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Full-Text Articles in Engineering Science and Materials

Modelling The Addition Of Limestone In Cement Using Hydcem, Niall Holmes, Denis Kelliher, Mark Tyrer Sep 2019

Modelling The Addition Of Limestone In Cement Using Hydcem, Niall Holmes, Denis Kelliher, Mark Tyrer

Conference papers

Hydration models can aid in the prediction, understanding and description of hydration behaviour over time as the move towards more sustainable cements continues.

HYDCEM is a new model to predict the phase assemblage, degree of hydration and heat release over time for cements undergoing hydration for any w/c ratio and curing temperatures up to 450C. HYDCEM, written in MATLAB, complements more sophisticated thermodynamic models by predicting these properties over time using user-friendly inputs within one code. A number of functions and methods based on up to date cement hydration behaviour from the literature are hard-wired into the code along ...


Effect Of Atmospheric Transmittance On Performance Of Adaptive Spd-Vacuum Switchable Glazing, Aritra Ghosh, Brian Norton, Aidan Duffy Jan 2017

Effect Of Atmospheric Transmittance On Performance Of Adaptive Spd-Vacuum Switchable Glazing, Aritra Ghosh, Brian Norton, Aidan Duffy

Articles

Combined suspended particle device (SPD)-vacuum glazing is a potential adaptive glazing for low energy building application. Glazing transmission is an essential parameter to determine indoor comfort level of building due to glazing. In this work, above 0.5 clearness index, a strong correlation between glazing transmission and clearness index (Atmospheric transmission) has been evaluated for south facing vertical plane glazing. Below 0.5 clearness index, isotropic diffuse transmittance was dominant and one single value of glazing transmission was found which is suitable for building energy calculation throughout the year. Below 0.5 clearness index, for south facing vertical plane ...


Compact Facility For Testing Steady And Transient Thermal Performance Of Building Walls, Aimee Byrne, Gerard Byrne, Anthony Robinson Jan 2017

Compact Facility For Testing Steady And Transient Thermal Performance Of Building Walls, Aimee Byrne, Gerard Byrne, Anthony Robinson

Articles

Energy efficiency retrofit of buildings represents a key effort in reducing EU energy demand by 20% by 2020. However, predictions tend to overestimate savings by large percentages. The shortfall in savings can be attributed to incorrect predictive techniques, comfort takeback along with other behavioural and workmanship variables. Common predictive techniques related to heat loss tend to be based on the U-value of the building envelope. This paper presents the design of a more straightforward and compact version of the traditional Hot-Box apparatus (measures U-value) which instead determines the thermal resistance of samples of building envelope. U-value includes the need to ...


Investigation Of Electrical Defects Arising From Excessive Sidewall Force And Excessive Tensile Strain On Power Cables, Darren Mcconnon, Joseph Kearney, Tom Looby, James O'Shaughnessy Jan 2017

Investigation Of Electrical Defects Arising From Excessive Sidewall Force And Excessive Tensile Strain On Power Cables, Darren Mcconnon, Joseph Kearney, Tom Looby, James O'Shaughnessy

Conference papers

The study includes a comprehensive review of the existing literature and guidelines regarding the effects of sidewall force and tensile strain on power cables during installation. The most appropriate diagnostic test methods required to analyse these effects are also assessed. The results of tests and analysis of the existing literature are then combined in an attempt to determine a realistic basis for guidelines and recommendations relevant to cable installation forces.


A Review Of Control Methodologies For Dynamic Glazing, Eoin D. Mclean, Brian Norton, Derek Kearney, Philippe Lemarchand Jan 2017

A Review Of Control Methodologies For Dynamic Glazing, Eoin D. Mclean, Brian Norton, Derek Kearney, Philippe Lemarchand

Conference papers

With adaptive building façade technologies, a building envelope can provide a comfortable indoor environment under varying external conditions with minimal additional heating or cooling. The control strategy applied to the adaptation of the façade is a key determining factor in the successful integration of these technologies into a building. The building envelope plays a key role in regulating light, heat and mass transfer from the outdoor environment to the indoor. Dynamic glazing can be used to adjust the amount of solar radiation entering a building. The control strategies that ultimately determine the success of these switchable technologies to affect a ...


An Overview Of The Development Of Cement-Based Batteries For The Cathodic Protection Of Embedded Steel In Concrete, Aimee Byrne, Niall Holmes, Brian Norton Jan 2016

An Overview Of The Development Of Cement-Based Batteries For The Cathodic Protection Of Embedded Steel In Concrete, Aimee Byrne, Niall Holmes, Brian Norton

Conference papers

This paper presents an overview of the cement-based batteries developed in DIT for use in the cathodic protection of embedded steel in reinforced concrete undergoing chloride-induced corrosion. Cathodic protection delivers an external current (approximately 20mA per m2 of embedded steel) which effectively polarises the internal current generated during corrosion. The batteries developed in DIT comprise of a cement-based electrolyte containing different additives including sand, aggregate, salts, carbon black and plasticiser with protruding anode and cathode metal plates. These batteries produced an initial electrical output of 1.5V and 23mA through a 10 resistor as measured using data acquisition units and ...


Preliminary Investigation Into The Rate Of Carbonation Of Concrete Blocks Under Normal Production Yard Conditions, Aimee Byrne, Eanna Nolan Jan 2016

Preliminary Investigation Into The Rate Of Carbonation Of Concrete Blocks Under Normal Production Yard Conditions, Aimee Byrne, Eanna Nolan

Conference papers

The release of CO2 from calcination during the manufacture of cement can be partially or fully offset by the CO2 it naturally absorbs during its lifetime. This paper reports results from a preliminary investigation into the rate of carbonation in concrete blocks stacked in a production yard over a period of 6 months. The blocks were stacked in a normal manner under natural exposure conditions. Carbonation progress was determined by splitting the blocks and spraying the freshly exposed surface with a phenolphthalein solution at intervals over the test period. It was found that the rate of the carbonation front progression ...


Cement Based Batteries And Their Potential For Use In Low Power Operations, Aimee Byrne, Niall Holmes, Brian Norton Jan 2016

Cement Based Batteries And Their Potential For Use In Low Power Operations, Aimee Byrne, Niall Holmes, Brian Norton

Articles

This paper presents the development of an innovative cement-electrolyte battery for low power operations such as cathodic protection of reinforced concrete. A battery design was refined by altering different constituents and examining the open circuit voltage, resistor loaded current and lifespan. The final design consisted of a copper plate cathode, aluminium plate anode, and a cement electrolyte which included additives of carbon black, plasticiser, Alum salt and Epsom salt. A relationship between age, temperature and hydration of the cell and the current it produced was determined. It was found that sealing the battery using varnish increased the moisture retention and ...


Case Studies Of Cavity And External Wall Insulation Retrofitted Under The Irish Home Energy Saving Scheme: Technical Analysis And Occupant Perspectives, Aimee Byrne, Gerard Byrne, Garrett O'Donnell, Anthony Robinson Jan 2016

Case Studies Of Cavity And External Wall Insulation Retrofitted Under The Irish Home Energy Saving Scheme: Technical Analysis And Occupant Perspectives, Aimee Byrne, Gerard Byrne, Garrett O'Donnell, Anthony Robinson

Articles

The residential sector represents 27% of primary energy consumption in Ireland. This paper examines the case study of the Irish government’s national grant scheme to encourage energy efficiency retrofit in private housing. That is the Home Energy Saving (HES) Scheme, later rebranded the Better Energy: Homes (BEH) Scheme. The methodology involved monitoring several homes immediately before and after retrofit alongside discussions with occupants. The examination focused on specific measures commonly introduced through the HES/BEH programme − cavity and external wall insulation. It has been found that a significant decrease in heat loss through the walls was measured in all ...


Fatigue Properties Of Magnetorheological Elastomers And The Design Of Interfacial Layers To Improve Fatigue Life., Yanfen Zhou Jan 2016

Fatigue Properties Of Magnetorheological Elastomers And The Design Of Interfacial Layers To Improve Fatigue Life., Yanfen Zhou

Doctoral

The primary aim of this PhD programme was to understand the fatigue behaviour of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) and provide a reliable fatigue life predictor for this class of materials. To realise this aim required the study of the dynamic behaviour of MREs using the equi-biaxial bubble inflation test method. Isotropic and anisotropic MREs were fabricated from silicone rubber (SR) filled with soft carbonyl iron (CI) particles. The equi-biaxial fatigue behaviour of these samples was determined using a bubble inflation method. Wöhler (S-N) curves for both isotropic and anisotropic MREs were produced by subjecting the compounds to cycling over a range ...


Assessment Of The Effectiveness Of An Aid For The Development Of The Kinetic Skills Required For T.I.G. Welding, Maurice Collins, Robert Morris Nov 2013

Assessment Of The Effectiveness Of An Aid For The Development Of The Kinetic Skills Required For T.I.G. Welding, Maurice Collins, Robert Morris

Conference papers

This action research project was carried out in the Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland. The authors are both Lecturers of Engineering in this college and have a keen interest in providing the best possible aids to their students learning. Three groups of engineering apprentices and one group of part time students took part in this project. At the time these students were taking a third level Tungsten Inert Gas welding (T.I.G.) training module. Qualified T.I.G. welders are in very high demand worldwide and as such can demand a very high rate of pay for their services ...


Calculation Of Colouration Voltage For A Multifunctional Glazing Powered By Photovoltaic, Aritra Ghosh, Brian Norton, Aidan Duffy Oct 2013

Calculation Of Colouration Voltage For A Multifunctional Glazing Powered By Photovoltaic, Aritra Ghosh, Brian Norton, Aidan Duffy

Conference papers

Multifunctional glazing is a combination of various glazing systems and can comprise permutations of vacuum glazing, aerogel glazing, PV double glazing and Electrochromic (EC) glazing. It controls solar heat gain, improves thermal conductivity and can generate small scale electricity, in a variety of climates. The objective of this research is to investigate the switching voltage of multifunctional glazing, with respect to orientation, time of day and temperature of the system. We report a relation between temperature and voltage required for the switching condition.


The Equi-Biaxial Fatigue Characteristics Of Epdm Under True (Cauchy) Stress Control Conditions, Mark Johnson, Ray Ekins, Niall Murphy, Stephen Jerrams, John Hanley Jun 2013

The Equi-Biaxial Fatigue Characteristics Of Epdm Under True (Cauchy) Stress Control Conditions, Mark Johnson, Ray Ekins, Niall Murphy, Stephen Jerrams, John Hanley

Conference Papers

ABSTRACT: Strain amplitude control is most often employed when carrying out fatigue testing of rubber components. Often the design engineer requires fatigue test data that is based on load amplitude control. This is analogous to engineering or nominal stress amplitude control. This usually makes it easy to maintain the load within the specified test limits during extended testing. Values of true stress and strain can be obtained from this approach, but the magnitudes of the maximum true stresses in these tests increase with accumulated cycles, whereas the equivalent maximum engineering stress values remain constant. This is easily demonstrated in the ...


A Front Tracking Model Of The Maxus-8 Microgravity Solidification Experiment On A Ti-45.5at.% Al-8at.%Nb Alloy, Robin Mooney, Shaun Mcfadden, Marek Rebow, David J. Browne Jan 2012

A Front Tracking Model Of The Maxus-8 Microgravity Solidification Experiment On A Ti-45.5at.% Al-8at.%Nb Alloy, Robin Mooney, Shaun Mcfadden, Marek Rebow, David J. Browne

Articles

On 26th March 2010 the MAXUS-8 sounding rocket was launched from the Esrange Space Center in Sweden. As part of the Intermetallic Materials Processing in Relation to Earth and Space Solidification (IMPRESS) project, a solidification experiment was conducted on a Ti-45.5at.%Al-8at.%Nb intermetallic alloy in a module on this rocket. The experiment was designed to investigate columnar and equiaxed microstructures in the alloy. A furnace model of the MAXUS 8 experiment with a Front Tracking Model of solidification has been developed to determine the macrostructure and thermal history of the samples in the experiment. This paper gives details ...


Nanozeolites Doped Photopolymer Layers With Reduced Shrinkage, Mohesh Moothanchery, Izabela Naydenova, Svetlana Mintova, Vincent Toal Dec 2011

Nanozeolites Doped Photopolymer Layers With Reduced Shrinkage, Mohesh Moothanchery, Izabela Naydenova, Svetlana Mintova, Vincent Toal

Articles

An acrylamide based photopolymer doped with pure silica MFI-type zeolite (silicalite-1) nanoparticles has been characterized for holographic recording purposes. The concentrations of the silicalite-1 nanoparticles in the photopolymer layers were 1, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt.%. The inclusion of silicalite-1 nanoparticle in the photopolymer has resulted in an increase of the diffraction efficiency by up to 40%, and decrease of the shrinkage from 1.32% to 0.57%. The best results were obtained in layers doped with 5 wt.% silicalite-1 nanoparticles.


Dc Pulsed Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Image Information, Denis P. Dowling, F T. O'Neill, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Victor J. Law Nov 2011

Dc Pulsed Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Image Information, Denis P. Dowling, F T. O'Neill, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Victor J. Law

Articles

This paper presents optical imaging and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) data of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. It is shown how the visual information and OES information of the air discharge are related as the blown arc extends from the nozzle (2-4 mm) with a molecular nitrogen rotational temperature on the order of 1700 K and the flowing afterglow beyond this region is dominated by the cooler (300-K) NO-O chemiluminescent reaction that produces NO2 species.


Characterisation, Modelling And Simulation Of Flexible Polyurethane Foam, Conor Briody, Barry Duignan, Stephen Jerrams Jun 2011

Characterisation, Modelling And Simulation Of Flexible Polyurethane Foam, Conor Briody, Barry Duignan, Stephen Jerrams

Conference Papers

Flexible polyurethane foam is an open-celled polymeric material that exhibits strain rate and temperature effects. It has found various applications in areas including the packaging, medical, sports, aerospace and aeronautical industries. Polyurethane foam is ubiquitous in seating applications and finds particular use in specialised wheelchair seating where customised seating solutions are required which can provide proper comfort and support without the risk of developing pressure ulcers. Proper seating design is critical for users if this problem is to be avoided, but a lack of quantitative knowledge of this material’s behaviour has limited its effectiveness. The objectives of the work ...


Review Of The Maxus 8 Sounding Rocket Experiment To Investigate Solidification In A Ti-Al-Nb Alloy, Robin Mooney, David Browne, Olga Budenkova, Yves R. Fautrelle, Ludo Froyen, Andrey Kartavykh, Stephan Rex, Burkhard Schmitz, Daniella Voss, Shaun Mcfadden May 2011

Review Of The Maxus 8 Sounding Rocket Experiment To Investigate Solidification In A Ti-Al-Nb Alloy, Robin Mooney, David Browne, Olga Budenkova, Yves R. Fautrelle, Ludo Froyen, Andrey Kartavykh, Stephan Rex, Burkhard Schmitz, Daniella Voss, Shaun Mcfadden

Conference Papers

A review of the MAXUS 8 sounding rocket microgravity experiment to investigate solidification structures in a Ti-Al-Nb intermetallic alloy is presented. The experiment was part of the Intermetallic Materials Processing in Relation to Earth and Space Solidification (IMPRESS) EU FP6 project. Key objectives were to investigate columnar and equiaxed solidification, and to achieve Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition (CET) in the alloy. A microgravity experiment was designed to achieve this using a controlled power-down method. Two alloys were tested: one inoculated with a grain refiner and the other without grain refinement. Unrefined samples displayed axial and radial columnar growth. Boride inoculated samples displayed ...


Numerical Prediction Of The Haemodynamic Impact Of Coronary Stent Implantation, Jonathan Murphy Apr 2011

Numerical Prediction Of The Haemodynamic Impact Of Coronary Stent Implantation, Jonathan Murphy

Doctoral

Arterial restenosis limits the effectiveness of coronary stenting. Restenosis is caused by excessive tissue growth which is stimulated by arterial injury and alterations to the arterial WSS. The altered WSS results from stent-induced disturbances to the natural haelnodynamics of the artery. Recent numerical studies have predcted only minor digerences in altered WSS between different stent designs using a commonly employed threshold assessment technique. While it is possible that there are only minor differences, it is more likely that the assessment technique is incapable of fully elucidating the altered WSS created by stent implantation. This thesis proposes a methodology that involves ...


A Study Of Demoulding Force Prediction Applied To Periodic Mould Surface Profiles, Kevin Delaney, Giuliano Bissacco, David Kennedy Jan 2010

A Study Of Demoulding Force Prediction Applied To Periodic Mould Surface Profiles, Kevin Delaney, Giuliano Bissacco, David Kennedy

Conference Papers

Demoulding components without damage to either the components or tool is critical to successful replication processes. Accurate demoulding force prediction prior to tool fabrication helps designers optimize replication tools to minimize the demoulding force and resultant stress on replicated parts. Various models have been proposed to predict demoulding forces. One such model, the stair-step model, was developed by Colton et al for stereolithographic moulding tools. This paper investigates applying the model to other periodic surfaces with validation using published experimental data. In addition validity of the model for application to micro mould surfaces produced by micro milling is discussed.


Phase Change Materials For Thermal Regulation Of Building Integrated Photovoltaics, Ahmad Hassan Jan 2010

Phase Change Materials For Thermal Regulation Of Building Integrated Photovoltaics, Ahmad Hassan

Doctoral

In outdoor deployed photovoltaics (PV), standard test conditions (STC) of 25 °C PV temperature, 1000 Wm-2 solar radiation intensity and 1.5 air-mass rarely prevail. PV temperature can rise 40-100 °C above STC inducing a power drop in crystalline silicon PV with a coefficient of -0.4 to -0.65 %/K above STC. Increased operating temperature also results in accelerated PV degradation due to cell delamination allowing moisture ingress. vConventional building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) cooling techniques using passive
or active heat removal by air or water flow are limited by (i) very low heat transfer or (ii) large capital as ...


Towards Blended Learning For Deaf Studies At Third Level In Ireland,, Brian Nolan, Lorraine Leeson, John Bosco Conama Jan 2009

Towards Blended Learning For Deaf Studies At Third Level In Ireland,, Brian Nolan, Lorraine Leeson, John Bosco Conama

Conference Papers

Irish Sign Language (ISL), an indigenous language of Ireland, is recognized by the EU as a natural language. It is a language seperate from the other languages used in Ireland, including English, Irish, and, in Northern Ireland.


Hand-Held Flyback Driven Coaxial Dielectric Barrier Discharge: Development And Characterization, Victor J. Law, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Neil O’Connor, James F. Lalor, Steven Daniels Sep 2008

Hand-Held Flyback Driven Coaxial Dielectric Barrier Discharge: Development And Characterization, Victor J. Law, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Neil O’Connor, James F. Lalor, Steven Daniels

Articles

The development of a handheld single and triple chamber atmospheric pressure coaxial dielectric barrier discharge driven by Flyback circuitry for helium and argon discharges is described. The Flyback uses external metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor power switching technology and the transformer operates in the continuous current mode to convert a continuous dc power of 10–33 W to generate a 1.2–1.6 kV 3.5 μs pulse. An argon discharge breakdown voltage of ∼768 V is measured. With a 50 kHz, pulse repetition rate and an argon flow rate of 0.5–10 argon slm (slm denotes standard liters per ...


Investigation Of Uv-Led Initiated Photopolymerisation Of Bio-Compatible Hema, Sharon Mcdermott Sep 2008

Investigation Of Uv-Led Initiated Photopolymerisation Of Bio-Compatible Hema, Sharon Mcdermott

Doctoral

Ultraviolet (UV) fluorescent lamps are widely used in photopolymerisation processes. However, there a number of disadvantages to these lamps, namely, their intensity varies over time and has to be constantly monitored. This thesis is concerned with the possibility of replacing these lamps with UV Light Emitting Diodes (UV-LEDs). A number of emission characteristics of both the fluorescent lamp and the UV-LEDs were measured and compared to ensure that the optical properties of the UV-LEDs were equivalent to those of the lamps. From this study it was shown that the UV-LEDs have a quicker warm up time and exhibit a more ...


Structure Property Relationships In Electron Donating Systems For Potential Photovoltaic Applications., Jonathan Moghal Jan 2008

Structure Property Relationships In Electron Donating Systems For Potential Photovoltaic Applications., Jonathan Moghal

Doctoral

Conjugated polymers are considered to be one-dimensional semiconductors. In conjugated polymers single and double bonds alternatively bond the carbon atoms along the polymer chain. The loosely bound electrons determine the electronic properties of conjugated polymers. In order to utilise the properties of conjugated polymers in terms of a photovoltaic (PV) device application an acceptor material must be added. The acceptor material used in this study is used in buckminsterfullerence (C60). C60 was selected for this purpose due to its size and the fact that it can accept up to six additional electrons. Ultrafast charge transfers from a conducting polymer onto ...


Comparison Of Vacuum Glazing Thermal Performance Predicted Using Two- And Three-Dimensional Models And Their Experimental Validation, Brian Norton, Philip Eames, Yueping Fang, Trevor Hyde, Neil Hewitt Jan 2008

Comparison Of Vacuum Glazing Thermal Performance Predicted Using Two- And Three-Dimensional Models And Their Experimental Validation, Brian Norton, Philip Eames, Yueping Fang, Trevor Hyde, Neil Hewitt

Conference Papers

The thermal performance of vacuum glazing was predicted using two dimensional (2-D) finite element and three dimensional (3-D) finite volume models. In the 2-D model, the vacuum space, including the pillar arrays, was represented by a material whose effective thermal conductivity was determined from the specified vacuum space width, the heat conduction through the pillar array and the calculated radiation heat transfer between the two interior glass surfaces within the vacuum gap. In the 3-D model, the support pillar array was incorporated and modeled within the glazing unit directly. The difference in predicted overall heat transfer coefficients between the two ...


Microstructures And Viscoelastic Properties Of Anisotropic Magnetorheological Elastomers, Lin Chen Jan 2007

Microstructures And Viscoelastic Properties Of Anisotropic Magnetorheological Elastomers, Lin Chen

Articles

The microstructures and viscoelastic properties of anisotropic magnetorheological elastomers were investigated in this paper. The measurement results show that their mechanical properties are greatly dependent on the magnetic flux density applied in preparation. A finite-column model was proposed to describe the relations between the microstructures and the viscoelastic properties. The simulation results agree well with the experimental results.


Investigation On Magnetorheological Elastomers Based On Natural Rubber, Lin Chen Jan 2007

Investigation On Magnetorheological Elastomers Based On Natural Rubber, Lin Chen

Articles

Magnetorheological Elastomers (MR Elastomers or MREs) are a kind of novel smart material, whose mechanical, electrical, magnetic properties are controllable under applied magnetic fields. They have attracted increasing attentions and broad application prospects. But conventional MREs are limited to wide applications because their MR effects and mechanical performances are not high enough. This paper aims to optimize the fabrication method and to fabricate good natural rubber based MREs with high modulus by investigating the influences of a variety of fabrication conditions on the MREs performances, such as matrix type, external magnetic flux density, and temperature, plasticizer and iron particles. Among ...


A Novel Processing Route For The Production Of Nanoparticulate Zinc Oxide, Declan Mccormack, Grainne Duffy, Suresh Pillai Jan 2007

A Novel Processing Route For The Production Of Nanoparticulate Zinc Oxide, Declan Mccormack, Grainne Duffy, Suresh Pillai

Articles

Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been processed from a novel isophthalate
precursor. In contrast to those processed from an oxalate precursor, this
material exhibits three-dimensional, non-directional aggregation behaviour.
Such non-directional aggregation of uniaxial crystallites may allow for the
production of structures with a higher proportion of catalytically active
surfaces than can be prepared through conventional sol–gel methods. XRD,
FTIR, TEM and SEM were used to characterize the synthesized materials.
Zinc oxide particles synthesized by using isophthalic acid
(C6H4-1,3-(COOH)2) are found to be slightly smaller than the previously
reported materials prepared through chelation with oxalic acid
(H2C2O2·2H2O).


Thermal Sprayed Surface Coatings And Optical Characterisation, Yueqiang Xue Jan 2006

Thermal Sprayed Surface Coatings And Optical Characterisation, Yueqiang Xue

Masters

This research work aims to establish the potential of defect detection of thermal sprayed surface coatings by using a newly developed optical non-destructive interferometric technique – Electronic Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (ESPSI), rather than using mechanical destructive testing methods and other non-destructive methods. This technique has been used in many industries for non-destructive testing (NDT). However, it is innovative to use this technique for NDT of thermal sprayed metal alloy coatings, especially those that are produced by flame powder spraying process. Investigations were carried out by the SUPERJET spray process, which was the flame powder spray process utilised in this research ...