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2006

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Articles 1 - 30 of 83

Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Emission Reduction In Small Displacement Diesel Engines Using Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Chris Simoson Dec 2006

Emission Reduction In Small Displacement Diesel Engines Using Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Chris Simoson

All Theses

A reduced-order dynamic model is presented and experimentally validated to demonstrate the use of cooled exhaust gas recirculation to alleviate the tradeoff between nitric oxide reduction and performance preservation in a small displacement diesel engine. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective method for internal combustion engine oxides of nitrogen (NOx) reduction, but its thermal throttling diminishes power efficiency. The capacity to cool exhaust gases prior to merging with intake air may achieve the desired pollutant effect while minimizing engine performance losses.
Simulation and experimental results revealed significant NOx reductions throughout all testing scenarios using EGR, but also experienced a ...


Single-Sided Crash Cushion System, John D. Reid, John R. Rohde, Dean L. Sicking Dec 2006

Single-Sided Crash Cushion System, John D. Reid, John R. Rohde, Dean L. Sicking

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

A single-sided crash attenuation cushion system having an impact head and three stage energy absorption mechanism. The energy absorbing mechanism has a mandrel for deforming thin-walled tubes in a controlled collapse to absorb impact forces from a colliding vehicle. The third stage of the absorption mechanism includes an additional deformable compressible tube between the fixed-object hazard and the thin walled tubes.


Modeling Of The Transient Behavior Of Heat Pipes With Room-Temperature Working Fluids, Pascal Brocheny Dec 2006

Modeling Of The Transient Behavior Of Heat Pipes With Room-Temperature Working Fluids, Pascal Brocheny

All Dissertations

The heat pipe is a capillary-driven and two-phase flow device, capable of transporting and converting large amounts of energy with minimal losses. As a means of thermal management, uses of heat pipe technology not only include thermal control of satellites and spacecrafts in aerospace applications, but also the cooling of electronic components for ground applications. Recently, there has been a flourishing interest in exploring the use of heat pipe technology in the automotive field. However, in many thermal control applications, heat pipes using room-temperature working fluids, such as water or ammonia, with operating temperatures between 200 K (-73ºC) and 550 ...


Simulation And Characterization Of Tire Nonuniformity-Induced Steering Nibble Vibrations Through Integrated Subsystems Modeling, Derek Mangun Dec 2006

Simulation And Characterization Of Tire Nonuniformity-Induced Steering Nibble Vibrations Through Integrated Subsystems Modeling, Derek Mangun

All Theses

Periodic force variations produced by nonuniform tire/wheel assemblies are known root causes of torsional steering wheel vibrations known as 'nibble'. Previous studies have sought to investigate this issue through modeling or experimentation involving the entire vehicle or specific subsystems, however a direct link between objectively measured tire force variations and the vibration levels perceived by vehicle occupants has yet to be established. Analytical models of a nonuniform tire, double-wishbone suspension system, and rack and pinion steering system are sourced from literature and integrated into a single subsystem-level model validated against experimental data obtained as part of a collaborative effort ...


A Robust Conjugate Heat Transfer Methodology With Novel Turbulence Modeling Applied To Internally-Cooled Gas Turbine Airfoils, William York Dec 2006

A Robust Conjugate Heat Transfer Methodology With Novel Turbulence Modeling Applied To Internally-Cooled Gas Turbine Airfoils, William York

All Dissertations

Computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer (CFD) has become a viable, physics-based analysis tool for complex flow and/or heat transfer problems in recent years due, in large part, to rapid advances in computing power. CFD based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations is starting to enter the mainstream design environment in certain industries where rapid and reliable predictive capability is necessary. One such application is the gas turbine industry, where thermal management of airfoils at extremely high temperatures is one of the most critical components in engine design for reliability. The problem is complicated by the need for advanced ...


Investigation Of The Effects Of Subgrid-Scale Turbulence On Resolvable-Scale Statistics, Qinglin Chen Dec 2006

Investigation Of The Effects Of Subgrid-Scale Turbulence On Resolvable-Scale Statistics, Qinglin Chen

All Dissertations

The effects of the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence on the resolvable-scale statistics and the effects of SGS models on large-eddy simulation (LES) are studied. It is shown that the SGS turbulence evolves the resolvable-scale joint probability density function (JPDF) through the conditional means of the SGS stress, the SGS scalar flux, and their production rate, which must be reproduced by the SGS model for LES to predict correctly the one-point resolvable-scale statistics, a primary goal of LES. This necessary condition is used as the basis for studying SGS physics and for testing SGS models. Theoretical predictions, measurements data obtained in a ...


Modeling And Simulation Of Friction-Limited Continuously Variable Transmissions, Nilabh Srivastava Dec 2006

Modeling And Simulation Of Friction-Limited Continuously Variable Transmissions, Nilabh Srivastava

All Dissertations

Over the last few decades, a lot of research effort has increasingly been directed towards developing vehicle transmissions that accomplish the government imperatives of increased vehicle efficiency and lower exhaust (greenhouse gaseous) emissions. These exhaust emissions can be regulated or lowered by increasing the fuel economy of a vehicle, and CVTs (continuously variable transmissions), indubitably, play a crucial role in this plan to improve the fuel economy. A continuously variable transmission is an emerging automotive transmission technology that offers a continuum of gear ratios between desired limits. A CVT offers numerous advantages over the conventional multi-step gear transmissions such as ...


The Effects Of Viscoelastic Behavior On The Operation Of A Delayed Resonator Vibration Absorber, John Cowans Dec 2006

The Effects Of Viscoelastic Behavior On The Operation Of A Delayed Resonator Vibration Absorber, John Cowans

All Theses

Delayed resonators have proven to be effective vibration absorbers (VAs) for tracking and canceling the effects of harmonic excitations on a structure. The Delayed Resonator (DR) is selfcontained, as no information from outside of its substructure is required for proper operation. It adjusts for variations in frequency using time-delay and gain as control parameters.
This thesis examines the relationship between viscoelastic (VE) loss mechanisms in systems with DR and the choice of modeling method used to calculate control parameters and determine system stability. It is hypothesized that a VE loss mechanism approximated by a single viscous dashpot may lead to ...


Internal Combustion Engine Cooling Strategies: Theory And Test, John Chastain Dec 2006

Internal Combustion Engine Cooling Strategies: Theory And Test, John Chastain

All Theses

Advanced internal combustion engine thermal management systems can enhance overall engine performance through the use of computer controlled cooling system actuators. Existing ground vehicle cooling systems generally have performance limitations due to the fixed behavior of the wax-based thermostat valve and crankshaft dependent operation of the coolant pump and radiator fan. Upgrading the traditional thermostat valve, water pump, and radiator fan with actuators permit real time computer control for improved temperature tracking and reduced power consumption. In this paper, the benefits associated with advanced automotive cooling systems are experimentally investigated. A 4.6L engine with a real-time data acquisition and ...


Modification Of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes By Microwave Digestion Method As Electrocatalyst Supports For Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications, Fang-Tzu Chuang Oct 2006

Modification Of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes By Microwave Digestion Method As Electrocatalyst Supports For Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications, Fang-Tzu Chuang

Fang-Tzu Chuang

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) which were directly synthesized on carbon cloth were modified by a microwave digestion method in 5M HNO3 for supporting Pt nanoparticles. The characterizations of modified CNTs were carried out by TEM, XPS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The HRTEM image shows the caps of MWCNTs are opened after modifying by microwave digestion method. The open-end and undamaged MWCNTs can provide a larger surface area for supporting more catalysts. Furthermore, the methanol electrocatalytic oxidation of microwave digestion treated Pt/MWCNTs electrode shows higher current density than pristine and nitric acid-treated MWCNTs from cyclic voltammograms. This can be an ...


Effects Of Polishing Shot-Peened Surfaces On Fretting Fatigue Behavior Of Ti-6al-4v, Kasey S. Scheel Sep 2006

Effects Of Polishing Shot-Peened Surfaces On Fretting Fatigue Behavior Of Ti-6al-4v, Kasey S. Scheel

Theses and Dissertations

The research of this thesis was done to investigate the effects of polishing a shot-peened specimen of Ti-6Al-4V on the fretting fatigue life of that specimen. The shot-peening process, though one of the most beneficial techniques in prolonging fretting fatigue life, creates a textured surface that may lead to problems on the micro level. This research was done in an attempt to further improve the peening process by examining the effects of another surface treatment to be used in conjunction, surface polishing. The rough peened surface may contain abrupt changes in surface geometry that act as stress risers, which are ...


Some Aspects Of The Mechanical Response Of Pmr-15 Neat Resin At 288°C: Experiment And Modeling, Christina M. Falcone Sep 2006

Some Aspects Of The Mechanical Response Of Pmr-15 Neat Resin At 288°C: Experiment And Modeling, Christina M. Falcone

Theses and Dissertations

The mechanical response of PMR-15 neat resin was investigated at 288?C. Monotonic loading/unloading tests performed at several constant stress rates revealed considerable rate dependence, especially on the unloading path. Effect of prior stress rate on creep behavior was evaluated in creep tests preceded by uninterrupted loading to a target stress. Creep response was dependent on the prior stress rate. Effect of loading history was studied in stepwise creep tests, where specimens were subjected to a constant stress rate loading followed by unloading to zero stress with intermittent creep periods during both loading and unloading. Comparison of creep strains ...


Effects Of Phase Difference Between Axial And Contact Loads On Fretting Fatigue Behavior Of Titanium Alloy, Mohammad Almajali Sep 2006

Effects Of Phase Difference Between Axial And Contact Loads On Fretting Fatigue Behavior Of Titanium Alloy, Mohammad Almajali

Theses and Dissertations

Fretting fatigue is the surface damage that occurs at the interface between two components that are undergoing a small amplitude oscillatory movements. It results in a reduction of the material life as compared to the plain fatigue. Most of the previous works were accomplished under a constant applied normal load and a little effort was done under a variable contact load, while none of these studies has considered the phase difference between the axial load and the contact load. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effect of phase difference between axial and contact loads on fretting ...


Rate Dependence Of Tensile Properties And Stress-Strain Behavior Of An Oxide/Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composite At Elevated Temperature And The Effects Of Low-Magnitude Sustained Loading On Composite Microstructure, Andrew T. Radzicki Sep 2006

Rate Dependence Of Tensile Properties And Stress-Strain Behavior Of An Oxide/Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composite At Elevated Temperature And The Effects Of Low-Magnitude Sustained Loading On Composite Microstructure, Andrew T. Radzicki

Theses and Dissertations

Advanced aerospace structures and components require materials that exhibit high strength at high operating temperatures. Nextel ™ 720/Alumina (N720/A) is an oxide/oxide, porous-matrix ceramic-matrix composite developed for load bearing applications at elevated temperatures. The current research investigates the rate dependence of tensile properties of the N720/A CMC at 1200°C as well as the creep behavior of this composite under applied stresses in the 1-25 MPa range. In addition, influence of prior loading rate on the creep response of N720/A under applied stresses above 50 MPa was evaluated at 1200°C. Tensile tests conducted at loading ...


Effects Of Environment On Creep Behavior Of Two Oxide-Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites At 1200°C, Pavlos Koutsoukos Sep 2006

Effects Of Environment On Creep Behavior Of Two Oxide-Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites At 1200°C, Pavlos Koutsoukos

Theses and Dissertations

Previous studies by the advisor and graduate students examined creep behavior of the Nextel720/Alumina CMC in air and in 100% steam environments at 1200 and 1330°C. Results showed that while this oxide/oxide system exhibits an exceptionally high fatigue limit at 1200°C it also experiences substantial strain accumulation under sustained loading conditions. Furthermore, these earlier investigations revealed a significant degrading effect of 100% steam environment on material performance under both static and cyclic loadings. The present effort will investigate creep rupture behavior of Nextel720/Alumina composite in the inert gas environment. In addition, creep rupture behavior of ...


End Splice Assembly For Box-Beam Guardrail And Terminal Systemis, John D. Reid, John R. Rohde, Dean L. Sicking, King K. Mak Aug 2006

End Splice Assembly For Box-Beam Guardrail And Terminal Systemis, John D. Reid, John R. Rohde, Dean L. Sicking, King K. Mak

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

An end splice assembly for a box-beam guardrail and terminal system having a first stage rail element and a second stage rail element. The assembly has two major connecting components. Upper and lower bent plate channels and upper and lower channel splice plates. The channels and plates have side walls which extend laterally to one another when the two rail elements are mated. The channels and plates are fastened together to provide moment strength to the splice within the system.


Preparation Of High-Strength Nanometer Scale Twinned Coating And Foil, Xinghang Zhang, Amit Misra, Michael Nastasi, Richard G. Hoagland Jul 2006

Preparation Of High-Strength Nanometer Scale Twinned Coating And Foil, Xinghang Zhang, Amit Misra, Michael Nastasi, Richard G. Hoagland

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Very high strength single phase stainless steel coating has been prepared by magnetron sputtering onto a substrate. The coating has a unique microstructure of nanometer spaced twins that are parallel to each other and to the substrate surface. For cases where the coating and substrate do not bind strongly, the coating can be peeled off to provide foil.


Study Of Chemical Surface Modifications Of Cnts As Cathode Electrode For Dmfc, Fang-Tzu Chuang Jul 2006

Study Of Chemical Surface Modifications Of Cnts As Cathode Electrode For Dmfc, Fang-Tzu Chuang

Fang-Tzu Chuang

In this study, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are used as Pt catalyst support for cathode electrode in the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Thus, a lot of well-align MWNTs are fabricated on carbon cloth directly. The method in the cathode electrode of DMFC is easy to constructed and sticking on the carbon cloth tightly. Then, MWNTs are modified by HNO3, H2SO4, and KOH at high temperature may produce different functional groups to attract more Pt ions nucleating uniformly and densely. Moreover, there are the other parameters, temperature, time, and concentration, in the function of chemical modification for MWNTs. In this ...


Order And Disorder, Entropy In Math, Science, Nature And The Arts, Sol Neeman Ph.D., Arie Maharshak Jul 2006

Order And Disorder, Entropy In Math, Science, Nature And The Arts, Sol Neeman Ph.D., Arie Maharshak

Engineering Studies Faculty Publications and Creative Works

Often, science and engineering students have difficult time in viewing certain concepts in their holistic form. An example for such a concept is the concept of Entropy. Although it originated from the field of thermodynamics, the relation between order and disorder is a profound one and manifests itself in various fields, sometimes unrelated, such as math and science, nature and the arts. In the discipline of physics, the amount of disorder in a system has been quantified by the concept of Entropy. In the area of information theory it provides a quantitative measure of the amount of compression that may ...


Abstracts, Review Of Progress In Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (Portland, Or, July 20–August 4, 2006), Center For Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University Jun 2006

Abstracts, Review Of Progress In Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (Portland, Or, July 20–August 4, 2006), Center For Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Abstracts of papers presented at the 2006 Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) conference held in Portland, Oregon from July 30–August 4, 2006.


Fabrication Of Pdms (Polydimethylsiloxane) Microlens And Diffuser Using Replica Molding, Fang-Tzu Chuang Jun 2006

Fabrication Of Pdms (Polydimethylsiloxane) Microlens And Diffuser Using Replica Molding, Fang-Tzu Chuang

Fang-Tzu Chuang

This paper reports the fabrication method of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microlens array based on the replica molding process, casting a liquid PDMS into concave microlens molds. Concave microlens molds were fabricated through spin-coating processes suspended a liquid PMMA film on the micro-drilled hole, leading to the formation of the special curvature. Then, PDMS microlens arrays and diffusers were fabricated by replica molding and discussed in this study. The fabricated microlenses have both good surface roughness and high-quality optical properties. Therefore, diffusers were fabricated by two-step replica molding. A high-intensity He–Ne laser beam was uniformly spread through diffusers. Experimental tests demonstrated ...


Effects Of Frequency And Environment On Fatigue Behavior Of An Oxide-Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composite At 1200°C, Griffin Hetrick Jun 2006

Effects Of Frequency And Environment On Fatigue Behavior Of An Oxide-Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composite At 1200°C, Griffin Hetrick

Theses and Dissertations

Advances in aeronautical engineering in the 21st century depend upon materials that can perform well in extreme environments such as high temperatures and oxidizing conditions. Nextel™720/Alumina (N720/A) is an oxide/oxide ceramic matrix composite with a porous alumina matrix that has been identified as a candidate material for such applications. This research investigated the effects of frequency on fatigue response of N720/A at 1200°C in both air and steam environment. Prior investigation of this material by Eber [8] in 2005 studied fatigue behavior at 1200°C in air and in steam environments at the frequency ...


Effect Of Environment On Creep Behavior Of An Oxide/Oxide Cfcc With ±45° Fiber Orientation, Gregory T. Siegert Jun 2006

Effect Of Environment On Creep Behavior Of An Oxide/Oxide Cfcc With ±45° Fiber Orientation, Gregory T. Siegert

Theses and Dissertations

Aerospace applications require materials capable of maintaining superior mechanical properties while operating at high temperatures and oxidizing environments. Nextel™ 720/A (N720/A), an oxide/oxide ceramic matrix composite (CMC) with a porous alumina matrix was developed specifically to provide improved long-term properties and performance at 1200°C. This research evaluated the creep behavior of N720/A with a ±45° fiber orientation at 1200°C in: laboratory air, steam, and argon environments. Creep-rupture tests at the creep stress levels of: 45, 40, 35, and 15 MPa were conducted in each environment.
The ultimate tensile strength of N720/A with ±45 ...


Wear Analysis Of Cu-Al Coating On Ti-6al-4v Under Fretting, Karl N. Murray Jun 2006

Wear Analysis Of Cu-Al Coating On Ti-6al-4v Under Fretting, Karl N. Murray

Theses and Dissertations

The effects of changes in the coefficient of friction (CoF) between the contacting surfaces on the fretting wear characteristics of Cu-Al coating on Ti-6Al-4V were investigated. This Cu-Al coating is part of a system that is applied to titanium turbine blades to reduce fretting at the interface. In the application, there is a solid lubricant that is added on top of the coating as an assembly aid and to help reduce the friction while the lubricant remains within the contact. Previous studies have researched the characteristics of the coating without the additional lubricant. In this study, liquid motor oil was ...


College Of Engineering Senior Design Competition Spring 2006, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas May 2006

College Of Engineering Senior Design Competition Spring 2006, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas

Senior Projects (COE)

Part of every UNLV engineering student’s academic experience, the senior design project stimulates engineering innovation and entrepreneurship. Each student in their senior year chooses, plans, designs and prototypes a product in this required element of the curriculum. A capstone to the student’s educational career, the senior design project encourages the student to use everything learned in the engineering program to create a practical, real world solution to an engineering challenge.

The senior design competition helps to focus the senior students in increasing the quality and potential for commercial application for their design projects. Judges from local industry evaluate ...


Study Of Leading Factors In Formation Of Surface Wavy Structures On A Rubber Material, Fang-Tzu Chuang May 2006

Study Of Leading Factors In Formation Of Surface Wavy Structures On A Rubber Material, Fang-Tzu Chuang

Fang-Tzu Chuang

Wavy structures are often observed on the surface of a rubber material (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) covered with a thin metallic film. In this study we demonstrate that the orientation, periodicity, location of formation, and range of periodicity of the wavy structures can be regulated by three leading factors including the surface pattern, substrate hardness and the thickness of the metallic film. Results show the orientation of the wavy structures can be adjusted by the location, shape and size of the surface patterns. Enhancement of the substrate hardness can prevent forming random wavy structures. The thickness of surface metallic film significantly influenced ...


Modeling And Representation Of Geometric Tolerances Information In Integrated Measurement Processes, Xiaoping Zhao, T. M. Kethara Pasupathy, Robert G. Wilhelm May 2006

Modeling And Representation Of Geometric Tolerances Information In Integrated Measurement Processes, Xiaoping Zhao, T. M. Kethara Pasupathy, Robert G. Wilhelm

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Modeling and representation of geometric tolerances information across an enterprise is viable due to the advances in Internet technologies and increasing integration requirements from industry. In Integrated Measurement Processes (IMP), geometric tolerances data model must support different models from several well-defined standards: including ASME Y14.5M-1994, STEP, DMIS, and others. In this paper, we propose a layered conformance level geometric tolerances representation model. This model uses the widely applied ASME Y14.5M-1994 as its foundation layer by abstracting most information from this standard. The additional geometric tolerances information defined by DMIS and STEP is incorporated into this model to form ...


Experimental And Finite Element Analysis Of Preloaded Bolted Joints Under Impact Loading, Brendan O'Toole, Kumarswamy Karpanan, Masoud Feghhi May 2006

Experimental And Finite Element Analysis Of Preloaded Bolted Joints Under Impact Loading, Brendan O'Toole, Kumarswamy Karpanan, Masoud Feghhi

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

One of the primary parameters in analyzing bolted joints is preload in the bolt. We have considered several possible preload modeling techniques to analyze the effect of preload on the dynamic response of the bolted joints. Five different methods of applying preload in the nonlinear finite element analysis are evaluated. These methods are “force on bolt and nut”, “force on bolt shank”, “interference fit”, “thermal gradient” and “initial stress method”. Explicit and implicit analyses are used for transient response and preload generation in bolt respectively. Time history and shock response spectrum are used to compare experimental and simulation results. Simulation ...


Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow, Kevin Carpenter, J. Kelly Kissock Apr 2006

Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow, Kevin Carpenter, J. Kelly Kissock

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Much energy is lost through excess air flow in and out of process heating equipment. Energy saving opportunities from managing air flow include minimizing combustion air, preheating combustion air, minimizing ventilation air, and reconfiguring openings to reduce leakage.

This paper identifies these opportunities and presents methods to quantify potential energy savings from implementing these energy-savings measures. Case study examples are used to demonstrate the methods and the potential energy savings.The method for calculating savings from minimizing combustion air accounts for improvement in efficiency from increased combustion temperature and decreased combustion gas mass flow rate.

The method for calculating savings ...


Flexible Tools For Specifying Design Variation, Trichy Pasupathy, Xiaoping Zhao, Robert Wilhelm Apr 2006

Flexible Tools For Specifying Design Variation, Trichy Pasupathy, Xiaoping Zhao, Robert Wilhelm

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper describes flexible tools for specifying design variations that are based on nonuniform profile tolerance definitions. These tools specify bounds of design performance that can be used for negotiation among engineers in a collaborative design process. These specification methods allow for the capture of many different design functions that are not easily described with current tool designs. In addition, these specification methods lend themselves to efficient verification methods. Profile tolerance definitions provide the most general variation controls for complex mechanical surfaces. Common design practices and engineering standards for profile tolerances exhibit many weaknesses and limitations. We present a rationale ...