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Computer Engineering Commons

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2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 539

Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Odometry Correction Of A Mobile Robot Using A Range-Finding Laser, Thomas Epton Dec 2007

Odometry Correction Of A Mobile Robot Using A Range-Finding Laser, Thomas Epton

All Theses

Two methods for improving odometry using a pan-tilt range-finding laser is considered. The first method is a one-dimensional model that uses the laser with a sliding platform. The laser is used to determine how far the platform has moved along a rail. The second method is a two-dimensional model that mounts the laser to a mobile robot. In this model, the laser is used to improve the odometry of the robot. Our results show that the one-dimensional model proves our basic geometry is correct, while the two-dimensional model improves the odometry, but does not completely correct it.


Forensics Image Background Matching Using Scale Invariant Feature (Sift)Transform And Speeded Up Robust Features (Surf), Paul N. Fogg Ii Dec 2007

Forensics Image Background Matching Using Scale Invariant Feature (Sift)Transform And Speeded Up Robust Features (Surf), Paul N. Fogg Ii

Theses and Dissertations

In criminal investigations, it is not uncommon for investigators to obtain a photograph or image that shows a crime being committed. Additionally, thousands of pictures may exist of a location, taken from the same or varying viewpoints. Some of these images may even include a criminal suspect or witness. One mechanism to identify criminals and witnesses is to group the images found on computers, cell phones, cameras, and other electronic devices into sets representing the same location. One or more images in the group may then prove the suspect was at the crime scene before, during, and/or after a ...


The Penn Discourse Treebank 2.0 Annotation Manual, Rashmi Prasad, Eleni Miltsakaki, Nikhil Dinesh, Alan Lee, Aravind Joshi, Livio Robaldo, Bonnie L. Webber Dec 2007

The Penn Discourse Treebank 2.0 Annotation Manual, Rashmi Prasad, Eleni Miltsakaki, Nikhil Dinesh, Alan Lee, Aravind Joshi, Livio Robaldo, Bonnie L. Webber

IRCS Technical Reports Series

This report contains the guidelines for the annotation of discourse relations in the Penn Discourse Treebank (http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~pdtb), PDTB. Discourse relations in the PDTB are annotated in a bottom up fashion, and capture both lexically realized relations as well as implicit relations. Guidelines in this report are provided for all aspects of the annotation, including annotation explicit discourse connectives, implicit relations, arguments of relations, senses of relations, and the attribution of relations and their arguments. The report also provides descriptions of the annotation format representation.


Operational Strategies For Continuum Manipulators, Matt Csencsits Dec 2007

Operational Strategies For Continuum Manipulators, Matt Csencsits

All Theses

We introduce a novel, intuitive user interface for continuum manipulators through the use of various joystick mappings. This user interface allows for the effective use of continuum manipulators in the lab and in the field. A novel geometric approach is developed to produce a more intuitive understanding of continuum manipulator kinematics. Using this geometric approach we derive the first closed-form solution to the inverse kinematics problem for continuum robots. Using the derived inverse kinematics to convert from workspace coordinates to configuration space coordinates we develop a potential-field path planner for continuum manipulators.


Optimal Receiver For Space Time Spreading Across A Time Hopping Ppm Over Ultra Wideband Saleh-Valenzuela Mimo Channel, Peter Vial, Beata J. Wysocki, Tadeusz A. Wysocki Dec 2007

Optimal Receiver For Space Time Spreading Across A Time Hopping Ppm Over Ultra Wideband Saleh-Valenzuela Mimo Channel, Peter Vial, Beata J. Wysocki, Tadeusz A. Wysocki

Faculty Publications in Computer & Electronics Engineering (to 2015)

This paper outlines a technique which can use multiple transmit antennas to send more than one binary bit using the same number of transmit antennas over a single transmission. It uses Ultra Wideband orthogonal pulse position modulation to achieve this, with the receiver employing a Rake receiver and a Maximum Ratio Combiner optimal detector. This is done over a Space Time Spreading Time Hopping Ultra Wideband Pulse Position Modulation system assuming a rich multipath Saleh-Valenzuela MIMO channel model. Simulation results indicate that a significant gain can be achieved compared with other proposed schemes utilising multiple transmit antennas for Ultra Wide ...


Scalability Of Manet Routing Protocols For Heterogeneous And Homogenous Networks, Huda Al Amri, Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz Wysocki Dec 2007

Scalability Of Manet Routing Protocols For Heterogeneous And Homogenous Networks, Huda Al Amri, Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz Wysocki

Faculty Publications in Computer & Electronics Engineering (to 2015)

In Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), mobility, traffic and node density are main network conditions that significantly affect the performance of routing protocols. Much of the previous researches in MANET routing have focused on developing strategies, which suit one specific networking scenario. Therefore, there is no existing protocol that can work well in all different networking scenarios. This paper reviews characteristics of each different classes of routing protocols. Moreover, most of current routing protocols assume homogeneous networking conditions where all nodes have the same capabilities and resources. Although homogenous networks are easy to model and analysis, they exhibits poor scalability ...


Closed-Form Derivations Of Isi And Mui For Time-Reversed Ultra Wideband, K. Popovski, Beata J. Wysocki, Tadeusz Wysocki Dec 2007

Closed-Form Derivations Of Isi And Mui For Time-Reversed Ultra Wideband, K. Popovski, Beata J. Wysocki, Tadeusz Wysocki

Faculty Publications in Computer & Electronics Engineering (to 2015)

Through transmitter pre-filtering, a time reversed UWB system is capable if harnessing a multipath channel to achieve temporal and spatial focusing. Unfortunately, large RMS channel delay spread leads to significant intersymbol and multiuser interference. This paper presents closed-form expressions for self and multi-user interference for a UWB system utilizing a time-reversed approach. The influence of user multiplexing codes is taken to account through incorporation of a ‘separation probability’, which characterizes a family of hopping sequences. The standardized IEEE 802.15.3a channel model is applied, and the derived performances are compared with that of a simulated time hopped time-reversed UWB ...


Computationally Efficient Mixed Pixel Decomposition Using Constrained Optimizations, Lidan Miao Dec 2007

Computationally Efficient Mixed Pixel Decomposition Using Constrained Optimizations, Lidan Miao

Doctoral Dissertations

Sensors with spatial resolution larger than targets yield mixed pixel, i.e., pixel whose measurement is a composite of different sources (endmembers). The analysis of mixed pixels demands subpixel methods to perform source separation and quantification, which is a problem of blind source separation (BSS). Although various algorithms have been proposed, several important issues remain unresolved. First, assuming the endmembers are known, the abundance estimation is commonly performed by employing a least squares criterion, which however makes the estimation sensitive to noise and outliers, and the endmembers with very similar signatures are difficult to differentiate. In addition, the nonnegative con- ...


Fabric-On-A-Chip: Toward Consolidating Packet Switching Functions On Silicon, William B. Matthews Dec 2007

Fabric-On-A-Chip: Toward Consolidating Packet Switching Functions On Silicon, William B. Matthews

Doctoral Dissertations

The switching capacity of an Internet router is often dictated by the memory bandwidth required to bu¤er arriving packets. With the demand for greater capacity and improved service provisioning, inherent memory bandwidth limitations are encountered rendering input queued (IQ) switches and combined input and output queued (CIOQ) architectures more practical. Output-queued (OQ) switches, on the other hand, offer several highly desirable performance characteristics, including minimal average packet delay, controllable Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning and work-conservation under any admissible traffic conditions. However, the memory bandwidth requirements of such systems is O(NR), where N denotes the number of ports ...


Self-Certified Public Key Cryptographic Methodologies For Resource-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks, Ortal Arazi Dec 2007

Self-Certified Public Key Cryptographic Methodologies For Resource-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks, Ortal Arazi

Doctoral Dissertations

As sensor networks become one of the key technologies to realize ubiquitous computing, security remains a growing concern. Although a wealth of key-generation methods have been developed during the past few decades, they cannot be directly applied to sensor network environments. The resource-constrained characteristics of sensor nodes, the ad-hoc nature of their deployment, and the vulnerability of wireless media pose a need for unique solutions.

A fundamental requisite for achieving security is the ability to provide for data con…dential- ity and node authentication. However, the scarce resources of sensor networks have rendered the direct applicability of existing public key ...


Automated Genome-Wide Protein Domain Exploration, Bhanu Prasad Rekepalli Dec 2007

Automated Genome-Wide Protein Domain Exploration, Bhanu Prasad Rekepalli

Doctoral Dissertations

Exploiting the exponentially growing genomics and proteomics data requires high quality, automated analysis. Protein domain modeling is a key area of molecular biology as it unravels the mysteries of evolution, protein structures, and protein functions. A plethora of sequences exist in protein databases with incomplete domain knowledge. Hence this research explores automated bioinformatics tools for faster protein domain analysis. Automated tool chains described in this dissertation generate new protein domain models thus enabling more effective genome-wide protein domain analysis. To validate the new tool chains, the Shewanella oneidensis and Escherichia coli genomes were processed, resulting in a new peptide domain ...


Computational Complexity Of Determining Which Statements About Causality Hold In Different Space-Time Models, Vladik Kreinovich, Olga Kosheleva Dec 2007

Computational Complexity Of Determining Which Statements About Causality Hold In Different Space-Time Models, Vladik Kreinovich, Olga Kosheleva

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Causality is one of the most fundamental notions of physics. It is therefore important to be able to decide which statements about causality are correct in different models of space-time. In this paper, we analyze the computational complexity of the corresponding deciding problems. In particular, we show that: for Minkowski space-time, the deciding problem is as difficult as the Tarski's decision problem for elementary geometry, while for a natural model of primordial space-time, the corresponding decision problem is of the lowest possible complexity among all possible spacetime models.


Reasons Why Mobile Telephone Conversations May Be Annoying: Considerations And Pilot Studies, Nigel Ward, Anais G. Rivera, Alejandro Vega Dec 2007

Reasons Why Mobile Telephone Conversations May Be Annoying: Considerations And Pilot Studies, Nigel Ward, Anais G. Rivera, Alejandro Vega

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Mobile telephone conversations in public places are often annoying to bystanders. Previous work has focused on the psychological and social causes for this, but has not examined the possible role of properties of the communication channel. In our paper "Do Bystanders and Dialog Participants Differ in Preferences for Telecommunications Channels?" (21st International Symposium on Human Factors in Telecommunication, 2008) we consider the possibility that a reason for the annoyance could be that bystander preferences differ from talker preferences, but conclude that this is in fact unlikely to be a major factor. This technical report provides supplemental information, specifically a broader ...


Evaluation Of Robocode As A Teaching Tool For Computer Programming, Arnold Hensman Dec 2007

Evaluation Of Robocode As A Teaching Tool For Computer Programming, Arnold Hensman

Conference Papers

Robocode began as an educational tool to aid in learning Java programming. It has since evolved into something of a phenomenon, as the prospect of creating simple to complex virtual tanks appears to pose an attractive challenge to both novice and expert programmers alike. What started out as a teaching tool has grown into a worldwide network of competitors, all keen to prove that their ‘bot’ stands out from the crowd. Competitions are well organised and many Robocode events are a PR dream for the computing companies that sponsor them. Without a doubt, this easy to use application has sparked ...


Sold Downstream: Free Speech, Fair Use, And Anti-Circumvention Law, R. Terry Parker Dec 2007

Sold Downstream: Free Speech, Fair Use, And Anti-Circumvention Law, R. Terry Parker

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] “Here’s a hypo. Living in Asia, I purchased a shameful amount of music and movies, all legit purchases through reputable stores, HMV and Tower Records, but little of which will get reissued. I wanted to preserve my collection but software in the discs prevented me from ripping backup copies to my computer. Lacking the technological savvy to get around this software myself, I purchased and used a product to help me circumvent these controls. Discuss.

Courts agree that copying the music and movies here is infringement but that fair use may provide a defense. However, courts do not ...


Hardware-Efficient Scalable Reinforcement Learning Systems, Zhenzhen Liu Dec 2007

Hardware-Efficient Scalable Reinforcement Learning Systems, Zhenzhen Liu

Doctoral Dissertations

Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a machine learning discipline in which an agent learns by interacting with its environment. In this paradigm, the agent is required to perceive its state and take actions accordingly. Upon taking each action, a numerical reward is provided by the environment. The goal of the agent is thus to maximize the aggregate rewards it receives over time. Over the past two decades, a large variety of algorithms have been proposed to select actions in order to explore the environment and gradually construct an e¤ective strategy that maximizes the rewards. These RL techniques have been successfully ...


Using Gis To Optimize The Design And Implementation Of The Rtk Reference Network In Abu Dhabi, Mustafa Abdulla Mohammed Almusawa Dec 2007

Using Gis To Optimize The Design And Implementation Of The Rtk Reference Network In Abu Dhabi, Mustafa Abdulla Mohammed Almusawa

Theses

Several challenging applications and construction works demand real-time measurements for positioning at the centimeter-level accuracy. This positioning accuracy can be obtained by using a Global Positioning System (GPS) roving unit and employing a single reference station (base-station) or through utilizing the service of multiple reference stations forming a Real-Time Kinematics (RTK) Reference Network.

The limitation of the single reference approach is that measurement errors are distance dependent and good accuracy can be only obtained when distances are less than 10 kms. In addition, this method requires a nearby Geodetic Control Point (GCP). Recently, RTK reference networks are widely established in ...


Interval Computations And Interval-Related Statistical Techniques: Tools For Estimating Uncertainty Of The Results Of Data Processing And Indirect Measurements, Vladik Kreinovich Dec 2007

Interval Computations And Interval-Related Statistical Techniques: Tools For Estimating Uncertainty Of The Results Of Data Processing And Indirect Measurements, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many practical situations, we only know the upper bound D on the (absolute value of the) measurement error d, i.e., we only know that the measurement error is located on the interval [-D,D]. The traditional engineering approach to such situations is to assume that d is uniformly distributed on [-D,D], and to use the corresponding statistical techniques. In some situations, however, this approach underestimates the error of indirect measurements. It is therefore desirable to directly process this interval uncertainty. Such "interval computations" methods have been developed since the 1950s. In this chapter, we provide a brief ...


What Is Rcu, Fundamentally?, Paul E. Mckenney, Jonathan Walpole Dec 2007

What Is Rcu, Fundamentally?, Paul E. Mckenney, Jonathan Walpole

Computer Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Read-copy update (RCU) is a synchronization mechanism that was added to the Linux kernel in October of 2002. RCU achieves scalability improvements by allowing reads to occur concurrently with updates. In contrast with conventional locking primitives that ensure mutual exclusion among concurrent threads regardless of whether they be readers or updaters, or with reader-writer locks that allow concurrent reads but not in the presence of updates, RCU supports concurrency between a single updater and multiple readers. RCU ensures that reads are coherent by maintaining multiple versions of objects and ensuring that they are not freed up until all pre-existing read-side ...


Self-Organizing Neural Architectures And Cooperative Learning In A Multiagent Environment, Dan Xiao, Ah-Hwee Tan Dec 2007

Self-Organizing Neural Architectures And Cooperative Learning In A Multiagent Environment, Dan Xiao, Ah-Hwee Tan

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Temporal-Difference–Fusion Architecture for Learning, Cognition, and Navigation (TD-FALCON) is a generalization of adaptive resonance theory (a class of self-organizing neural networks) that incorporates TD methods for real-time reinforcement learning. In this paper, we investigate how a team of TD-FALCON networks may cooperate to learn and function in a dynamic multiagent environment based on minefield navigation and a predator/prey pursuit tasks. Experiments on the navigation task demonstrate that TD-FALCON agent teams are able to adapt and function well in a multiagent environment without an explicit mechanism of collaboration. In comparison, traditional Q-learning agents using gradient-descent-based feedforward neural networks, trained ...


Performance Testing An Inline Network Intrusion Detection System Using Snort, Richard Wagoner Nov 2007

Performance Testing An Inline Network Intrusion Detection System Using Snort, Richard Wagoner

Morehead State Theses and Dissertations

A thesis presented to the faculty of the College of Science and Technology at Morehead State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science by Richard Wagoner on November 16, 2007.


Application Of Intermediate Wavelength Band Spectroscopic Ellipsometry To In-Stu. Real Time Fabrication Of Multiple Layer Alternating Hghalow Refractive Index Filters, Blaine D. Johs, Jeffery S. Hale, John A. Woollam, Craig M. Herzinger Nov 2007

Application Of Intermediate Wavelength Band Spectroscopic Ellipsometry To In-Stu. Real Time Fabrication Of Multiple Layer Alternating Hghalow Refractive Index Filters, Blaine D. Johs, Jeffery S. Hale, John A. Woollam, Craig M. Herzinger

Faculty Publications from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Disclosed is application of oblique angle of incidence, reflection and/or transmission mode spectroscopic ellipsometry PSI and/or DELTA, (including combinations thereof and/or mathematical equivalents), vs. wavelength data over an intermediate wavelength band range around a pass or reject band, to monitor and/or control fabrication of multiple layer high/low refractive index band-pass, band-reject and varied attenuation vs. wavelength thin film interference filters, either alone or in combination with transmissive non-ellipsometric electromagnetic beam turning point vs. layer data obtained at an essentially normal angle of incidence.


A Theoretical Framework For Quality-Aware Cross-Layer Optimized Wireless Multimedia Communications, Song Chi, Haohong Wang, Dalei Wu Nov 2007

A Theoretical Framework For Quality-Aware Cross-Layer Optimized Wireless Multimedia Communications, Song Chi, Haohong Wang, Dalei Wu

Faculty Publications from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Although cross-layer has been thought as one of themost effective and efficient ways formultimedia communications over wireless networks and a plethora of research has been done in this area, there is still lacking of a rigorous mathematical model to gain indepth understanding of cross-layer design tradeoffs, spanning from application layer to physical layer. As a result, many existing cross-layer designs enhance the performance of certain layers at the price of either introducing side effects to the overall system performance or violating the syntax and semantics of the layered network architecture. Therefore, lacking of a rigorous theoretical study makes existing cross-layer ...


The Use Of Red Cabbage’S Anthocyanine Extract As A Photosensitizer On A Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Tio2 Solar Cell, Akhiruddin Maddu, Mahfuddin Zuhri, Irmansyah Irmansyah Nov 2007

The Use Of Red Cabbage’S Anthocyanine Extract As A Photosensitizer On A Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Tio2 Solar Cell, Akhiruddin Maddu, Mahfuddin Zuhri, Irmansyah Irmansyah

Makara Journal of Technology

The use of Red Cabbage’s anthocyanine extract as a photosensitizer on a Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cell. A solid-state dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell utilizing anthocyanin extract form red cabbage as photosensitizer was fabricated. The solar cell was formed in sandwich structure, which two electrodes sandwiching polymer electrolyte containing a redox couple (I-/I3 -). One of the electrodes, namely working electrode, TiO2 layer on TCO (transparent conducting oxide) coated glass substrate was sensitized with anthocyanin dye as electron donor in the system. Another electrode was a carbon sheet as a counter electrode. Gel electrolyte based on PEG (polyethylene glycol ...


Reverse Link Cdma System Capacity Evaluation For Stratospheric Platform Mobile Communications, Iskandar Iskandar Nov 2007

Reverse Link Cdma System Capacity Evaluation For Stratospheric Platform Mobile Communications, Iskandar Iskandar

Makara Journal of Technology

We propose an analysis of reverse link CDMA multispot beam stratospheric platforms (SPF) in this paper. The SPF is currently proposed as a novel wireless technology for the development of the next generation fixed and mobile communications. The geometry of this technology is different from that of the terrestrial but rather similar to the satellite based cellular system. However, evaluation on the CDMA system capacity of this technology has not been much reported. This paper addresses all possible multiple access interference analyses including the effects of channel fading and shadowing in order to evaluate the system capacity. Single SPF and ...


Limiting Maximum Drag Reduction Asymptote For The Moment Coefficient Of An Enclosed Rotating Disk With Fine Spiral Grooves, Budiarso Budiarso, Keizo Watanabe, Satoshi Ogata Nov 2007

Limiting Maximum Drag Reduction Asymptote For The Moment Coefficient Of An Enclosed Rotating Disk With Fine Spiral Grooves, Budiarso Budiarso, Keizo Watanabe, Satoshi Ogata

Makara Journal of Technology

In this study, the limiting maximum drag reduction asymptote for the moment coefficient of an enclosed rotating disk with fine spiral grooves in turbulent flow region were obtained analytically. Analysis which were based on an assumption for a simple parabolic velocity distribution of turbulent pipe flow to represent relative tangential velocity, was carried out using momentum integral equations of the boundary layer. For a certain K- parameter the moment coefficient results agree well with experimental results for maximum drag reduction in an enclosed rotating disk with fine spiral grooves and drag reduction ratio approximately was 15 %. Additionally, the experimental results ...


Co2 Absorption From Its Mixture With Ch4 Or N2 Through Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor Using Water As Solvent, Sutrasno Kartohardjono, Anggara Anggara, Subihi Subihi, Yuliusman Yuliusman Nov 2007

Co2 Absorption From Its Mixture With Ch4 Or N2 Through Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor Using Water As Solvent, Sutrasno Kartohardjono, Anggara Anggara, Subihi Subihi, Yuliusman Yuliusman

Makara Journal of Technology

CO2 Absorption from Its Mixture with CH4 or N2 through Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor using Water as Solvent. Hollow fiber membrane contactors have been widely used as gas-liquid contactors recently such as in the CO2 absorption process from gas stream. This research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of hollow fiber membrane contactor to absorb CO2 from its mixture with CH4 or N2 using water through mass transfer and hydrodynamic tests. There are 3 membrane modules used in this research with shell diameter of 1.9 cm, length of 40 cm, outer fiber diameter of 2.7 mm and fiber number ...


The Potency Of Fire And Explosion Hazard On Premium Oil Storage Tank At Depot X 2007, Fatma Lestari, Warid Nurdiansyah Nov 2007

The Potency Of Fire And Explosion Hazard On Premium Oil Storage Tank At Depot X 2007, Fatma Lestari, Warid Nurdiansyah

Makara Journal of Technology

The Potency of Fire and Explosion Hazard on Premium Oil Storage Tank at Depot X 2007. Premium oil storage tanks have fire and explosion risk because Premium oil is flammable liquid. Because of that, fire and explosion risk assessment on Premium oil storage tank at Depot X is needed as foundation to fire and explosion risk management, and comply with regulations. Method of this research is Dow’s Fire and Explosion Index. This research indicate that F&EI value for Premium oil storage tank is 118,82. Based on that F&EI value, level of risk at Premium oil storage ...


Trajectory Shaping Of Surface-To-Surface Missile With Terminal Impact Angle Constraint, S. Subchan Nov 2007

Trajectory Shaping Of Surface-To-Surface Missile With Terminal Impact Angle Constraint, S. Subchan

Makara Journal of Technology

This paper presents trajectory shaping of a surface-to-surface missile attacking a fixed with terminal impact angle constraint. The missile must hit the target from above, subject to the missile dynamics and path constraints. The problem is reinterpreted using optimal control theory resulting in the formulation of minimum integrated altitude. The formulation entails nonlinear, two-dimensional missile flight dynamics, boundary conditions and path constraints. The generic shape of optimal trajectory is: level flight, climbing, diving; this combination of the three flight phases is called the bunt manoeuvre. The numerical solution of optimal control problem is solved by a direct collocation method. The ...


Analysis Of Three Phase Controlled Rectifier With The Same Distance Control As Compared To The Same Angle Control, Sudirman S., Sri Kurniati A. Nov 2007

Analysis Of Three Phase Controlled Rectifier With The Same Distance Control As Compared To The Same Angle Control, Sudirman S., Sri Kurniati A.

Makara Journal of Technology

Analysis of three phase controlled rectifier with the same distance control as compared to the same angle control. This research aim to compare the firing of the same distance and the same angle control at three phase controlled rectifier with seen generated harmonic at input (AC side). Then calculate of rectifier efficiency and power factor comparison from both the control type. The rectifier use passive filter with resistance 11 ohm and is analysed with program simulation using PSPICE version 7.1. Result of research indicate that use of the same distance control generates the 5th and 7th harmonics, while the ...