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Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Predicting The Mechanical Properties Of Nanocomposites Reinforced With 1-D, 2-D And 3-D Nanomaterials, Scott Edward Muller May 2019

Predicting The Mechanical Properties Of Nanocomposites Reinforced With 1-D, 2-D And 3-D Nanomaterials, Scott Edward Muller

Theses and Dissertations

Materials with features at the nanoscale can provide unique mechanical properties and increased functionality when included as part of a nanocomposite. This dissertation utilizes computational methods at multiple scales, including molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT), and the coupled atomistic and discrete dislocation multiscale method (CADD), to predict the mechanical properties of nanocomposites possessing nanomaterials that are either 1-D (carbyne chains), 2-D (graphene sheets), or 3-D (Al/amorphous-Si core-shell nanorod).

The MD method is used to model Ni-graphene nanocomposites. The strength of a Ni-graphene nanocomposite is found to improve by increasing the gap between the graphene sheet and ...


Analytical Models And Control Design Approaches For A 6 Dof Motion Test Apparatus, Kyra L. Schmidt Mar 2019

Analytical Models And Control Design Approaches For A 6 Dof Motion Test Apparatus, Kyra L. Schmidt

Theses and Dissertations

Wind tunnels play an indispensable role in the process of aircraft design, providing a test bed to produce valuable, accurate data that can be extrapolated to actual flight conditions. Historically, time-averaged data has made up the bulk of wind tunnel research, but modern flight design necessitates the use of dynamic wind tunnel testing to provide time-accurate data for high frequency motion. This research explores the use of a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) motion test apparatus (MTA) in the form of a robotic arm to allow models inside a subsonic wind tunnel to track prescribed trajectories to obtain time-accurate force ...


Ballistic Evaluation Of Carbon Nanotube Sheet Material In Multifunctional Applications, Casey M. Keilbarth Mar 2019

Ballistic Evaluation Of Carbon Nanotube Sheet Material In Multifunctional Applications, Casey M. Keilbarth

Theses and Dissertations

Significant development of carbon nanotubes has occurred since they were first studied in the 1990's. Attempts to capture the phenomenal molecular properties in practical applications are gaining ground as new methods of producing CNTs have been developed. This thesis sought to determine if the addition of commercially produced CNT sheets to thin carbon fiber panels improved the ballistic properties of the panel. The difference between 0 and 4 CNT sheets was studied. The hypothesis was that inte- grating CNT sheets into the laminate would increase the projectile energy absorbed by the panel and reduce the damage to the panel ...


Tracking Shock Movement On The Surface Of An Oscillating, Straked Semispan Delta Wing, Justin A. Pung Mar 2019

Tracking Shock Movement On The Surface Of An Oscillating, Straked Semispan Delta Wing, Justin A. Pung

Theses and Dissertations

A recent research effort, sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, numerically investigated the unsteady aerodynamic flow field around an oscillating, straked, delta wing. The study was centered on determining the importance of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting as a driver for a nonlinear motion known as limit cycle oscillations. The current effort focused on creating a computational model to compare to the results of previous tests and modeling efforts and discover new information regarding the onset of LCO. The computational model was constructed using the Cartesian overset capabilities of the CREATE-AV™ fixed wing fluid dynamics solver Kestrel ...


Computational Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of Satellite Trans-Atmospheric Skip Entry Survivability, John J. Runco Mar 2019

Computational Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of Satellite Trans-Atmospheric Skip Entry Survivability, John J. Runco

Theses and Dissertations

Computational aerothermodynamic analysis is presented for a spacecraft in low Earth orbit performing an atmospheric skip entry maneuver. Typically, atmospheric reentry is a terminal operation signaling mission end-of-life and, in some instances, executed for spacecraft disposal. A variation on reentry – skip entry – is an aeroassisted trans-atmospheric maneuver in which a spacecraft utilizes the effects of aerodynamic drag in order to reduce energy prior to a terminal entry, pinpoint a targeted entry, or change orbital elements such as inclination. Spacecraft performing a skip entry enable new modes of maneuver to enhance operations in nominal or possibly contested mission environments. The present ...


Influence Of Leading Edge Oscillatory Blowing On Time-Accurate Dynamic Store Separation, Ryan G. Saunders Mar 2019

Influence Of Leading Edge Oscillatory Blowing On Time-Accurate Dynamic Store Separation, Ryan G. Saunders

Theses and Dissertations

The primary objective of this research is to support the static and dynamic characterization and the time-accurate dynamic load data acquisition of store separation from a cavity with leading edge oscillatory blowing. Developing an understanding of, and potentially controlling, pitch bifurcation of a store release is a motivation for this research. The apparatus and data acquisition system was used in a two-part experiment to collect both static and dynamic testing data in the AFIT low speed wind tunnel in speeds of 60, 100, and 120 mph, from Reynolds numbers varying from 5.5x104 to 4.6x105, depending on ...


Manufacture Of Fused Deposition Modeling Joints Using Ultem 9085, Zane A. Willburn Mar 2019

Manufacture Of Fused Deposition Modeling Joints Using Ultem 9085, Zane A. Willburn

Theses and Dissertations

The manufacture of joints between a base structure and a structure manufactured via Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) will be investigated. ULTEM 9085, a high temperature plastic with potential aerospace applications, will be the material used. The specific application this research is focused on is a robotic and mobile FDM printer capable of building structures onto other structures in space. A joint will be formed by fusing the base layer of the printed structure and the top of the base structure together. Tensile testing will be performed to determine the strength of the bond between parts. Tensile specimens will be manufactured ...


Comparative Study Of Power Semiconductor Devices In A Multilevel Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter, Kenneth Mordi Dec 2018

Comparative Study Of Power Semiconductor Devices In A Multilevel Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter, Kenneth Mordi

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis compares the performance of a nine-level transformerless cascaded H-bridge (CHB) inverter with integrated battery energy storage system (BESS) using SiC power MOSFETs and Si IGBTs. Two crucial performance drivers for inverter applications are power loss and efficiency. Both of these are investigated in this thesis. Power devices with similar voltage and current ratings are used in the same inverter topology, and the performance of each device is analyzed with respect to switching frequency and operating temperature. The loss measurements and characteristics within the inverter are discussed. The Saber® simulation software was used for the comparisons. The power MOSFET ...


Measuring Characteristic Shrinkage Variability Due To Metal Loading Effects In Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic Using Image Processing, John Ezekiel Zumbro Dec 2018

Measuring Characteristic Shrinkage Variability Due To Metal Loading Effects In Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic Using Image Processing, John Ezekiel Zumbro

Theses and Dissertations

Low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) has many benefits when it comes to electronic packaging due to the low dielectric loss, reliability in extreme environments, and high breakdown voltage. Though the ceramic has a lot of benefits it is not widely used due to the high cost and complexities associated with manufacturing. One of these issues with manufacturing is compensating for the shrinkage of the ceramic, this is accomplished by using an expansion factor, creating the “green” or manufactured design. This expansion factor is approximated through knowledge of the ceramic factors such as the metal loading, layers of ceramic tape, firing ...


Aberration Corrected Analytical Electron Microscopy Studies Of Nanometallic Catalysts, Sultan Althahban Aug 2018

Aberration Corrected Analytical Electron Microscopy Studies Of Nanometallic Catalysts, Sultan Althahban

Theses and Dissertations

Catalysis by nanoscopic metal structures, ranging from nanoparticles to sub-nm clusters and even individual atoms, is amongst the most intensely studied topics in nanoscience. The catalytic performance of supported metal nanoparticles is governed by their crysallographic structure, shape, size, composition and interaction with the support. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM), with its ultra-high spatial resolution for imaging and compositional analysis, is an ideal tool for characterizing such features in metallic nanocatalysts. In this thesis, five case studies are presented where AC-STEM has been invaluable in elucidating synthesis route - structure - performance relationships in some technologically important catalyst systems.


Grain Size Effects On Viscoelastic Relaxation Of Sub-Micron Thickness Fcc Metallic Films, Jeffrey Smyth Aug 2018

Grain Size Effects On Viscoelastic Relaxation Of Sub-Micron Thickness Fcc Metallic Films, Jeffrey Smyth

Theses and Dissertations

Sub-micron thickness metallic thin films are known to exhibit mechanical size effects, where the thin film mechanical behavior can differ significantly from that of a bulk version of the same material. One such mechanical behavior, and the focus of this work, is the unique thin film viscoelastic deformation response to sub-yield, low-strain stimuli in near-ambient temperature environments. In engineering components using bulk materials, strains within the elastic regime are generally considered instantaneous. It is only at higher operating temperatures that temporal deformation processes, such as creep, are considered in bulk component design. However, in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), specifically Radio Frequency ...


Tensile Properties And Fatigue Behavior Of Geopolymer Matrix Composites With Carbon Fiber Reinforcement At Elevated Temperature, Steffan M.L. Wilcox Mar 2018

Tensile Properties And Fatigue Behavior Of Geopolymer Matrix Composites With Carbon Fiber Reinforcement At Elevated Temperature, Steffan M.L. Wilcox

Theses and Dissertations

The tensile stress-strain and tension-tension fatigue of geopolymer matrix composites reinforced with 0/90 carbon fibers was investigated at 23 and 300°C in laboratory air. Geopolymers are inorganic polymeric materials composed of alumina, silica, and alkali metal oxides. Because geopolymers are synthesized as a fluid mixture or particles and liquid, they can be cast into a desired shape, and cured at only slightly elevated temperatures. The relative ease of synthesis and low processing temperatures make geopolymers an attractive choice as a matrix material for composite materials. Geopolymers also offer resistance to heat and oxidizing environments. Currently, geopolymer matrix composites ...


Creep Of Hafnium Diboride -20 Vol% Silicon Carbide At 1500°C In Air, Glen E. Pry Mar 2018

Creep Of Hafnium Diboride -20 Vol% Silicon Carbide At 1500°C In Air, Glen E. Pry

Theses and Dissertations

Refractory metal borides, commonly referred to as Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs), exhibit a number of unique properties, such as extremely high melting temperature and hardness, chemical stability, high electrical and thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. It has been demonstrated that the addition of SiC improves the oxidation resistance of ZrB2- and HfB2-based UHTCs above 1200°C by modifying the composition of the oxide scale. Addition of SiC retards the oxidation rate of ZrB2 and HfB2 by forming a protective layer of borosilicate glass. Creep deformation is one of the critical criterion for structural application of ceramics at elevated temperatures ...


Creep Of Nextel 720/A Ceramic Matrix Composite With Laser Drilled Effusion Holes At 1200°C In Air And In Steam, Savannah N. Minor Mar 2018

Creep Of Nextel 720/A Ceramic Matrix Composite With Laser Drilled Effusion Holes At 1200°C In Air And In Steam, Savannah N. Minor

Theses and Dissertations

Creep behavior of an oxide-oxide ceramic matrix composite (CMC) containing an array of effusion holes was investigated at 1200⁰C in air and in steam. The composite (N720/A) consisted of a porous alumina matrix reinforced with alumina-mullite NextelTM 720 fibers. Test specimens had an array of 17 effusion holes with 0.5-mm diameter. The effusion holes were drilled through the specimen thickness normal to the specimen surface using a CO2 laser. Effect of the effusion holes on tensile properties was evaluated tension tests to failure at 1200°C in air. Creep of specimens with effusion holes at 1200°C was ...


Influence Of Coolant Flow Rate Parameters In Scaling Gas Turbine Cooling Effectiveness On A Flat Plate, Jacob P. Fischer Mar 2018

Influence Of Coolant Flow Rate Parameters In Scaling Gas Turbine Cooling Effectiveness On A Flat Plate, Jacob P. Fischer

Theses and Dissertations

Effective film cooling relies on the performance of the selected cooling hole shape and placement of the holes on the surface of the blade. To test each holes effectiveness, large scale, low-temperature testing has been used to reduce cost and complexity. The resulting quantity from this testing is called the adiabatic effectiveness (n). The adiabatic effectiveness can then scaled up to engine operating conditions to predict how the selected film cooling hole will perform. This process is complicated by the nonlinear variation of gas properties between coolant and freestream conditions as well as between the experimental and engine conditions. In ...


Consuming Digital Debris In The Plasticene, Stephen R. Parks Jan 2018

Consuming Digital Debris In The Plasticene, Stephen R. Parks

Theses and Dissertations

Claims of customization and control by socio-technical industries are altering the role of consumer and producer. These narratives are often misleading attempts to engage consumers with new forms of technology. By addressing capitalist intent, material, and the reproduction limits of 3-D printed objects’, I observe the aspirational promise of becoming a producer of my own belongings through new networks of production. I am interested in gaining a better understanding of the data consumed that perpetuates hyper-consumptive tendencies for new technological apparatuses. My role as a designer focuses on the resolution of not only the surface of the object through 3-D ...


Feasibility Of Using Oxide Thickness Measurements For Predicting Crack Growth Rates In P91 Steel Components, Ralph Edward Huneycutt Iv May 2017

Feasibility Of Using Oxide Thickness Measurements For Predicting Crack Growth Rates In P91 Steel Components, Ralph Edward Huneycutt Iv

Theses and Dissertations

There are only few methods available for predicting the age of cracks that are found in high

temperature structural components during service; among the promising ones is the oxide

thickness measurement technique. Oxide thickness profiles are taken from crack surfaces of

components and used for predicting the rates of crack propagation. This technique is particularly

suitable for high temperature components fabricated from ferritic steels commonly used in power

plants that run on fossil fuels. To implement this technique, it is necessary to fully understand the

kinetics of high temperature oxidation in these steels. In this study, the oxidation characteristics

of ...


Stressed Oxidation Of Hafnium Diboride In Air At 1500°C, Thomas A. Bowen Mar 2017

Stressed Oxidation Of Hafnium Diboride In Air At 1500°C, Thomas A. Bowen

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersonic vehicles with narrow airfoils produce thin boundary layers and shock temperatures in excess of 2000 deg C, exceeding the operating limits of traditional aerospace materials. The use of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) allows for operating temperatures far exceeding those of metallic alloys. One such UHTC is hafnium diboride (HfB2). Transition metal diborides generally experience significant oxidation degradation at elevated temperatures. The use of additives, such as silicon carbide (SiC) has been shown to reduce the oxidation of transition metal diborides. This research focused on the compressive creep of HfB2 with varying amounts of SiC in air at 1500 deg ...


Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials With Germanium Telluride Components, Christopher H. Kodama Mar 2016

Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials With Germanium Telluride Components, Christopher H. Kodama

Theses and Dissertations

Terahertz (THz) technology is an emerging field with many exciting applications. THz waves can be used to locate explosives and illicit drugs in security applications, or DNA and other molecule resonances in medical applications. THz frequencies represent the next level of modern, high-speed computing, but they also can be used for covert battlefield communications links. Metamaterials are an integral part of THz technology because they can be used to create exotic material properties—permittivities and permeabilities—in a part of the frequency spectrum that is otherwise rather empty and passive. This work aims to acquire a fuller understanding of THz ...


Finite Element Analysis (Fea) Study Of The Thermal Stress Concentrations In Planar-Type Sodium Sulfur (Nas) Secondary Batteries, Jeffrey P. Colker Dec 2015

Finite Element Analysis (Fea) Study Of The Thermal Stress Concentrations In Planar-Type Sodium Sulfur (Nas) Secondary Batteries, Jeffrey P. Colker

Theses and Dissertations

The importance of a reliable and safe way to store energy, and allow for on-demand usage, has led to much research in the field of secondary battery development. The thesis herein explores a technology that has shown promising results when implemented in large-scale energy grid applications. Though the technology has proven viable in both load-leveling on existing grids as well as serving to legitimize renewable energy sources, the development of such advanced battery systems is not without challenge. Sodium-sulfur (NaS) secondary cells have shown promising results when implemented in the aforementioned energy storage applications. One of the main drawbacks to ...


Investigation Of A Numerical Algorithm For A Discretized Rubber-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission Dynamic Model And Techniques For The Measurement Of Belt Material Properties., Brian Gene Ballew Dec 2015

Investigation Of A Numerical Algorithm For A Discretized Rubber-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission Dynamic Model And Techniques For The Measurement Of Belt Material Properties., Brian Gene Ballew

Theses and Dissertations

A numerical algorithm for modeling the dynamic response of a rubber-belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) belt is recreated. The numerical attributes applied to the algorithm and difficulties with numerical stability are discussed in detail. The degrees of freedom of the system have been expanded to include the dynamics of the engine torque output and vehicle loads such as rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. This was done to emphasize the use of the model as an analysis tool for simulating CVT/engine/vehicle response. The increased degrees of freedom require the addition of a linear dampening element between belt nodes to ...


Field And Laboratory Study Of The Flàajökull Glacier, Iceland, William Russell Jacobson, Jr. Dec 2015

Field And Laboratory Study Of The Flàajökull Glacier, Iceland, William Russell Jacobson, Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

The increased surface melting of the outlet glaciers of the Vatnajökull Ice Cap has a profound affect on the dynamics of the ice-bed couple and landform genesis. Soft-bedded glaciers are largely inaccessible, which creates a problem. One challenge is to understand the complex interactions of the glacier bed and its resultant depositional and deformational landform systems. This study investigates an outlet glacier from the Vatnajökull Ice Cap, described herein as the Fláajökull glacier system. To circumvent some of these problems, three separate projects were conducted in this dissertation: (1) magnetic fabric study of effective pressure (difference between the ice-overburden pressure ...


A Nonequilibrium Finite-Rate Carbon Ablation Model For Radiating Earth Re-Entry Flows, Christopher R. Alba Sep 2015

A Nonequilibrium Finite-Rate Carbon Ablation Model For Radiating Earth Re-Entry Flows, Christopher R. Alba

Theses and Dissertations

Vehicles entering planetary atmospheres at high speed require an ablative heat shield in order to withstand the high thermal energy flux to the body. The interaction between the ablative products and the flow field is not well characterized. Numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of carbon ablation on shock layer radiation. Data collected from experiments performed in the X-2 expansion tunnel at the University of Queensland was used to compare to the simulations. The model was a short half-cylinder made of isomolded graphite and was tested in 8.6 km/s Earth entry flow. The model surface was ...


Traction-Separation Relationships For Hydrogen-Induced Grain Boundary Embrittlement In Nickel Via Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Wesley Allen Barrows Jul 2015

Traction-Separation Relationships For Hydrogen-Induced Grain Boundary Embrittlement In Nickel Via Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Wesley Allen Barrows

Theses and Dissertations

The deleterious effects of atomic and molecular hydrogen on the mechanical properties of metals have long been observed. Although several theories exist describing the mechanisms by which hydrogen negatively influences the failure of materials, a consensus has yet to be reached regarding the exact mechanism or combination of mechanisms. Two mechanisms have gained support in explaining hydrogen’s degradative role in non-hydride forming metals: hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity and hydrogen-enhanced decohesion. Yet, the interplay between these mechanisms and microstructure in metallic materials has not been explained. Accordingly, for this thesis, the three main objectives are: (i) to develop a numerical methodology ...


A Study To Evaluate Non-Uniform Phase Maps In Shape Memory Alloys Using Finite Element Method, Naren Motte Jan 2015

A Study To Evaluate Non-Uniform Phase Maps In Shape Memory Alloys Using Finite Element Method, Naren Motte

Theses and Dissertations

The unique thermo-mechanical behavior of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), such as their ability to recover the original shape upon heating or being able to tolerate large deformations without undergoing plastic transformations, makes them a good choice for actuators.

This work studies their application in the aerospace and defense industries where SMA components can serve as release mechanisms for gates of enclosures that have to be deployed remotely. This work provides a novel approach in evaluating the stress and heat induced change of phase in a SMA, in terms of the transformation strain tensor. In particular, the FEA tool

ANSYS has ...


Primary Creep In Astm A325 Bolts Under Simulated Fire Loading, Mohammad Matar Dec 2014

Primary Creep In Astm A325 Bolts Under Simulated Fire Loading, Mohammad Matar

Theses and Dissertations

At room temperature, small creep effects are present on steel structures. This is not the case at fire condition where the temperature is much higher than room temperature; in this case creep can be significant, and should be taken into consideration. Since fire hazard can happen in any building, creep effect must be taken into consideration when designing a building. Creep strain behaves as a function of time, temperature and stress. As the temperature increases, the creep strain increases. Similarly, the longer the temperature at a given stress on the structure, the more the creep strain present.

The smallest component ...


Characterization Of Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polyetherimide Thermoplastic Composites Using Mechanical And Ultrasonic Methods, Mohannad A. Alhaidri Aug 2014

Characterization Of Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polyetherimide Thermoplastic Composites Using Mechanical And Ultrasonic Methods, Mohannad A. Alhaidri

Theses and Dissertations

Continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (CFRT) have the potential for being a mass-produced material for high-performance applications. The primary challenge of using CFRT is achieving fiber wet-out due to the high viscosity of thermoplastics. This results in higher temperatures and pressures required for processing the composites. Co-mingling thermoplastic fibers with a reinforcing fiber, potentially, can enable better wetting by reducing the distance the matrix needs to flow. This could result in shorter cycle times and better consolidation at lower temperatures and pressures. In this study, a polyetherimide (PEI) fiber was comingled with carbon fibers (CF). The resultant fibers were woven into fabrics ...


Experimental And Analytical Characterization Of Regenerated/Nano Cellulose Composites, Issam I A Qamhia May 2014

Experimental And Analytical Characterization Of Regenerated/Nano Cellulose Composites, Issam I A Qamhia

Theses and Dissertations

Fiber-reinforced composite materials are increasingly used for structural and engineering purposes. In particular, composites reinforced with natural fiber systems are becoming more and more popular due to their biodegradability and abundance; added to that other properties such as transparency, dimensional stability and good mechanical behavior. However, major issues remain to properly understand their behavior and enable their widespread use.

In this thesis, the mechanical behavior of cellulose fiber/epoxy composites is investigated. The natural fiber systems studied fall into three categories: unidirectional regenerated cellulose fibers, triaxially braided quasi-isotropic regenerated cellulose fibers and micro-fibrillated cellulose in the form of nanocellulose scaffolds ...


Modeling Reliability Growth In Accelerated Stress Testing, Jason K. Freels Dec 2013

Modeling Reliability Growth In Accelerated Stress Testing, Jason K. Freels

Theses and Dissertations

Qualitative accelerated test methods improve system reliability by identifying and removing initial design flaws. However, schedule and cost constraints often preclude sufficient testing to generate a meaningful reliability estimate from the data obtained in these tests. In this dissertation a modified accelerated life test is proposed to assess the likelihood of attaining a reliability requirement based on tests of early system prototypes. Assuming each prototype contains an unknown number of independent competing failure modes whose respective times to occurrence are governed by a distinct Weibull law, the observed failure data from this qualitative test are shown to follow a poly-Weibull ...


Characterization And Processing Evaluation Of Starch/High-Density Polyethylene Materials In Extrusion Blow Molding, Bradley Dale Bacigalupi Dec 2013

Characterization And Processing Evaluation Of Starch/High-Density Polyethylene Materials In Extrusion Blow Molding, Bradley Dale Bacigalupi

Theses and Dissertations

The growing negative impacts of non-biodegradable plastics derived from non-renewable materials have created increasing interest throughout the world for new materials that are both biodegradable and renewable, that can be combined with or replace traditional plastics. Plant-based thermoplastic starch (TPS), a promising alternative material to traditional petroleum based resin, is both biodegradable and renewable and has great potential for use in plastic manufacturing processes. Two major obstacles that prevent more widespread use of TPS include; TPS base material, which is typically manufactured in a flake or powder, is incompatible with standard plastics production equipment that require pelletized resin, the second ...