showing reduced ductility, time to failure, and true failure stress. Cathodic potentials applied to the test specimens in SSR testing caused an enhanced cracking tendency at 30 and ...


Tensile Deformation Of A Nickel-Base Alloy At Elevated Temperatures, Ajit K. Roy, Anand Venkatesh, Vikram Marthandam Aug 2008

Tensile Deformation Of A Nickel-Base Alloy At Elevated Temperatures, Ajit K. Roy, Anand Venkatesh, Vikram Marthandam

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

The results of tensile testing involving Waspaloy indicate that the failure strain was gradually reduced at temperatures ranging between ambient and 300 °C. Further, serrations were observed in the engineering stress versus strain diagrams in the temperature range of 300-600 °C. The reduced failure strain and the formation of serrations in these temperature regimes could be the result of dynamic strain aging of this alloy. The extent of work hardening due to plastic deformation was reduced at temperatures above 300 °C. A combination of ductile and intergranular brittle failures was seen at temperatures above 600 °C. γ′ was detected at ...


Analysis Of Non Load Bearing Two Component (2k) Adhesives; Under The Automotive Hemming Process Variations; Thermogravimetric, Calorimetric And Composition Analyses, Kameswara Nara Jul 2008

Analysis Of Non Load Bearing Two Component (2k) Adhesives; Under The Automotive Hemming Process Variations; Thermogravimetric, Calorimetric And Composition Analyses, Kameswara Nara

All Theses

The work focuses on the analysis of non-load bearing, two component adhesives used in joining the automotive closures. The study is concerned with the thermo-gravimetric and the calorimetric attributes of the 2K adhesive. The study includes the impact of the robotic applicators capability, in terms of the mixing ratio between the resin and the hardener, and the mechanical mixing quality. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) procedure analyzes the adhesive chemical groups and tracks the growth and decay of the hydroxyl and epoxy peaks. Additionally, the cure-rate based on a reaction-type, is investigated through a Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The ...


Quantitative Modeling Of Soil Properties Based On Composition And Application To Dynamic Tire Testing, Sumalatha Yaski Jul 2008

Quantitative Modeling Of Soil Properties Based On Composition And Application To Dynamic Tire Testing, Sumalatha Yaski

All Theses

A new dimension of success in automotive supply is time-based competition. This especially comes to light in tire development, with companies striving to enhance the testing methodologies for reduction in development time. Modeling and development of off-road tires is particularly difficult due to a lack of quantitative descriptions of the operating environment for model validation. Off-road tire evaluation is subjective, expensive, site dependent, and testing of such tires is typically carried out under lower levels of control. The objective of this work is to create fundamental descriptions of pertinent composition based soil properties and to directly relate these properties to ...


Enhancement Of Information Management Capabilities In Mdo Framework, Santosh Hiriyannaiah Jul 2008

Enhancement Of Information Management Capabilities In Mdo Framework, Santosh Hiriyannaiah

All Theses

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) frameworks have been developed to facilitate the integration of disciplinary analysis codes and optimization techniques. Recent advances in MDO frameworks have addressed issues related to data exchange, distributed computing, process integration and trade study. However, managing, storing and sharing MDO problem information have not yet been fully addressed. In this research a software configuration is proposed. The configuration is built upon a structured repository, common file system and software applications. The configuration is integrated into a commercially available MDO framework to manage, store and share MDO problem information. A common file system proposed in this research ...


Reduction Of Sink Marks In Wire Insert Molded Parts, Gauri Phadke Jul 2008

Reduction Of Sink Marks In Wire Insert Molded Parts, Gauri Phadke

All Theses

Integrating the huge wiring harness network with the plastic trim components found in the car is an attractive way to reduce the vehicle weight. When any foreign object is inserted in an injection molded part, the change in polymer cross section leads to sink marks which are aesthetic defects and are not acceptable for plastic trim components.
In this thesis, a method to minimize or eliminate sink marks for wire insert molded component using injection molding process is presented. L9 Taguchi DOE experimental framework has been employed to study the effect of process parameters, part rib geometry, and the presence ...


An Investigative Study Of Patents From An Engineering Design Perspective, Ajit Singh Kanda Jul 2008

An Investigative Study Of Patents From An Engineering Design Perspective, Ajit Singh Kanda

All Theses

Preservation and reuse of valuable design experience aids in the design of new products and processes. Product design repositories are presently being used as a means to preserve and later reuse design knowledge. As such, patent databases such as the United States Patent office and the European Patent Office offer design knowledge in the form of patents. Unfortunately, these sources of novel design solutions do not appear to have been have not been effectively used in the context of engineering design.
In this research, the role of patents in a systematic design process is reviewed understand its utility in the ...


Three Design Tool Focused Case Studies Of Mechanical Engineering Design Projects, William Miller Jul 2008

Three Design Tool Focused Case Studies Of Mechanical Engineering Design Projects, William Miller

All Theses

Three long term mechanical engineering design projects spanning 24 months, 12 months, and 4 months are examined in this thesis. These projects are used to explore the development of a way to represent information flow throughout the design process with respect to design tools used. This is a first step in a broader effort to formalize 1) modeling of design processes, 2) establishing case study research as a formal approach to design research, and 3) developing new design process tools.
A survey of existing models compares the differences between current approaches and the limitations of each. Inspired by IDEF0, an ...


Design Process Modeling: Towards An Ontology Of Engineering Design Activities, Pavan Kumar Jul 2008

Design Process Modeling: Towards An Ontology Of Engineering Design Activities, Pavan Kumar

All Theses

An ontology of engineering design activities, called the Design Activity Ontology (DAO), is developed in this research. The DAO models 82 information flows and 25 design activities. These activities cover phases of the design process from conceptual phase through detail design phase. The ontology provides a formalized and structured vocabulary of design activities for consistency and exchange of design process models. The DAO enables design processes to be modeled, analyzed and optimized. The DAO is constructed using information flows identified in current design literature, commonly accepted engineering design textbooks, and an existing activity ontology. Specifically, the DAO is an extension ...


Electrokinetic Transport In Micro- And Nano- Channels:A Study Examining Electrokinetic Energy Conversion And Dielectrophoretic Particle Separation, Christian Davidson Jul 2008

Electrokinetic Transport In Micro- And Nano- Channels:A Study Examining Electrokinetic Energy Conversion And Dielectrophoretic Particle Separation, Christian Davidson

All Theses

New micro-fabrication techniques have allowed for the recent development of micro-scale lab on a chip devices which can be utilized for on chip biological analysis as well as electrokinetic energy conversion. This thesis aims to theoretically examine the current thermodynamic efficiency discrepancies in electrokinetic energy conversion devices as well as explore the potential for efficiency increase in a device which supports fluid slip. Also, a micro-fluidic lab on a chip device is fabricated and demonstrated to be capable of continuously separating multiple particles of 1μm, 5μm and 10μm out of a bulk solution. Our device employs a DC dielectrophoretic technique ...


Stability Analysis And Decentralized Control Of Coupled Oscillators With Feedback Delays, Saurabh Keni Jul 2008

Stability Analysis And Decentralized Control Of Coupled Oscillators With Feedback Delays, Saurabh Keni

All Theses

Most dynamic systems do not react instantaneously to actuation signals. The temporal evolution of some others is based on retarded communications or depends on information from the past. In such cases, the mathematical models used to describe these systems must include information about the past dynamics of the states. These models are often referred to as delay or retarded systems. Delays could channel energy in and out of a system at incorrect time intervals producing instabilities and rendering controllers' performance ineffective.
The purpose of this research is two folds. The first investigates the effect of inherent system delays on the ...


Flow Boiling Of Acetone In Parallel Rectangular Mini-Channels, Rafael Zimmermann Jul 2008

Flow Boiling Of Acetone In Parallel Rectangular Mini-Channels, Rafael Zimmermann

All Theses

Recent miniaturization of cooling systems has demanded better designing tools for compact heat exchangers. Forced two-phase flow through small channels is an effective way to better performance in a limited space. However, the characteristics of flow boiling in small channels differ from those in regular size channels, prompting a need for better understanding and development of predictive tools.
The characteristics of flow boiling in compact heat exchangers with parallel rectangular mini-channels of cross sections 0.50 x 0.50 mm, 0.75 x 0.75 mm, 1.00 x 1.00 mm, and 1.50 x 1.50 mm were ...


Estimation Of Vehicle Mass And Road Grade, Tejas Ghotikar Jul 2008

Estimation Of Vehicle Mass And Road Grade, Tejas Ghotikar

All Theses

This thesis describes development of a real-time-implementable algorithm for simultaneous estimation of a heavy vehicle's mass and time-varying road grade and its verification with experimental data. Accurate estimate of a heavy vehicle's mass is critical in several vehicle control functions such as in transmission and stability control. The goal is to utilize the standard signals on a vehicle in a model-based estimation strategy, as opposed to a more costly sensor-based approach. The challenge is that unknown road grade complicates model-based estimation of vehicle mass and therefore the time-varying grade should be estimated simultaneously. In addition an estimate of ...