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Electroanatomic Mapping To Determine Scar Regions In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation, Jiyue He, Kuk Jin Jang, Katie Walsh, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam Apr 2019

Electroanatomic Mapping To Determine Scar Regions In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation, Jiyue He, Kuk Jin Jang, Katie Walsh, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Left atrial voltage maps are routinely acquired during electroanatomic mapping in patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). For patients, who have prior catheter ablation when they are in sinus rhythm (SR), the voltage map can be used to identify low voltage areas (LVAs) using a threshold of 0.2 - 0.45 mV. However, such a voltage threshold for maps acquired during AF has not been well established. A prerequisite for defining a voltage threshold is to maximize the topologically matched LVAs between the electroanatomic mapping acquired during AF and SR. This paper demonstrates a new technique to improve ...


Robustness Evaluation Of Computer-Aided Clinical Trials For Medical Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, Yash Vardhan Pant, Bo Zhang, James Weimer, Rahul Mangharam Mar 2019

Robustness Evaluation Of Computer-Aided Clinical Trials For Medical Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, Yash Vardhan Pant, Bo Zhang, James Weimer, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Medical cyber-physical systems, such as the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), require evaluation of safety and efficacy in the context of a patient population in a clinical trial. Advances in computer modeling and simulation allow for generation of a simulated cohort or virtual cohort which mimics a patient population and can be used as a source of prior information. A major obstacle to acceptance of simulation results as a source of prior information is the lack of a framework for explicitly modeling sources of uncertainty in simulation results and quantifying the effect on trial outcomes.

In this work, we formulate the ...


Reducing Pulse Oximetry False Alarms Without Missing Life-Threatening Events, Hung Nguyen, Sooyong Jang, Radoslav Ivanov, Christopher P. Bonafide, James Weimer, Insup Lee Sep 2018

Reducing Pulse Oximetry False Alarms Without Missing Life-Threatening Events, Hung Nguyen, Sooyong Jang, Radoslav Ivanov, Christopher P. Bonafide, James Weimer, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Alarm fatigue has been increasingly recognized as one of the most significant problems in the hospital environment. One of the major causes is the excessive number of false physiologic monitor alarms. An underlying problem is the inefficient traditional threshold alarm system for physiologic parameters such as low blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). In this paper, we propose a robust classification procedure based on the AdaBoost algorithm with reject option that can identify and silence false SpO2 alarms, while ensuring zero misclassified clinically significant alarms. Alarms and vital signs related to SpO2 such as heart rate and pulse rate ...


A Novel Programming Language To Reduce Energy Consumption By Arrhythmia Monitoring Algorithms In Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Konstantinos Mamouras, Alena Rodionova, Alur Rajeev, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam May 2018

A Novel Programming Language To Reduce Energy Consumption By Arrhythmia Monitoring Algorithms In Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Konstantinos Mamouras, Alena Rodionova, Alur Rajeev, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

No abstract provided.


A Novel Programming Language To Reduce Energy Consumption By Arrhythmia Monitoring Algorithms In Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Konstantinos Mamouras, Alena Rodionova, Alur Rajeev, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam May 2018

A Novel Programming Language To Reduce Energy Consumption By Arrhythmia Monitoring Algorithms In Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Konstantinos Mamouras, Alena Rodionova, Alur Rajeev, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

No abstract provided.


Openice-Lite: Towards A Connectivity Platform For The Internet Of Medical Things, Radoslav Ivanov, Hung Nguyen, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee May 2018

Openice-Lite: Towards A Connectivity Platform For The Internet Of Medical Things, Radoslav Ivanov, Hung Nguyen, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is poised to revolutionize medicine. However, medical device communication, coordination, and interoperability present challenges for IoMT applications due to safety, security, and privacy concerns. These challenges can be addressed by developing an open platform for IoMT that can provide guarantees on safety, security and privacy. As a first step, we introduce OpenICE-lite, a middleware for medical device interoperability that also provides security guarantees and allows other IoMT applications to view/analyze the data in real time. We describe two applications that currently utilize OpenICE-lite, namely (i) a critical pulmonary shunt predictor for infants during ...


Context-Aware Detection In Medical Cyber-Physical Systems, Radoslav Ivanov, James Weimer, Insup Lee Apr 2018

Context-Aware Detection In Medical Cyber-Physical Systems, Radoslav Ivanov, James Weimer, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

This paper considers the problem of incorporating context in medical cyber-physical systems (MCPS) applications for the purpose of improving the performance of MCPS detectors. In particular, in many applications additional data could be used to conclude that actual measurements might be noisy or wrong (e.g., machine settings might indicate that the machine is improperly attached to the patient); we call such data context. The first contribution of this work is the formal definition of context, namely additional information whose presence is associated with a change in the measurement model (e.g., higher variance). Given this formulation, we developed the ...


Generalized Robust Mtl Semantics For Problems In Cardiac Electrophysiology, Houssam Abbas, Rahul Mangharam Mar 2018

Generalized Robust Mtl Semantics For Problems In Cardiac Electrophysiology, Houssam Abbas, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Robustness-Guided Falsification (RGF) is an efficient

testing technique that tries to find a system execution that

violates some formal specification, by minimizing the robustness

of the specification over the set of initial conditions of the

system. Robustness uses an underlying distance function on

the space of system executions. As RGF is applied to new fields

like medicine, it is essential to determine whether our distances

still capture the domain expert’s intuition of which executions

are similar and which are not. Motivated by the problem of

testing the algorithms of cardiac defibrillators implanted in

millions of patients worldwide, this work ...


Parameter-Invariant Monitor Design For Cyber Physical Systems, James Weimer, Radoslav Ivanov, Sanjian Chen, Alexander Roederer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Jan 2018

Parameter-Invariant Monitor Design For Cyber Physical Systems, James Weimer, Radoslav Ivanov, Sanjian Chen, Alexander Roederer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

The tight interaction between information technology and the physical world inherent in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) can challenge traditional approaches for monitoring safety and security. Data collected for robust CPS monitoring is often sparse and may lack rich training data describing critical events/attacks. Moreover, CPS often operate in diverse environments that can have significant inter/intra-system variability. Furthermore, CPS monitors that are not robust to data sparsity and inter/intra-system variability may result in inconsistent performance and may not be trusted for monitoring safety and security. Towards overcoming these challenges, this paper presents recent work on the design of parameter-invariant ...


Data-Driven Adaptive Safety Monitoring Using Virtual Subjects In Medical Cyber-Physical Systems: A Glucose Control Case Study, Sanjian Chen, Oleg Sokolsky, James Weimer, Insup Lee Sep 2016

Data-Driven Adaptive Safety Monitoring Using Virtual Subjects In Medical Cyber-Physical Systems: A Glucose Control Case Study, Sanjian Chen, Oleg Sokolsky, James Weimer, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Medical cyber-physical systems (MCPS) integrate sensors, actuators, and software to improve patient safety and quality of healthcare. These systems introduce major challenges to safety analysis because the patient’s physiology is complex, nonlinear, unobservable, and uncertain. To cope with the challenge that unidentified physiological parameters may exhibit short-term variances in certain clinical scenarios, we propose a novel run-time predictive safety monitoring technique that leverages a maximal model coupled with online training of a computational virtual subject (CVS) set. The proposed monitor predicts safety-critical events at run-time using only clinically available measurements. We apply the technique to a surgical glucose control ...


Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Kuk Jin Jang, Marco Beccani, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam Aug 2016

Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Kuk Jin Jang, Marco Beccani, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

In this effort we investigate the design and use of physiological and device models to conduct pre-clinical trials to provide early insight in the design and execution of the actual clinical trial. Computer models of physiological phenomena like cardiac electrical activity can be extremely complex. However, when the purpose of the model is to interact with a medical device, then it becomes sufficient to model the measurements that the device makes, e.g. the intra-cardiac electrograms (EGMs) that an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) measures. We present a probabilistic generative model of EGMs, capable of generating exemplars of various arrhythmias. The ...


High-Level Modeling For Computer-Aided Clinical Trials Of Medical Devices, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Kuk Jin Jang, Marco Beccani, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam Aug 2016

High-Level Modeling For Computer-Aided Clinical Trials Of Medical Devices, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Kuk Jin Jang, Marco Beccani, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

No abstract provided.


Clinician-In-The-Loop Annotation Of Icu Bedside Alarm Data, Alexander Roederer, Joseph Dimartino, Jacob Gutsche, Margaret Mullen-Fortino, Sachin Shah, C. William Hanson Iii, Insup Lee Jun 2016

Clinician-In-The-Loop Annotation Of Icu Bedside Alarm Data, Alexander Roederer, Joseph Dimartino, Jacob Gutsche, Margaret Mullen-Fortino, Sachin Shah, C. William Hanson Iii, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

In this work, we describe the state of clinical monitoring in the intensive care unit and operating room, where patients are at their most fragile and thus monitoring is most heightened. We describe how large amounts of data generated by monitoring patients’ physiologic signals, along with the ubiquitous aspecific threshold alarms in use today, cause dangerous alarm fatigue for medical caregivers. In order to build more specific, more useful alarms, we gathered a novel data set that would allow us to assess the number, types, and utility of alarms currently in use in the intensive care unit. To do this ...


Estimation Of Blood Oxygen Content Using Context-Aware Filtering, Radoslav Ivanov, Nikolay Atanasov, James Weimer, Miroslav Pajic, Allan F. Simpao, Mohamed A. Rehman, George Pappas, Insup Lee Apr 2016

Estimation Of Blood Oxygen Content Using Context-Aware Filtering, Radoslav Ivanov, Nikolay Atanasov, James Weimer, Miroslav Pajic, Allan F. Simpao, Mohamed A. Rehman, George Pappas, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

In this paper we address the problem of estimating the blood oxygen concentration in children during surgery.Currently, the oxygen content can only be measured through invasive means such as drawing blood from the patient. In this work, we attempt to perform estimation by only using other non-invasive measurements (e.g., fraction of oxygen in inspired air, volume of inspired air) collected during surgery. Although models mapping these measurements to blood oxygen content contain multiple parameters that vary widely across patients, the non-invasive measurements can be used to provide binary information about whether the oxygen concentration is rising or dropping ...


Protecting Interoperable Clinical Environment With Authentication, Liang Cheng, Zhangtan Li, Yi Zhang, Yang Zhang, Insup Lee Apr 2016

Protecting Interoperable Clinical Environment With Authentication, Liang Cheng, Zhangtan Li, Yi Zhang, Yang Zhang, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

The Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) is a standard dedicated to promote open coordination of heterogeneous medical devices in a plug-and-play manner. This carries the potential to radically improve medical care through coordinating, cooperating devices, but also to undermine the patient safety by giving rise to security vulnerabilities in the cyber world. In this paper, we propose an authentication framework as the first step to build an ICE security architecture. This framework is designed in a three-layered structure, allowing it to fit in the variety of authentication requirements from different ICE entities and of networking middleware from ICE instantiations. We implement ...


Benchmark: Nonlinear Hybrid Automata Model Of Excitable Cardiac Tissue, Houssam Abbas, Kuk Jin Jang, Rahul Mangharam Mar 2016

Benchmark: Nonlinear Hybrid Automata Model Of Excitable Cardiac Tissue, Houssam Abbas, Kuk Jin Jang, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Implantable cardiac devices like pacemakers and defibrillators are life-saving medical devices. To verify their functionality, there is a need for heart models that can simulate interesting phenomena and are relatively computationally tractable. In this benchmark we implement a model of the electrical activity in excitable cardiac tissue as a network of nonlinear hybrid automata. The model has previously been shown to simulate fast arrhythmias. The hybrid automata are arranged in a square n-by-n grid and communicate via their voltages. Our Matlab implementation allows the user to specify any size of model $n$, thus rendering it ideal for benchmarking purposes since ...


Automated Closed-Loop Model Checking Of Implantable Pacemakers Using Abstraction Trees, Zhihao Jiang, Houssam Abbas, Pieter Mosterman, Rahul Mangharam Mar 2016

Automated Closed-Loop Model Checking Of Implantable Pacemakers Using Abstraction Trees, Zhihao Jiang, Houssam Abbas, Pieter Mosterman, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Autonomous medical devices such as implantable cardiac pacemakers are capable of diagnosing the patient condition and delivering therapy without human intervention. Their ability to autonomously affect the physiological state of the patient makes them safety-critical. Sufficient evidence for the safety and efficacy of the device software, which makes these autonomous decisions, should be provided before these devices can be released on the market. Formal methods like model checking can provide safety evidence that the devices can safely operate under a large variety of physiological conditions. The challenge is to develop physiological models that are general enough to cover the large ...


Towards Model Checking Of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Kuk Jin Jang, Zhihao Jiang, Rahul Mangharam Mar 2016

Towards Model Checking Of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators, Houssam Abbas, Kuk Jin Jang, Zhihao Jiang, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Ventricular Fibrillation is a disorganized electrical excitation of the heart that results in inadequate blood flow to the body. It usually ends in death within a minute. A common way to treat the symptoms of fibrillation is to implant a medical device, known as an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD), in the patient's body. Model-based verification can supply rigorous proofs of safety and efficacy. In this paper, we build a hybrid system model of the human heart+ICD closed loop, and show it to be a STORMED system, a class of o-minimal hybrid systems that admit finite bisimulations. In general ...


Platform-Specific Code Generation From Platform-Independent Timed Models, Baekgyu Kim, Lu Feng, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Dec 2015

Platform-Specific Code Generation From Platform-Independent Timed Models, Baekgyu Kim, Lu Feng, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Many safety-critical real-time embedded systems need to meet stringent timing constraints such as preserving delay bounds between input and output events. In model-based development, a system is often implemented by using a code generator to automatically generate source code from system models, and integrating the generated source code with a platform. It is challenging to guarantee that the implemented systems preserve required timing constraints, because the timed behavior of the source code and the platform is closely intertwined. In this paper, we address this challenge by proposing a model transformation approach for the code generation. Our approach compensates the platform-processing ...


High-Confidence Medical Device Software Development, Zhihao Jiang, Rahul Mangharam Nov 2015

High-Confidence Medical Device Software Development, Zhihao Jiang, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

The design of bug-free and safe medical device software is challenging, especially in complex implantable devices. This is due to the device's closed-loop interaction with the patient's organs, which are stochastic physical environments. The life-critical nature and the lack of existing industry standards to enforce software validation make this an ideal domain for exploring design automation challenges for integrated functional and formal modeling with closed-loop analysis. The primary goal of high-confidence medical device software is to guarantee the device will never drive the patient into an unsafe condition even though we do not have complete understanding of the ...


The Challenges Of High-Confidence Medical Device Software, Zhihao Jiang, Houssam Abbas, Kuk Jin Jang, Rahul Mangharam Nov 2015

The Challenges Of High-Confidence Medical Device Software, Zhihao Jiang, Houssam Abbas, Kuk Jin Jang, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

No abstract provided.


Executing Model-Based Tests On Platform-Specific Implementations, Dongjiang You, Sanjai Rayadurgam, Mats Heimdahl, John Komp, Baekgyu Kim, Oleg Sokolsky Nov 2015

Executing Model-Based Tests On Platform-Specific Implementations, Dongjiang You, Sanjai Rayadurgam, Mats Heimdahl, John Komp, Baekgyu Kim, Oleg Sokolsky

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Model-based testing of embedded real-time systems is challenging because platform-specific details are often abstracted away to make the models amenable to various analyses. Testing an implementation to expose non-conformance to such a model requires reconciling differences arising from these abstractions. Due to stateful behavior, naive comparisons of model and system behaviors often fail causing numerous false positives. Previously proposed approaches address this by being reactively permissive: passing criteria are relaxed to reduce false positives, but may increase false negatives, which is particularly bothersome for safety-critical systems. To address this concern, we propose an automated approach that is proactively adaptive: test ...


An Intraoperative Glucose Control Benchmark For Formal Verification, Sanjian Chen, Matthew O'Kelly, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Oct 2015

An Intraoperative Glucose Control Benchmark For Formal Verification, Sanjian Chen, Matthew O'Kelly, James Weimer, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Diabetes associated complications are affecting an increasingly large population of hospitalized patients. Since glucose physiology is significantly impacted by patient-specific parameters, it is critical to verify that a clinical glucose control protocol is safe across a wide patient population. A safe protocol should not drive the glucose level into dangerous low (hypoglycemia) or high (hyperglycemia) ranges. Verification of glucose controllers is challenging due to the high-dimensional, non-linear glucose physiological models which contain both unobservable states and unmeasurable patient-specific parameters. This paper presents a hybrid system model of a closed-loop physiological system that includes an existing FDA-accepted high-fidelity physiological model tailored ...


A Data-Driven Behavior Modeling And Analysis Framework For Diabetic Patients On Insulin Pumps, Sanjian Chen, Lu Feng, Michael R. Rickels, Amy Peleckis, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Oct 2015

A Data-Driven Behavior Modeling And Analysis Framework For Diabetic Patients On Insulin Pumps, Sanjian Chen, Lu Feng, Michael R. Rickels, Amy Peleckis, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

About 30%-40% of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) patients in the United States use insulin pumps. Current insulin infusion systems require users to manually input meal carb count and approve or modify the system-suggested meal insulin dose. Users can give correction insulin boluses at any time. Since meal carbohydrates and insulin are the two main driving forces of the glucose physiology, the user-specific eating and pump-using behavior has a great impact on the quality of glycemic control.

In this paper, we propose an “Eat, Trust, and Correct” (ETC) framework to model the T1D insulin pump users’ behavior. We use machine ...


Towards Assurance For Plug & Play Medical Systems, Andrew L. King, Lu Feng, Sam Procter, Sanjian Chen, Oleg Sokolsky, John Hatcliff, Insup Lee Sep 2015

Towards Assurance For Plug & Play Medical Systems, Andrew L. King, Lu Feng, Sam Procter, Sanjian Chen, Oleg Sokolsky, John Hatcliff, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

Traditional safety-critical systems are designed and integrated by a systems integrator. The system integrator can asses the safety of the completed system before it is deployed. In medicine, there is a desire to transition from the traditional approach to a new model wherein a user can combine various devices post-hoc to create a new composite system that addresses a specific clinical scenario. Ensuring the safety of these systems is challenging: Safety is a property of systems that arises from the interaction of system components and it’s not possible to asses overall system safety by assessing a single component in ...


Requirement Engineering For Functional Alarm System For Interoperable Medical Devices, Krishna Venkatasubramanian, Eugene Vasserman, Vasiliki Sfyrla, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Sep 2015

Requirement Engineering For Functional Alarm System For Interoperable Medical Devices, Krishna Venkatasubramanian, Eugene Vasserman, Vasiliki Sfyrla, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

This paper addresses the problem of high-assurance operation for medical cyber-physical systems built from interoperable medical devices. Such systems are diferent from most cyber-physical systems due to their "plug-and-play" nature: they are assembled as needed at a patient's bedside according to a specification that captures the clinical scenario and required device types. We need to ensure that such a system is assembled correctly and operates according to its specification. In this regard, we aim to develop an alarm system that would signal interoperability failures. We study how plug-and-play interoperable medical devices and systems can fail by means of hazard ...


A Hybrid Approach To Causality Analysis, Shaohui Wang, Yoann Geoffroy, Gregor Gössler, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Sep 2015

A Hybrid Approach To Causality Analysis, Shaohui Wang, Yoann Geoffroy, Gregor Gössler, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

In component-based safety-critical systems, when a system safety property is violated, it is necessary to analyze which components are the cause. Given a system execution trace that exhibits component faults leading to a property violation, our causality analysis formalizes a notion of counterfactual reasoning (\what would the system behavior be if a component had been correct?") and algorithmically derives such alternative system behaviors, without re-executing the system itself. In this paper, we show that we can improve precision of the analysis if 1) we can emulate execution of components instead of relying on their contracts, and 2) take into consideration ...


Robust Monitoring Of Hypovolemia In Intensive Care Patients Using Photoplethysmogram Signals, Alexander Roederer, James Weimer, Joseph Dimartino, Jacob Gutsche, Insup Lee Aug 2015

Robust Monitoring Of Hypovolemia In Intensive Care Patients Using Photoplethysmogram Signals, Alexander Roederer, James Weimer, Joseph Dimartino, Jacob Gutsche, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

The paper presents a fingertip photoplethysmography based technique to assess patient fluid status that is robust to waveform artifacts and health variability in the underlying patient population. The technique is intended for use in intensive care units, where patients are at risk for hypovolemia, and signal artifacts and inter-patient variations in health are common. Input signals are preprocessed to remove artifact, then a parameter-invariant statistic is calculated to remove effects of patient-specific physiology. Patient data from the Physionet MIMICII database was used to evaluate the performance of this technique. The proposed method was able to detect hypovolemia within 24 hours ...


Technical Report: Abstraction-Tree For Closed-Loop Model Checking Of Medical Devices, Zhihao Jiang, Houssam Abbas, Pieter J. Mosterman, Rahul Mangharam May 2015

Technical Report: Abstraction-Tree For Closed-Loop Model Checking Of Medical Devices, Zhihao Jiang, Houssam Abbas, Pieter J. Mosterman, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

No abstract provided.


Early Detection Of Critical Pulmonary Shunts In Infants, Radoslav Ivanov, James Weimer, Allan F. Simpao, Mohamed A. Rehman, Insup Lee Apr 2015

Early Detection Of Critical Pulmonary Shunts In Infants, Radoslav Ivanov, James Weimer, Allan F. Simpao, Mohamed A. Rehman, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

This paper aims to improve the design of modern Medical Cyber Physical Systems through the addition of supplemental noninvasive monitors. Specifically, we focus on monitoring the arterial blood oxygen content (CaO2), one of the most closely observed vital signs in operating rooms, currently measured by a proxy - peripheral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2). While SpO2 is a good estimate of O2 content in the finger where it is measured, it is a delayed measure of its content in the arteries. In addition, it does not incorporate system dynamics and is a ...