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Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Quantum Many - Body Interaction Effects In Two - Dimensional Materials, Sanghita Sengupta Jan 2018

Quantum Many - Body Interaction Effects In Two - Dimensional Materials, Sanghita Sengupta

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

In this talk, I will discuss three problems related to the novel physics of two-dimensional quantum materials such as graphene, group-VI dichalcogenides family (TMDCs viz. MoS2 , WS2, MoSe2 , etc) and Silicene-Germanene class of materials.

The first problem poses a simple question - how do the quantum excitations in a graphene membrane affect adsorption? Using the tools of diagrammatic perturbation theory, I will derive the scattering rates of a neutral atom on a graphene membrane. I will show how this seemingly naive model can serve as a non-relativistic condensed matter analogue of the infamous infrared problem in Quantum Electrodynamics.

In the second ...


Seaweed To Sealant : Multifunctional Polysaccharides For Regenerative Medicine And Drug Delivery Applications, Spencer Lincoln Fenn Jan 2017

Seaweed To Sealant : Multifunctional Polysaccharides For Regenerative Medicine And Drug Delivery Applications, Spencer Lincoln Fenn

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Pneumothorax, or a collapsed lung, is a serious medical condition resulting when air or fluid escapes the lung into the chest cavity and prevents the lung from inflating. Few viable means of sealing the damaged and leaking tissues are currently available, leading to longer hospital stays, multiple interventions, and increasing costs of care. The motivation of this dissertation is to engineer a novel polysaccharide-based therapeutic surgical sealant, which can be utilized to seal trauma-induced damage to the outer lining of the lung, i.e. pleura, preventing or reversing lung collapse to restore normal breathing function.

The use of polysaccharides, such ...


Fabrication And Thermoelectric Characterization Of Stretchable Conductive Latex-Based Composites, Cory Michael Arcovitch Jan 2017

Fabrication And Thermoelectric Characterization Of Stretchable Conductive Latex-Based Composites, Cory Michael Arcovitch

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Miniaturized stretchable electronic devices that can be bent and strained elastically without breaking, have drawn considerable research interest in recent years for wearable computers and integrated bio-sensor applications. Portable electrical power harvesting remains a critical challenge in flexible electronics materials. One proposed solution has been to convert waste heat from the human body into electricity using thermoelectric materials. Traditionally, however, these materials are brittle ceramic semiconductors with limited fracture resistance under deformation. The primary objective of this thesis is to address this challenge by fabricating and studying the mechanical, thermal and electrical performance of stretchable composites combining natural latex polymer ...


Excitonic States In Crystalline Organic Semiconductors: A Condensed Matter Approach, Lane Wright Manning Jan 2016

Excitonic States In Crystalline Organic Semiconductors: A Condensed Matter Approach, Lane Wright Manning

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

In this work, a new condensed matter approach to the study of excitons based on crystalline thin films of the organic molecule phthalocyanine is introduced. The premise is inspired by a wealth of studies in inorganic semiconductor ternary alloys (such as AlGaN, InGaN, SiGe) where tuning compositional disorder can result in exciton localization by alloy potential fluctuations. Comprehensive absorption, luminescence, linear dichroism and electron radiative lifetime studies were performed on both pure and alloy samples of metal-free octabutoxy-phthalocyanine and transition metal octabutoxy-phthalocyanines, where the metal is Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu. Varying the ratios of the metal to metal-free phthalocyanines ...


A Study Of The Physicochemical Properties Of Dense And Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles That Impact Protein Adsorption From Biological Fluids, Alden Michael Clemments Jan 2016

A Study Of The Physicochemical Properties Of Dense And Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles That Impact Protein Adsorption From Biological Fluids, Alden Michael Clemments

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

At the intersection of materials chemistry and biology, biomaterials have been successfully employed in an array of medical applications. From diagnostic tools to targeted drug delivery, the modular physical and chemical properties of these materials provide numerous applications. For example, porous nanoparticles have been widely integrated as vehicles to carry chemotherapeutics to localized tumor sites. By encapsulating these cytotoxic compounds within a porous framework, the commonly associated adverse side effects of conventional chemotherapeutics, such as Doxorubicin, have been greatly reduced. One such material, mesoporous silica, has received widespread attention due to its excellent biocompatibility, high surface area to mass ratio ...


Investigating The Influence Of Gold Nanoparticles On The Photocatalytic And Catalytic Reactivity Of Porous Tungsten Oxide Microparticles, Daniel P. Depuccio Jan 2016

Investigating The Influence Of Gold Nanoparticles On The Photocatalytic And Catalytic Reactivity Of Porous Tungsten Oxide Microparticles, Daniel P. Depuccio

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Tungsten oxide (WO3) is a semiconducting transition metal oxide with interesting electronic, structural, and chemical properties that have been exploited in applications including catalysis, gas sensing, electrochromic displays, and solar energy conversion. Nanocrystalline WO3 can absorb visible light to catalyze heterogeneous photooxidation reactions. Also, the acidity of the WO3 surface makes this oxide a good thermal catalyst in the dehydration of alcohols to various industrially relevant chemicals. This dissertation explores the photocatalytic and thermal catalytic reactivity of nanocrystalline porous WO3 microparticles. Furthermore, investigations into the changes in WO3 reactivity are carried out after modifying the porous WO3 particles with gold ...


Aero-Thermal Characterization Of Silicon Carbide Flexible Tps Using A 30kw Icp Torch, Walten Owens Jan 2015

Aero-Thermal Characterization Of Silicon Carbide Flexible Tps Using A 30kw Icp Torch, Walten Owens

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Flexible thermal protection systems are of interest due to their necessity for the success of future atmospheric entry vehicles. Current non-ablative flexible designs incorporate a two-dimensional woven fabric on the leading surface of the vehicle. The focus of this research investigation was to characterize the aerothermal performance of silicon carbide fabric using the 30 kW Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch located at the University of Vermont. Experimental results have shown that SiC fabric test coupons achieving surface temperatures between 1000°C and 1500°C formed an amorphous silicon dioxide layer within seconds after insertion into air plasmas. The transient morphological changes ...


The Interaction Mechanisms Of A Screw Dislocation With A Defective Coherent Twin Boundary In Copper, Qiongjiali Fang Jan 2015

The Interaction Mechanisms Of A Screw Dislocation With A Defective Coherent Twin Boundary In Copper, Qiongjiali Fang

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Σ3{111} coherent twin boundary (CTB) in face-centered-cubic (FCC) metals and alloys have been regarded as an efficient way to simultaneously increase strength and ductility at the nanoscale. Extensive study of dislocation-CTB interaction has been carried out by a combination of computer simulations, experiments and continuum theory. Most of them, however, are based on the perfect CTB assumption. A recent study [Wang YM, Sansoz F, LaGrange T, et al. Defective twin boundaries in nanotwinned metals. Nat Mater. 2013;12(8):697-702.] has revealed the existence of intrinsic kink-like defects in CTBs of nanotwinned copper through nanodiffraction mapping technique, and has ...


Exchange Mechanisms In Macroscopic Ordered Organic Magnetic Semiconductors, Naveen Rawat Jan 2015

Exchange Mechanisms In Macroscopic Ordered Organic Magnetic Semiconductors, Naveen Rawat

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Small molecule organic semiconductors such as phthalocyanines and their derivatives represent a very interesting alternative to inorganic semiconductor materials for the development of flexible electronic devices such as organic thin field effect transistors, organic Light Emitting Diodes and photo-voltaic cells. Phthalocyanine molecules can easily accommodate a variety of metal atoms as well in the central core of the molecule, resulting in wide range of magnetic properties. Exploration of optical properties of organic crystalline semiconductors thin films is challenging due to sub-micron grain sizes and the presence of numerous structural defects, disorder and grain boundaries. However, this can be overcome by ...


Ruo2 Nanorods As An Electrocatalyst For Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis, Richard Smith Jan 2015

Ruo2 Nanorods As An Electrocatalyst For Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis, Richard Smith

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The desire for pure diatomic hydrogen gas, H2(g), has been on the rise since the concept of the hydrogen economy system was proposed back in 1970. The production of hydrogen has been extensively examined over 40 + years as the need to replace current fuel sources, hydrocarbons, has become more prevalent. Currently there are only two practical and renewable production methods of hydrogen; landfill gas and power to gas. This study focuses on the later method; using various renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaics, to provide off-peak energy to perform water electrolysis. Efficient electrolysis takes place in electrochemical cells which ...


An Atomic Force Microscopy Nanoindentation Study Of Size Effects In Face-Centered Cubic Metal And Bimetallic Nanowires, Erin Leigh Wood Jan 2014

An Atomic Force Microscopy Nanoindentation Study Of Size Effects In Face-Centered Cubic Metal And Bimetallic Nanowires, Erin Leigh Wood

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The enhancement of strength of nanoscale materials such as face-centered cubic metal nanowires is well known and arises largely from processes mediated by high energy surface atoms. This leads to strong size effects in nanoscale plasticity; ,smaller is stronger. Yet, other factors, such as crystalline defects also contribute greatly to the mechanical properties. In particular, twin boundaries, which are pervasive and energetically favorable defects in face-centered cubic metal nanowires, have been shown to greatly enhance the strength, furthermore this increase in strength has been shown to be directly influenced by the twin density. However, attempts to control the introduction of ...


Surface Gas Permeability Of Porous Building Materials: Measurement, Analysis And Applications, David Klein Weibust Grover Jan 2014

Surface Gas Permeability Of Porous Building Materials: Measurement, Analysis And Applications, David Klein Weibust Grover

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

In many events affecting our civil infrastructure, such as contamination or weathering, it is likely that only the surfaces of the affected building materials will be available for non-destructive measurements. In this work, we describe and analyze surface gas permeability measurements on a variety of natural and engineered building materials using two types of relatively new, non-destructive surface permeameters. It is shown that the surface gas permeability measurements correlate well with each other and could provide rapid estimates of macroscopic gas permeability and degradation of materials due to weathering. It is hypothesized that surface permeability can be used to predict ...


Path Integral Quantum Monte Carlo Study Of Coupling And Proximity Effects In Superfluid Helium-4, Max Graves Jan 2014

Path Integral Quantum Monte Carlo Study Of Coupling And Proximity Effects In Superfluid Helium-4, Max Graves

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

When bulk helium-4 is cooled below T = 2.18 K, it undergoes a phase transition to a superfluid, characterized by a complex wave function with a macroscopic phase and exhibits inviscid, quantized flow. The macroscopic phase coherence can be probed in a container filled with helium-4, by reducing one or more of its dimensions until they are smaller than the coherence length, the spatial distance over which order propagates. As this dimensional reduction occurs, enhanced thermal and quantum fluctuations push the transition to the superfluid state to lower temperatures. However, this trend can be countered via the proximity effect, where ...


Electron Correlation Effects In Strained Dual-Layer Graphene Systems, Peter Karl Harnish Jan 2014

Electron Correlation Effects In Strained Dual-Layer Graphene Systems, Peter Karl Harnish

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

In low dimensional systems, electron correlation effects can often be enhanced. This can be vital since these effects not only play an important role in the study of many-electron physics, but are also useful in designing new materials for various applications. Since its isolation from graphite in 2004, graphene, a two dimensional sheet of carbon atoms, has drawn considerable interest due to its remarkable properties. In the past few years, research has moved on from single to bi-, dual- and multi-layer graphene systems, each displaying their own multitudes of intriguing properties. In particular, multi-layer systems that are electronically decoupled, but ...