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Articles 1 - 30 of 73

Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Modeling Of Dislocation Channel Formation And Evolution In Irradiated Metals, Peter James Doyle Dec 2017

Modeling Of Dislocation Channel Formation And Evolution In Irradiated Metals, Peter James Doyle

Masters Theses

Defect-free dislocation channel formation has been reported to promote plastic instability during tensile testing via localized plastic flow, leading to a distinct loss of ductility and strain hardening in many low-temperature irradiated materials. In order to study the underlying mechanisms governing dislocation channel width and formation, the channel formation process is modeled via a simple stochastic dislocation-jog process dependent upon grain size, defect cluster density, and defect size. Dislocations traverse a field of defect clusters and jog stochastically upon defect interaction, forming channels of low defect-density. Based upon prior molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and in-situ experimental transmission electron microscopy (TEM ...


Correlating Long-Term Lithium Ion Battery Performance With Solid Electrolyte Interphase (Sei) Layer Properties, Seong Jin An Aug 2017

Correlating Long-Term Lithium Ion Battery Performance With Solid Electrolyte Interphase (Sei) Layer Properties, Seong Jin An

Doctoral Dissertations

This study was conducted to understand effects of some of key factors (i.e., anode surface properties, formation cycling conditions, and electrolyte conditions) on solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and the battery cycle life. The SEI layer passivates electrode surfaces and prevents electron transfer and electrolyte diffusion through it while allowing lithium ion diffusion, which is essential for stable reversible capacities. It also influences initial capacity loss, self-discharge, cycle life, rate capability and safety. Thus, SEI layer formation and electrochemical stability are primary topics in LIB development. This research involves experiments and discussions on key ...


Angle Of Attack Determination Using Inertial Navigation System Data From Flight Tests, Jack Kevin Ly May 2017

Angle Of Attack Determination Using Inertial Navigation System Data From Flight Tests, Jack Kevin Ly

Masters Theses

Engineers and pilots rely on mechanical flow angle vanes on air data probes to determine the angle of attack of the aircraft in flight. These probes, however, are costly, come with inherent measurement errors, affect the flight characteristics of the aircraft, and are potentially dangerous in envelope expansion flights. Advances in the accuracy, usability, and affordability of inertial navigation systems allow for angle of attack to be determined accurately without direct measurement of the airflow around the aircraft. Utilizing an algorithm developed from aircraft equations of motion, a post-flight data review is completed as the first step in proving the ...


Development Of Lignin Carbon Fiber And Reinforced Composites, Nathan Kieran Meek Dec 2016

Development Of Lignin Carbon Fiber And Reinforced Composites, Nathan Kieran Meek

Masters Theses

The aim of this work is to develop lignin carbon fiber for composite applications. This included mechanical testing of single lignin carbon fiber (LCF), interfacial shear strength determination for LCF-resin systems using single fiber fragmentation, x-ray diffraction for the evaluation of microstructural parameters, and finally composite manufacturing and testing. Through these focused areas of analysis, the carbon fiber is thoroughly characterized and composite performance is evaluated. This effort was a collaboration with the Center for Renewable Carbon (CRC) and the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department. LCF produced by the CRC resulted in fibers having tensile strength of 250-800 MPa and ...


Microstructure Control And Correlation To Creep Properties In Grade 91 Steel Weldment After Thermo-Mechanical Treatments And An Fe-30cr-3al Alloy Strengthened By Fe2nb Laves Phase, Benjamin Allen Shassere Dec 2016

Microstructure Control And Correlation To Creep Properties In Grade 91 Steel Weldment After Thermo-Mechanical Treatments And An Fe-30cr-3al Alloy Strengthened By Fe2nb Laves Phase, Benjamin Allen Shassere

Doctoral Dissertations

Type IV cracking in weldments of steel pipes after creep deformation is a concern in modern fossil-fueled power plants. Two possible methods for minimizing or eliminating Type IV cracking will be discussed. The first method alters the initial microstructure of typical Grade 91 steel base metal before welding, while the second provides baseline microstructure characteristics and creep performance of a new alloy that is strengthened by the intermetallic Fe2Nb Laves phase. The initial microstructure of the Grade 91 steel can be controlled by Thermo-Mechanical Treatments, which aids in precipitation of fine (5-10 nm) MX particles in austenite before transformation to ...


Modeling And Experimental Investigation On The Influence Of Radiation Defects On Helium Behavior In Bcc Iron, Zuya Huang May 2016

Modeling And Experimental Investigation On The Influence Of Radiation Defects On Helium Behavior In Bcc Iron, Zuya Huang

Masters Theses

Fe-based alloys are important structural materials for both fission and fusion energy. For fusion applications, the challenges of radiation-induced changes in microstructure, properties and performance is further challenged by the concomitant production of helium from (n, alpha) nuclear reactions and fusion reactions. Due to the lack of a volumetric, high flux 14-MeV neutron source, studying these phenomena require the use of computational materials modeling and novel experimental methods. In this thesis, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations was used to investigate the synergistic interactions of helium with prismatic dislocation loops characteristic of those observed in neutron irradiated iron to determine how the ...


Development And Application Of 3-D Fuel Performance Modeling To Assess Missing Pellet Surface Influence On Pellet Clad Interaction And Clad Failure, Nathan Allen Capps May 2016

Development And Application Of 3-D Fuel Performance Modeling To Assess Missing Pellet Surface Influence On Pellet Clad Interaction And Clad Failure, Nathan Allen Capps

Doctoral Dissertations

In the late 1970s PCI related failures caused the implementation of startup ramp restrictions. These ramp restrictions where intended to reduce the stresses caused by pellet cladding contact. These ramp restrictions had a significant impact on Westinghouse fueled PWRs, reducing PCI related failure until 2003. Through investigation into these fuel rod failures lead to the conclusion that missing pellet surfaces (MPS) were the root cause of the failures. MPS are local geometric defects in nuclear fuel pellets that result from pellet mishandling or the manufacturing process. The presence of MPS defects can cause stress concentrations in the clad of sufficient ...


Failure Simulations At Multiple Length Scales In High Temperature Structural Alloys, Chao Pu Dec 2015

Failure Simulations At Multiple Length Scales In High Temperature Structural Alloys, Chao Pu

Doctoral Dissertations

A number of computational methodologies have been developed to investigate the deformation and damage mechanism of various structural materials at different length scale and under extreme loading conditions, and also to provide insights in the development of high-performance materials.

In microscopic material behavior and failure modes, polycrystalline metals of interest include heterogeneous deformation field due to crystalline anisotropy, inter/intra grain or phase and grain boundary interactions. Crystal plasticity model is utilized to simulate microstructure based polycrystalline materials, and micro-deformation information, such as lattice strain evolution, can be captured based on crystal plasticity finite element modeling (CPFEM) in ABAQUS. The ...


Energy Selective Neutron Imaging For The Characterization Of Polycrystalline Materials, Robin Woracek May 2015

Energy Selective Neutron Imaging For The Characterization Of Polycrystalline Materials, Robin Woracek

Doctoral Dissertations

This multipart dissertation focuses on the development and evaluation of advanced methods for material testing and characterization using neutron diffraction and imaging techniques. A major focus is on exploiting diffraction contrast in energy selective neutron imaging (often referred to as Bragg edge imaging) for strain and phase mapping of crystalline materials. The dissertation also evaluates the use of neutron diffraction to study the effect of multi-axial loading, in particular the role of applying directly shear strains from the application of torsion. A portable tension-torsion-tomography loading system has been developed for in-situ measurements and integrated at major user facilities around the ...


Phase Dynamics Of Locset Control Methodology, Brendan Neschke May 2015

Phase Dynamics Of Locset Control Methodology, Brendan Neschke

Masters Theses

Single-mode fiber amplifiers produce diffraction-limited beams very efficiently. Maximum beam intensity requires that an array of these amplifiers have their beams coherently combined at the target. Optical path differences and noise adversely affect beam quality. An existing closed loop phase control methodology, called the locking of optical coherence by single-detector electronic-frequency tagging (LOCSET), corrects phase errors in real time by electronically detecting path length differences and sending signals to lithium niobate phase adjusters. Broadening the line-width using “jitter” of the input signal can increase the output power of an individual amplifier by suppressing nonlinearity. The system dynamics of LOCSET are ...


Impact Of Fuel Rod Coatings On Reactor Performance And Safety, Ian Robert Stewart May 2015

Impact Of Fuel Rod Coatings On Reactor Performance And Safety, Ian Robert Stewart

Masters Theses

This study evaluates the use of a ceramic coating on the Zr-alloy cladding within a PWR using four ceramic compounds of 5 and 10 micron thicknesses: ZrO2, TiAlN, Ti2AlC, and Ti3AlC2. The film’s impact is assessed for variation on: reactivity, fuel cycle length, maximum temperature, film’s roughness, and transient conditions. The reactivity is analyzed using the following methods: change in the multiplication factor (k) each film introduces to the system using the ABH method, and Monte Carlo software (MCNP). Both methods are in good agreement, yielding less than half a percent change from a reference, no-film fuel pin ...


Development Of An Efficient Data Processing Procedure For The Prediction Of Cleavage Fracture In Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels Using The J-A2 Method, Phoebe E. Fogelman May 2015

Development Of An Efficient Data Processing Procedure For The Prediction Of Cleavage Fracture In Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels Using The J-A2 Method, Phoebe E. Fogelman

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Dynamic Simulation And Neuromuscular Control Of Movement: Applications For Predictive Simulations Of Balance Recovery, Misagh Mansouri Boroujeni May 2015

Dynamic Simulation And Neuromuscular Control Of Movement: Applications For Predictive Simulations Of Balance Recovery, Misagh Mansouri Boroujeni

Doctoral Dissertations

Balance is among the most challenging tasks for patients with movement disorders. Study and treatment of these disorders could greatly benefit from combined software tools that offer better insights into neuromuscular biomechanics, and predictive capabilities for optimal surgical and rehabilitation treatment planning. A platform was created to combine musculoskeletal modeling, closed-loop forward dynamic simulation, optimization techniques, and neuromuscular control system design. Spinal (stretch-reflex) and supraspinal (operational space task-based) controllers were developed to test simulation-based hypotheses related to balance recovery and movement control. A corrective procedure (rectus femoris transfer surgery) was targeted for children experiencing stiff-knee gait and how this procedure ...


Discontinuous Element Insertion Algorithm, Timothy James Truster Jan 2015

Discontinuous Element Insertion Algorithm, Timothy James Truster

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Civil & Environmental Engineering

An algorithm is presented for inserting zero-thickness interface elements, termed herein as “couplers”, into continuous finite element meshes in two and three dimensions. Insertion is governed solely by the mesh topology and is specified according to regions or subdomains within the overall analysis domain, a geometrically intuitive means to designate the coupler locations. The algorithm is self-contained and requires only nodal coordinates and element connectivity as input. A wide class of volume elements and interface couplers are treated within the framework. Since the algorithm is topologically-based, interfaces of arbitrary complexity are naturally accommodated. Separate treatment is given to inserting couplers ...


Single Fiber Mechanical Properties Using Nano-Tensile Testing And Carbon Fiber Structure-Property Relationship, Matthew Erich Kant Dec 2014

Single Fiber Mechanical Properties Using Nano-Tensile Testing And Carbon Fiber Structure-Property Relationship, Matthew Erich Kant

Doctoral Dissertations

Single carbon fibers are studied using a nano-tensile testing system. This system has unprecedented load and displacement resolution, nN and nm respectively, and the ability to perform dynamic testing for storage and loss modulus during quasi-static tensile extension. Furthermore, improved fiber mounting and alignment procedures coupled with the precision of the nano-tensile testing system assist in unprecedented resolution in single fiber mechanical testing for axial modulus and strength. Hence, using these unique capabilities, the moduli and their statistical distribution of many high performance carbon fibers are reported here. From this, a simplified single parameter model describing the strain dependent modulus ...


Radiation-Induced Radicals In Polyurea-Crosslinked Silica Aerogel, Benjamin Michael Walters Aug 2014

Radiation-Induced Radicals In Polyurea-Crosslinked Silica Aerogel, Benjamin Michael Walters

Masters Theses

Free radicals are atoms or molecules with an odd number of electrons in an outer shell. Since electrons typically occur in pairs, this leaves one electron that is unpaired. In seek of another electron to pair with, free radicals react with and steal electrons from neighboring molecules, which then become free radicals themselves. This can start a chain reaction, cascading into large scale damage.

Ionizing radiation can tear through molecules, just as bullets can tear through things that we see. If free radicals can be detected, and seen to increase in a material upon radiation exposure, this can indicate molecular ...


Structural Analysis Of The Tablerock Thrust Sheet, Grandfather Mountain Window, Northwestern North Carolina: Emplacement Kinematics Of A Large Horse In A Major Thrust System, Ann Elizabeth Walker May 2014

Structural Analysis Of The Tablerock Thrust Sheet, Grandfather Mountain Window, Northwestern North Carolina: Emplacement Kinematics Of A Large Horse In A Major Thrust System, Ann Elizabeth Walker

Masters Theses

The Tablerock thrust sheet is exposed along the southwestern margin of Grandfather Mountain window in northwestern North Carolina, where it separates basement and cover rocks inside the window from basement thrust sheets of the overriding Blue Ridge-Piedmont megathrust sheet. It is a complex of footwall-derived horses of rifted-margin metasedimentary rocks, including Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian Chilhowee Group quartzite and phyllite, and Shady Dolomite. Penetrative deformation throughout the Tablerock thrust sheet is defined by an extensively transposed foliation, and strong colinearity between well developed transport lineations and SE/NW-trending tight, isoclinal, and sheath folds. Centimeter- to meter-scale sheath folds are common ...


A Study Of Indentation Cracking In Brittle Materials Using Cohesive Zone Finite Elements, Kurt E. Johanns May 2014

A Study Of Indentation Cracking In Brittle Materials Using Cohesive Zone Finite Elements, Kurt E. Johanns

Doctoral Dissertations

Cohesive zone finite element simulations of pyramidal indentation cracking in brittle materials have been carried out in order to: (1) critically examine indentation cracking models that relate fracture toughness to indentation data; (2) determine the underlying physical mechanisms of indentation crack growth from a continuum view and their relationship to material properties; (3) explore the influence of indenter geometry on crack extension; and (4) provide a platform from which future simulations can add more complex material behavior as well as guidance for experimental measurements of fracture toughness. Standard fracture toughness geometries in addition to simplified indentation geometries were simulated in ...


Nanolayer Polymeric Coatings To Enhance The Performance And Service Life Of Inorganic Membranes For High Temperature-High Pressure Biomass Pretreatment And Other Applications, Vincent C. Kandagor May 2014

Nanolayer Polymeric Coatings To Enhance The Performance And Service Life Of Inorganic Membranes For High Temperature-High Pressure Biomass Pretreatment And Other Applications, Vincent C. Kandagor

Doctoral Dissertations

Membrane technology has become increasingly attractive in several applications including water filtration, food industry, oil and gas, and biomedical applications. Most recently the quest for renewable, bioenergy has called for use of membranes in biomass pretreatment and other stages of producing biofuel. The success and advancement of the membrane technology for these various applications has, however, been impeded by the fouling of membranes, which causes the pores in the microporous structure to block, resulting in reduced efficiency, and in some cases, total failure of the membranes system. This challenge leads to a tremendous increase in the cost of using membranes ...


An Automated Finite Element Analysis Framework For The Probabilistic Evaluation Of Composite Lamina Properties, Jonathan Phillips Weigand Dec 2013

An Automated Finite Element Analysis Framework For The Probabilistic Evaluation Of Composite Lamina Properties, Jonathan Phillips Weigand

Masters Theses

This thesis outlines the development of computational modeling tools used to predict the elastic properties of composite lamina from representative volume elements (RVE) using numerical methods. The homogenization approach involves the use of Gauss’s Theorem to simply the average volumetric strain integral into a surface integral containing which is defined by surface displacements and their direction. Simulations of RVEs under specific loading conditions (longitudinal tension or shear and transverse tension or shear) are then performed in the software package ABAQUS to obtain the surface displacements. It was found that obtaining quality meshes and applying periodic boundary conditions for each ...


Structure And Energetics Of Nanoparticles And Ionomer Films In Fuel Cell Catalyst Layers, Qianping He Dec 2013

Structure And Energetics Of Nanoparticles And Ionomer Films In Fuel Cell Catalyst Layers, Qianping He

Doctoral Dissertations

Improving the durability and utilization efficiency of the platinum-on-carbon (Pt/C) catalyst is of vital importance to the commercialization of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). This body of work provides molecular level insights to aid the fulfillment of this goal. Chapter 1 describes the use of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in an effort to understand the Pt/C degradation issue from the nano-adhesion point of view. The roles of catalyst nanoparticle size, shape, Pt/C surface oxidation and the extent of ionomer film hydration are investigated to study their effects on nano-particle adhesion. It is found that the ...


Structure And Morphology Of Sulfonated Polysulfone And Perfluorosulfonic Acid Ionomers, Chen Wang Aug 2013

Structure And Morphology Of Sulfonated Polysulfone And Perfluorosulfonic Acid Ionomers, Chen Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

The limitations of conventional perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) based membrane materials have provoked the search for alternative materials which can function as the electrolyte in PEM fuel cells operated at higher temperatures (> 100 °C) and without humidification. A novel class of sulfonated poly(phenylene) sulfone (sPSO2) ionomers have shown much higher proton conductivity than typical PFSA membranes at elevated temperatures. In this dissertation, both computational and experimental methods were used to investigate proton transfer, morphological and structural properties of sPSO2 and PFSA ionomers. We have undertaken ab initio electronic structure calculations to understand the primary hydration and the transfer of protons ...


Dynamic Mutual Capacitive Sensor For Human Interactions., Jonathan William Huber May 2013

Dynamic Mutual Capacitive Sensor For Human Interactions., Jonathan William Huber

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation introduces the novel concept of removing the ground conductive plate by utilizing body capacitance as the ground in the capacitive sensor, whereby circuit pressure sensing can occur with only one plate and one dielectric. Additionally, body capacitance sensing was limited to a binary touch-no-touch output, whereas the method presented here can sense various applied pressures. The resulting circuit acts as an antenna that receives local capacitance signals from a human interaction.

The advantage of this design is that it allows for both proximity sensing and pressure sensing (once the body part is touching the dielectric material). This setup ...


Validation Of Weak Form Thermal Analysis Algorithms Supporting Thermal Signature Generation, Elton Lewis Freeman Dec 2012

Validation Of Weak Form Thermal Analysis Algorithms Supporting Thermal Signature Generation, Elton Lewis Freeman

Masters Theses

Extremization of a weak form for the continuum energy conservation principle differential equation naturally implements fluid convection and radiation as flux Robin boundary conditions associated with unsteady heat transfer. Combining a spatial semi-discretization via finite element trial space basis functions with time-accurate integration generates a totally node-based algebraic statement for computing. Closure for gray body radiation is a newly derived node-based radiosity formulation generating piecewise discontinuous solutions, while that for natural-forced-mixed convection heat transfer is extracted from the literature. Algorithm performance, mathematically predicted by asymptotic convergence theory, is subsequently validated with data obtained in 24 hour diurnal field experiments for ...


Measurement Of Power-Law Creep Parameters By Instrumented Indentation Methods, Caijun Su Aug 2012

Measurement Of Power-Law Creep Parameters By Instrumented Indentation Methods, Caijun Su

Doctoral Dissertations

New experimental methods have been developed to measure the uniaxial power-law creep parameters α [alpha] and n in the relation έ[epsilon dot]=α[alpha]σn[sigma] (έ [epsilon dot] is the creep strain rate and σ [sigma] is the creep stress) from the load, time, displacement and stiffness data recorded during an instrumented indentation experiment performed with a conical or pyramidal indenter. The methods are based on an analysis of Bower et al., which relates the indentation creep rate to the uniaxial creep parameters based on simple assumptions about the constitutive behavior (Bower et al., 1993). Using finite ...


A Gps-Based Mobility Power Model For Military Vehicle Applications, George William Bozdech May 2012

A Gps-Based Mobility Power Model For Military Vehicle Applications, George William Bozdech

Masters Theses

In recent years, military vehicles have been equipped with hybrid, diesel-electric drives to improve fuel efficiency and stealth capabilities. These vehicles require an accurate estimate of the power duty cycles during distinct operating conditions. To meet this demand, a GPS-based mobility power and duty cycle analysis is one approach to predict the power requirements of on-road and off-road vehicles. The dynamic vehicle parameters needed to estimate the forces developed during locomotion are determined from the GPS tracking data, and these forces include the following: the motion resistance, gravitational, linear inertia, rotational inertia, and aerodynamic drag. The motion resistance force generated ...


Modeling And Development Of A Mems Device For Pyroelectric Energy Scavenging, Salwa Mostafa Aug 2011

Modeling And Development Of A Mems Device For Pyroelectric Energy Scavenging, Salwa Mostafa

Doctoral Dissertations

As the world faces an energy crisis with depleting fossil fuel reserves, alternate energy sources are being researched ever more seriously. In addition to renewable energy sources, energy recycling and energy scavenging technologies are also gaining importance. Technologies are being developed to scavenge energy from ambient sources such as vibration, radio frequency and low grade waste heat, etc. Waste heat is the most common form of wasted energy and is the greatest potential source of energy scavenging.

Pyroelectricity is the property of some materials to change the surface charge distribution with the change in temperature. These materials produce current as ...


Development And Analysis Of Onboard Translunar Injection Targeting Algorithms, Phillippe Lyles Winters Reed May 2011

Development And Analysis Of Onboard Translunar Injection Targeting Algorithms, Phillippe Lyles Winters Reed

Masters Theses

Several targeting algorithms are developed and analyzed for possible future use onboard a spacecraft. Each targeter is designed to determine the appropriate propulsive burn for translunar injection to obtain desired orbital parameters upon arrival at the moon. Primary design objectives are to minimize the computational requirements for each algorithm but also to ensure reasonable accuracy, so that the algorithm’s errors do not force the craft to conduct large mid-course corrections. Several levels of accuracy for dynamical models are explored, the convergence range and speed of each algorithm are compared, and the possible benefits of the Broyden and trust-region targeters ...


Effect Of Moisture Absorption On The Sinter Quality Of Central Solenoid (Cs) Coil Pack, Zeshaan Sher Mohammed Dec 2010

Effect Of Moisture Absorption On The Sinter Quality Of Central Solenoid (Cs) Coil Pack, Zeshaan Sher Mohammed

Masters Theses

Fusion energy has been said to be the solution to all the world’s energy problems. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the flagship project to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion energy. The Central Solenoid (CS), an important component of the reactor, is needed to induce plasma current, initiate, ramp-up, ramp-down, and sustain plasma in a very controlled manner. In order to achieve this, the CS coil packs must be manufactured under controlled conditions. The CS conductor is an advanced cable-in-conduit Nb3Sn superconductor. The CS cable will be made in long continuous sections but with thousands of meter of ...


Radiation-Curable Adhesives For Wood Composites, Timothy H. Starr Dec 2010

Radiation-Curable Adhesives For Wood Composites, Timothy H. Starr

Masters Theses

Wood composites are widely used in construction applications because of their superior dimensional and structural attributes over raw wood products. However, current wood composite manufacturing practices, which rely on thermal-curing of adhesives, are expensive, energy intensive, time consuming and are prone to manufacturing defects. Use of radiation curable adhesives (RCAs) could potentially answer all of these issues. Specifically, use of electron-beam (e-beam) radiation has been increasing in areas of research and industry where rapid, low-temperature polymerization is required and low energy consumption is desired. For e-beams to be used in wood composites, however, it must be determined whether or not ...