Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Computer Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2008

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 471

Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Intelligence Techniques Are Needed To Further Enhance The Advantage Of Groups With Diversity In Problem Solving, Oscar Castillo, Patricia Melin, J. Esteban Gamez, Vladik Kreinovich, Olga Kosheleva Dec 2008

Intelligence Techniques Are Needed To Further Enhance The Advantage Of Groups With Diversity In Problem Solving, Oscar Castillo, Patricia Melin, J. Esteban Gamez, Vladik Kreinovich, Olga Kosheleva

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In practice, there are many examples when the diversity in a group enhances the group's ability to solve problems -- and thus, leads to more efficient groups, firms, schools, etc. Several papers, starting with the pioneering research by Scott E. Page from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, provide a theoretical justification for this known empirical phenomenon. However, when the general advise of increasing diversity is transformed into simple-to-follow algorithmic rules (like quotas), the result is not always successful. In this paper, we prove that the problem of designing the most efficient group is computationally difficult (NP-hard). Thus, in ...


Mathematical Justification Of Spectral/Covariance Techniques: On The Example Of Arc Detection, Jan Beck, David Nemir, Vladik Kreinovich Dec 2008

Mathematical Justification Of Spectral/Covariance Techniques: On The Example Of Arc Detection, Jan Beck, David Nemir, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Detecting arcing faults is an important but difficult-to-solve practical problem. Many existing methods of arc detection are based upon acquiring a signal that is proportional to current and then making an analysis of the signal's power spectrum (or, equivalently, its covariance function). Since the power spectrum, i.e., the absolute values of the Fourier transform, carries only partial information about the signal, a natural question is: why should we restrict ourselves to the use of this partial information? A related question is caused by the fact that even the most efficient methods still miss some arcing faults and/or ...


Estimating Risk Under Interval Uncertainty: Sequential And Parallel Algorithms, Vladik Kreinovich, Hung T. Nguyen, Songsak Sriboonchitta Dec 2008

Estimating Risk Under Interval Uncertainty: Sequential And Parallel Algorithms, Vladik Kreinovich, Hung T. Nguyen, Songsak Sriboonchitta

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In traditional econometrics, the quality of an individual investment -- and of the investment portfolio -- is characterized by its expected return and its risk (variance). For an individual investment or portfolio, we can estimate the future expected return and a future risk by tracing the returns x1, ..., xn of this investment (and/or similar investments) over the past years, and computing the statistical characteristics based on these returns. The return (per unit investment) is defined as the selling of the corresponding financial instrument at the ends of, e.g., a one-year period, divided by the buying price of this ...


Computing With Tensors: Potential Applications Of Physics-Motivated Mathematics To Computer Science, Martine Ceberio, Vladik Kreinovich Dec 2008

Computing With Tensors: Potential Applications Of Physics-Motivated Mathematics To Computer Science, Martine Ceberio, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In this paper, we explain what are tensors and how tensors can help in computing.


Ballot Mark Detection, Elisa H. Barney Smith, Daniel Lopresti, George Nagy Dec 2008

Ballot Mark Detection, Elisa H. Barney Smith, Daniel Lopresti, George Nagy

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Optical mark sensing, i.e., detecting whether a "bubble" has been filled in, may seem straightforward. However, on US election ballots the shape, intensity, size and position of the marks, while specified, are highly variable due to a diverse electorate. The ballots may be produced and scanned by poorly maintained equipment. Yet near-perfect results are required. To improve the current technology, which has been subject to criticism, components of a process for identifying marks on an optical sense ballot are evaluated. When marked synthetic ballots are compared to an unmarked ballot, the absolute difference of adaptive thresholded images gives best ...


Gene Order Phylogeny Of The Genus Prochlorococcus, Haiwei Luo, Jian Shi, William Arndt, Jijun Tang, Robert Friedman Dec 2008

Gene Order Phylogeny Of The Genus Prochlorococcus, Haiwei Luo, Jian Shi, William Arndt, Jijun Tang, Robert Friedman

Faculty Publications

Background
Using gene order as a phylogenetic character has the potential to resolve previously unresolved species relationships. This character was used to resolve the evolutionary history within the genus Prochlorococcus, a group of marine cyanobacteria.

Methodology/Principal Findings
Orthologous gene sets and their genomic positions were identified from 12 species of Prochlorococcus and 1 outgroup species of Synechococcus. From this data, inversion and breakpoint distance-based phylogenetic trees were computed by GRAPPA and FastME. Statistical support of the resulting topology was obtained by application of a 50% jackknife resampling technique. The result was consistent and congruent with nucleotide sequence-based and gene-content ...


A Special-Purpose Architecture For Solving The Breakpoint Median Problem, Jason D. Bakos, Panormitis E. Elenis Dec 2008

A Special-Purpose Architecture For Solving The Breakpoint Median Problem, Jason D. Bakos, Panormitis E. Elenis

Faculty Publications

In this paper, we describe the design for a co-processor for whole-genome phylogenetic reconstruction. Our current design performs a parallelized breakpoint median computation, which is an expensive component of the overall application. When implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), our hardware breakpoint median achieves a maximum speedup of 1005times over software. When the coprocessor is used to accelerate the entire reconstruction procedure, we achieve a maximum application speedup of 417times. The results in this paper suggest that FPGA-based acceleration is a promising approach for computationally expensive phylogenetic problems, in spite of the fact that the involved algorithms are based ...


Mapping Reality Into Virtual Worlds, Josh Mcfarlane Dec 2008

Mapping Reality Into Virtual Worlds, Josh Mcfarlane

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

As virtual worlds become more prevalent, they become increasingly useful as a means of information dissemination. This thesis examines the possible connections between real world objects and their virtual world counterparts. We look at how, by attaching sensors to an object, or by using a smart object with embedded sensors, the information can be relayed to a server. From this information, it will be possible to create a duplicate object in the virtual world and have it mirror the real world object in terms of state and movement. Almost all current solutions for remotely viewing a room or area are ...


Steganography In Ipv6, Barret Miller Dec 2008

Steganography In Ipv6, Barret Miller

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Steganography is the process of hiding a secret message within another message such that it is difficult to detect the presence of the secret message. In other words, the existence of the secret message is hidden. A covert channel refers to the actual medium that is used to communicate the information such as a message, image, or file. This honors thesis uses steganography within the source address fields of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) packets to create a covert channel through which clandestine messages are passed from one party to another. A fully functional computer program was designed and written ...


Safdetection:Sensor Analysis Based Fault Detection In Tightly-Coupledmulti-Robot Team Tasks, Xingyan Li Dec 2008

Safdetection:Sensor Analysis Based Fault Detection In Tightly-Coupledmulti-Robot Team Tasks, Xingyan Li

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the problem of detecting faults based on sensor analysis for tightly-coupled multi-robot team tasks. The approach I developed is called SAFDetection, which stands for Sensor Analysis based Fault Detection, pronounced “Safe Detection”. When dealing with robot teams, it is challenging to detect all types of faults because of the complicated environment they operate in and the large spectrum of components used in the robot system. The SAFDetection approach provides a novel methodology for detecting robot faults in situations when motion models and models of multi-robot dynamic interactions are unavailable. The fundamental idea of SAFDetection is to build ...


Distributed Control For Robotic Swarms Using Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations, Shelley Rounds Dec 2008

Distributed Control For Robotic Swarms Using Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations, Shelley Rounds

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis introduces a design combining an emerging area in robotics with a well established mathematical research topic: swarm intelligence and Voronoi tessellations, respectively. The main objective for this research is to design an economical and robust swarm system to achieve distributed control. This research combines swarm intelligence with Voronoi tessellations to localize a source and create formations. Extensive software coding must be implemented for this design, such as the development of a discrete centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) algorithm.

The ultimate purpose of this research is to advance the existing Mobile Actuator and Sensor Network (MASnet) platform to eventually develop ...


Application Of Parent-Child Uav Tasking For Wildfire Detection And Response, Stephen T. Kubik Dec 2008

Application Of Parent-Child Uav Tasking For Wildfire Detection And Response, Stephen T. Kubik

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become a dominant force in the aerospace industry. Recent technological developments have moved these aircraft from remote operation roles to more active response missions. Of particular interest is the possibility of applying UAVs toward solving complex problems in long-endurance missions. Under that belief, the feasibility of utilizing UAVs for wildfire detection and response was investigated in a partnership that included NASA’s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate and Science Mission Directorate, and the United States Forest Service. Under NASA’s Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) project, research was conducted to develop a mission architecture ...


A Three-Dimensional Pattern-Space Representation For Volumetric Arrays, William C. Barott, Paul G. Steffes Dec 2008

A Three-Dimensional Pattern-Space Representation For Volumetric Arrays, William C. Barott, Paul G. Steffes

Publications

A three-dimensional pattern-space representation is presented for volumetric arrays. In this representation, the radiation pattern of an array is formed by the evaluation of the three-dimensional pattern-space on a spherical surface. The scan angle of the array determines the position of this surface within the pattern-space. This pattern-space representation is used in conjunction with a genetic algorithm to minimize the sidelobe levels exhibited by a thinned volumetric array during scanning.


Improving Reversal Median Computation Using Commuting Reversals And Cycle Information, William Arndt, Jijun Tang Nov 2008

Improving Reversal Median Computation Using Commuting Reversals And Cycle Information, William Arndt, Jijun Tang

Faculty Publications

In the past decade, genome rearrangements have attracted increasing attention from both biologists and computer scientists as a new type of data for phylogenetic analysis. Methods for reconstructing phylogeny from genome rearrangements include distance-based methods, MCMC methods, and direct optimization methods. The latter, pioneered by Sankoff and extended with the software suites GRAPPA and MGR, is the most accurate approach, but is very limited due to the difficulty of its scoring procedure—it must solve multiple instances of the reversal median problem to compute the score of a given tree. The reversal median problem is known to be NP-hard and ...


Multi-Break Rearrangements And Breakpoint Re-Uses: From Circular To Linear Genomes, Max A. Alekseyev Nov 2008

Multi-Break Rearrangements And Breakpoint Re-Uses: From Circular To Linear Genomes, Max A. Alekseyev

Faculty Publications

Multi-break rearrangements break a genome into multiple fragments and further glue them together in a new order. While 2-break rearrangements represent standard reversals, fusions, fissions, and translocations, 3-break rearrangements represent a natural generalization of transpositions. Alekseyev and Pevzner (2007a, 2008a) studied multi-break rearrangements in circular genomes and further applied them to the analysis of chromosomal evolution in mammalian genomes. In this paper, we extend these results to the more difficult case of linear genomes. In particular, we give lower bounds for the rearrangement distance between linear genomes and for the breakpoint re-use rate as functions of the number and proportion ...


An Aspect-Based Approach To Checking Design Constraints At Run-Time, Yoonsik Cheon, Carmen Avila, Steve Roach, Cuauhtemoc Munoz, Neith Estrada, Valeria Fierro, Jessica Romo Nov 2008

An Aspect-Based Approach To Checking Design Constraints At Run-Time, Yoonsik Cheon, Carmen Avila, Steve Roach, Cuauhtemoc Munoz, Neith Estrada, Valeria Fierro, Jessica Romo

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Design decisions and constraints of a software system can be specified precisely using a formal notation such as the Object Constraint Language (OCL). However, they are not executable, and assuring the conformance of an implementation to its design is hard. The inability of expressing design constraints in an implementation and checking them at runtime invites, among others, the problem of design drift and corrosion. We propose runtime checks as a solution to mitigate this problem. The key idea of our approach is to translate design constraints written in a formal notation such as OCL into aspects that, when applied to ...


A New Simplified Derivation Of Nash Bargaining Solution, Tanja Magoc, Vladik Kreinovich Nov 2008

A New Simplified Derivation Of Nash Bargaining Solution, Tanja Magoc, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In the 1950s, the Nobel Prize winner John F. Nash has shown that under certain conditions, the best solution to the bargaining problem is when the product of the (increase in) utilities is the largest. Nash's derivation assumed that we are looking for strategies that assign a single situation to each bargaining situation. In this paper, we propose a simplified derivation of Nash bargaining solution that does not requires this assumption.


A Paradox Of Altruism: How Caring About Future Generations Can Result In Poverty For Everyone (Game-Theoretic Analysis), Tanja Magoc, Vladik Kreinovich Nov 2008

A Paradox Of Altruism: How Caring About Future Generations Can Result In Poverty For Everyone (Game-Theoretic Analysis), Tanja Magoc, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Political and social activists are rightfully concerned about future generations: whenever a country borrows money, or an environmental situation worsens, this means, in effect, that we impose an additional burdens on future generations. There is clearly a conflict between the present generation's actions and interests and the welfare of the future generations. There exists a mathematical toolbox that provides solutions to many well-defined conflict situations: namely, the toolbox of game theory. It therefore seems reasonable to apply game theory techniques to the conflict between the generations. In this paper, we show that we need to be very cautious about ...


On Chromatic Numbers Of Space-Times: Open Problems, Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich Nov 2008

On Chromatic Numbers Of Space-Times: Open Problems, Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

No abstract provided.


Leading Firms As Knowledge Gatekeepers In A Networked Environment, Deogratias Harorimana Mr Nov 2008

Leading Firms As Knowledge Gatekeepers In A Networked Environment, Deogratias Harorimana Mr

Dr Deogratias Harorimana

This chapter introduces the role of the knowledge gatekeeper as a mechanism by which knowledge is created and transferred in a networked environment. Knowledge creation and transfer are essential for building a knowledge based economy. The chapter considers obstacles that inhibit this process and argues that leading firms create a shared socio-cultural context that enables the condivision of tacit meanings and codification of knowledge. Leading firms act as gatekeepers of knowledge through the creation of shared virtual platforms. There will be a leading firm that connects several networks of clients and suppliers may not interact directly with one another, but ...


Viability Of Travel-Time Sensitivity Testing For Estimating Uncertainty Of Tomographic Velocity Models: A Case Study, Matthew G. Averill, Kate C. Miller, Vladik Kreinovich, Aaron A. Velasco Nov 2008

Viability Of Travel-Time Sensitivity Testing For Estimating Uncertainty Of Tomographic Velocity Models: A Case Study, Matthew G. Averill, Kate C. Miller, Vladik Kreinovich, Aaron A. Velasco

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Seismic tomography is now a common approach to estimating velocity structure of the Earth, regardless of whether the data sources are earthquake recordings or controlled sources such as explosions, airguns or Vibroseis. Seismic tomography is convenient to implement because it requires little to no a priori knowledge of Earth structure and is much less time consuming than forward modeling schemes. Despite its convenience, the method still lacks satisfactory quantitative assessments of model reliability. Here we explore the viability of applying travel-time sensitivity testing that uses a modified Cauchy distribution as its statistical foundation to assessing the uncertainty in velocity models ...


Irrelevance, Polymorphism, And Erasure In Type Theory, Richard Nathan Mishra-Linger Nov 2008

Irrelevance, Polymorphism, And Erasure In Type Theory, Richard Nathan Mishra-Linger

Dissertations and Theses

Dependent type theory is a proven technology for verified functional programming in which programs and their correctness proofs may be developed using the same rules in a single formal system. In practice, large portions of programs developed in this way have no computational relevance to the ultimate result of the program and should therefore be removed prior to program execution. In previous work on identifying and removing irrelevant portions of programs, computational irrelevance is usually treated as an intrinsic property of program expressions. We find that such an approach forces programmers to maintain two copies of commonly used datatypes: a ...


Evaluating Shape Correspondence For Statistical Shape Analysis: A Benchmark Study, Brent C. Munsell, Pahal Dalal, Song Wang Nov 2008

Evaluating Shape Correspondence For Statistical Shape Analysis: A Benchmark Study, Brent C. Munsell, Pahal Dalal, Song Wang

Faculty Publications

This paper introduces a new benchmark study to evaluate the performance of landmark-based shape correspondence used for statistical shape analysis. Different from previous shape-correspondence evaluation methods, the proposed benchmark first generates a large set of synthetic shape instances by randomly sampling a given statistical shape model that defines a ground-truth shape space. We then run a test shape-correspondence algorithm on these synthetic shape instances to identify a set of corresponded landmarks. According to the identified corresponded landmarks, we construct a new statistical shape model, which defines a new shape space. We finally compare this new shape space against the ground-truth ...


Collision-Tolerant Transmission With Narrow-Beam Antennas, Hong-Ning Dai, Kam-Wing Ng, Min-You Wu, Bo Li Oct 2008

Collision-Tolerant Transmission With Narrow-Beam Antennas, Hong-Ning Dai, Kam-Wing Ng, Min-You Wu, Bo Li

Hong-Ning Dai

The application of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks brings numerous benefits, such as increased spatial reuse and mitigated interference. Most MAC protocols with directional antennas are based on the RTS/CTS mechanism which works well in wireless ad hoc networks using omni-directional antennas. However, RTS/CTS frames cannot mitigate the interference completely. Besides, they also contribute a lot to the performance overhead. This paper studies the problem from a new perspective. We have found that the transmission success probability under directional transmission and directional reception is quite high when the antenna beamwidth is quite narrow. Motivated by the ...


Implementing Arabic-To-English Machine Translation Using The Role And Reference Grammar Linguistic Model, Yasser Salem, Arnold Hensman, Brian Nolan Oct 2008

Implementing Arabic-To-English Machine Translation Using The Role And Reference Grammar Linguistic Model, Yasser Salem, Arnold Hensman, Brian Nolan

Conference Papers

This paper presents work-in-progress investigating the development of a rule-based lexical framework for Arabic language processing using the Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) linguistic model. A system, called UniArab is introduced in this research to support the framework. The paper outlines the conceptual structure of UniArab System, which utilizes the framework and translates the Arabic language into another natural language. Also, this paper explores how the characteristics of the Arabic language will effect the development of a Machine Translation (MT) tool from Arabic to English. Several distinguishing features of Arabic pertinent to MT will be explored in detail with reference ...


Using Triz For Maximizing Information Presentation In Gui, Umakant Mishra Oct 2008

Using Triz For Maximizing Information Presentation In Gui, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

The modern software tools provide numerous graphic elements in their GUI, which demand more and more screen space. As the size of a display screen cannot be extended beyond a limit, it is typically seen as a constraint in a graphical user interface.

Looking from a TRIZ perspective, the computer screen should display all the information that the user needs (Ideal Final Result). There are various methods of addressing the problem of screen space, some of which are, ”using icons for windows”, “the desktop metaphor”, “the large virtual workspace metaphor”, “multiple virtual workspaces”, “overlapping windows” and “increasing dimensions” etc.

There ...


Using Triz To Improve Navigation In Gui, Umakant Mishra Oct 2008

Using Triz To Improve Navigation In Gui, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

A typical user interface consists of several buttons, menus, windows, trees and other type of controls. The increased number of GUI elements and complexities of the GUI controls necessitate the user to acquire certain level of skill and efficiency in order to operate the GUI. There are many situations which further make the navigation difficult. Ideally the user should face no difficulties in navigating through the user interface. Any operation in the graphical user interface should require minimum pointer operations from the user (Ideal Final Result). This objective of a graphical user interface has led to several inventions trying to ...


Using Triz For Minimizing Cursor Movements In Gui, Umakant Mishra Oct 2008

Using Triz For Minimizing Cursor Movements In Gui, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

Although a GUI is a revolutionary development over its predecessors, it suffers from a typical shortcoming that it requires a lot of pointer movements. As pointer movement is a slow process it affects the overall performance of a GUI operation. Besides too much pointer movement can frustrate a user. Hence, it is desirable to reduce the pointer movements while performing any action through a typical GUI. Ideally the user need not move the pointer to initiate a GUI based operation. In other words the pointer itself should automatically move onto the desired location on the graphical user interface (Ideal Final ...


Inventions On Improving Visibility Of Gui Elements, Umakant Mishra Oct 2008

Inventions On Improving Visibility Of Gui Elements, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

The evolution of computing technology has witnessed tremendous growth in the processing power of the computer. The memory and storage capabilities are also increasing year after year. In contrast to the above, the display area of a PC monitor remains the same. This inhibits the productivity of a computer, as the user does not just have enough view area to interact with the computer. Ideally the display screen should accommodate all required data, objects and GUI elements for user interaction. If some data or object is hidden behind or remaining beyond the display area, it should automatically come to the ...


Inventions On User Friendliness Of A Gui- A Triz Based Analysis, Umakant Mishra Oct 2008

Inventions On User Friendliness Of A Gui- A Triz Based Analysis, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

Although a GUI is considered to be convenient it still has certain shortcomings like ambiguity of pictorial symbols, difficulty of cursor movements, difficulty of interacting with smaller graphic elements, likeliness of making mistakes by slip of fingers, demand of more screen space, difficulty of searching in nested containers etc. Many users fail to operate a computer satisfactorily because of the special skill or training required to operate it. In order to avoid this problem, it is necessary to design the user interface in such a way that even an untrained user should also be able to operate the computer effectively ...