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2006

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Articles 1 - 30 of 510

Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Energy-Constrained Quality Optimization For Secure Image Transmission In Wireless Sensor Networks, Wei Wang, Dongming Peng, Honggang Wang, Hamid Sharif, Hsiao-Hwa Chen Dec 2006

Energy-Constrained Quality Optimization For Secure Image Transmission In Wireless Sensor Networks, Wei Wang, Dongming Peng, Honggang Wang, Hamid Sharif, Hsiao-Hwa Chen

Faculty Publications from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Resource allocation for multimedia selective encryption and energy efficient transmission has not been fully investigated in literature for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this article, we propose a new cross-layer approach to optimize selectively encrypted image transmission quality in WSNs with strict energy constraint. A new selective image encryption approach favorable for unequal error protection (UEP) is proposed, which reduces encryption overhead considerably by controlling the structure of image bitstreams. Also, a novel cross-layer UEP scheme based on cipher-plain-text diversity is studied. In this UEP scheme, resources are unequally and optimally allocated in the encrypted bitstream structure, including data position ...


High-Resolution Mapping In Manus Basin, C. Roman, V. Ferrini Dec 2006

High-Resolution Mapping In Manus Basin, C. Roman, V. Ferrini

Christopher N. Roman

Near-bottom seafloor mapping with precisely navigated deep submergence vehicles has become increasingly common in a range of oceanographic settings. Recent mapping efforts at deep-water hydrothermal vent sites have resulted in high-resolution (sub-meter) bathymetry datasets that can be used to identify morphological features associated with volcanic, tectonic, and hydrothermal processes. The resolution of these maps, and our ability to accurately quantify the complex morphologic details of hydrothermal structures has been limited by a number of variables including navigational accuracy, sonar settings (e.g. acoustic wavelength, sonar orientation, ping rate), survey parameters (e.g. altitude, speed), data density, and data processing techniques ...


Chapter 7: The Evaluation Of Ontologies, Leo Obrst, Benjamin Ashpole, Werner Ceusters, Inderjeet Mani, Steven Ray, Barry Smith Dec 2006

Chapter 7: The Evaluation Of Ontologies, Leo Obrst, Benjamin Ashpole, Werner Ceusters, Inderjeet Mani, Steven Ray, Barry Smith

Steven R Ray

Recent years have seen rapid progress in the development of ontologies as semantic models intended to capture and represent aspects of the real world. There is, however, great variation in the quality of ontologies. If ontologies are to become progressively better in the future, more rigorously developed, and more appropriately compared, then a systematic discipline of ontology evaluation must be created to ensure quality of content and methodology. Systematic methods for ontology evaluation will take into account representation of individual ontologies, performance and accuracy on tasks for which the ontology is designed and used, degree of alignment with other ontologies ...


Direct Sequence Modified Time Hopping Ppm Over Ultra Wideband S-V Channel, Peter Vial, Beata J. Wysocki, Tadeusz A. Wysocki Dec 2006

Direct Sequence Modified Time Hopping Ppm Over Ultra Wideband S-V Channel, Peter Vial, Beata J. Wysocki, Tadeusz A. Wysocki

Faculty Publications in Computer & Electronics Engineering (to 2015)

A three position Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) scheme is proposed for a Direct Sequence Time Hopping Ultra Wideband wireless communication system. The channel is based on the Saleh-Valenzuela model. We show that by adapting the Space Time Spreading technique to use three pulse positions in a single input single output system representing -2,0,2 an improvement in Bit Error Rate is achieved compared to sending the same bits using two pulse positions only. In addition, the bit access rate is doubled as two bits can be successfully sent in the same time using our proposed system.


An Energy Efficient Mac-Phy Approach To Support Distributed Source Coding In Wireless Sensor Network, Wei Wang, Dongming Peng, Honggang Wang, Hamid Sharif, Beata J. Wysocki, Tadeusz A. Wysocki Dec 2006

An Energy Efficient Mac-Phy Approach To Support Distributed Source Coding In Wireless Sensor Network, Wei Wang, Dongming Peng, Honggang Wang, Hamid Sharif, Beata J. Wysocki, Tadeusz A. Wysocki

Faculty Publications in Computer & Electronics Engineering (to 2015)

Distributed Source Coding (DSC) based signal processing applications are ideal candidates for multirate transmissions in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). In this paper, we propose a novel MAC-PHY approach in WSN to achieve energy efficiency using multirate desirable for the DSC based signal processing applications. Our approach is different from the common multirate research in link adaptation, the focus of which is to increase throughput based on rate adaptation derived from variable channel conditions. In the proposed approach, the redundant and inefficient communications are eliminated, yielding significant improvement of energy efficiency in WSN. Here, the minimum desirable transmission power can be ...


Capacity Of Single-Radio Ad Hoc Networks For Handling High Bit-Rate Real-Time Internet Applications, Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz A. Wysocki, Daniel Franklin, Justin Lipman Dec 2006

Capacity Of Single-Radio Ad Hoc Networks For Handling High Bit-Rate Real-Time Internet Applications, Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz A. Wysocki, Daniel Franklin, Justin Lipman

Faculty Publications in Computer & Electronics Engineering (to 2015)

Until now, the main focus in ad hoc networking has been improving Routing and Medium Access Control (MAC) Strategies. As a result, a diverse range of routing and MAC protocols have been proposed. To evaluate these protocols, much of the existing research has been based on simulation scenarios which assume ideal channel conditions and low node and traffic densities. Therefore, despite a few studies which have shown the performance limitations of ad hoc networks theoretically, there has not been many simulation studies performed which investigate the performance of ad hoc networks under a high node and traffic density. This paper ...


Efficient Image Processing In Resource-Constrained Visual Sensor Networks, Hongtao Du Dec 2006

Efficient Image Processing In Resource-Constrained Visual Sensor Networks, Hongtao Du

Doctoral Dissertations

Visual sensor networks (VSNs) that employ content-rich 2-D images or image sequences as the basic media have been evolving rapidly in recent years. Besides the critical resource constraints that are already inherent in any micro-sensor networks, the development of VSNs also faces challenges from device design, image transmission, and onboard image processing, among which efficient onboard processing is the most difficult to tackle. The focus of this dis- sertation is to develop efficient image processing solutions from three aspects: to improve the time-consuming image processing algorithms using pipelined and parallel computing; to dis- tribute the computation more effectively through novel ...


Scheduling Algorithms For Scalable High-Performance Packet Switching Architectures, Xike Li Dec 2006

Scheduling Algorithms For Scalable High-Performance Packet Switching Architectures, Xike Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Packet switching fabrics constitute a fundamental building block of all Internet routers. As a core technology, the switching engine is responsible for enabling multiple input (ingress) ports to be dynamically linked to output (egress) ports, thereby allowing packets to effectively traverse the router. Scheduling algorithms, which play a key role in switching fabrics, determine the dynamic configurations of the input-output matchings. The ever growing need for additional bandwidth and more sophisticated service provisioning in next- generation networks necessitates the introduction of scalable packet scheduling solutions that go beyond legacy schemes.

Switch architectures can be coarsely classified into two categories, in ...


For Piecewise Smooth Signals, L1 Method Is The Best Among Lp: An Interval-Based Justification Of An Empirical Fact, Vladik Kreinovich, Arnold Neumaier Dec 2006

For Piecewise Smooth Signals, L1 Method Is The Best Among Lp: An Interval-Based Justification Of An Empirical Fact, Vladik Kreinovich, Arnold Neumaier

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

Traditional engineering techniques use the Least Squares method (i.e., in mathematical terms, the l2-norm) to process data. It is known that in many practical situations, lp-methods with p=/=2 lead to better results. In different practical situations, different values of p are optimal. It is known that in several situations when we need to reconstruct a piecewise smooth signal, the empirically optimal value of p is close to 1. In this paper, we provide a new interval-based theoretical explanation for this empirical fact.


Estimating Variance Under Interval And Fuzzy Uncertainty: Case Of Hierarchical Estimation, Gang Xiang, Vladik Kreinovich Dec 2006

Estimating Variance Under Interval And Fuzzy Uncertainty: Case Of Hierarchical Estimation, Gang Xiang, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

No abstract provided.


Fast Algorithms For Computing Statistics Under Interval And Fuzzy Uncertainty, And Their Applications, Gang Xiang, Vladik Kreinovich Dec 2006

Fast Algorithms For Computing Statistics Under Interval And Fuzzy Uncertainty, And Their Applications, Gang Xiang, Vladik Kreinovich

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many engineering applications, we have to combine probabilistic, interval, and fuzzy uncertainty. For example, in environmental analysis, we observe a pollution level x(t) in a lake at different moments of time t, and we would like to estimate standard statistical characteristics such as mean, variance, autocorrelation, correlation with other measurements. In environmental measurements, we often only measure the values with interval uncertainty. We must therefore modify the existing statistical algorithms to process such interval data.

In this paper, we provide a brief survey of algorithms for computing various statistics under interval (and fuzzy) uncertainty and of their applications ...


A Reconfigurable Supercomputing Library For Accelerated Parallel Lagged-Fibonacci Pseudorandom Number Generation, Yu Bi Dec 2006

A Reconfigurable Supercomputing Library For Accelerated Parallel Lagged-Fibonacci Pseudorandom Number Generation, Yu Bi

Masters Theses

To help promote more widespread adoption of hardware acceleration in parallel scientific computing, we present portable, flexible design components for pseudorandom number generation. Due to the success of the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators (SPRNG) software library in stochastic computations (e.g., Monte Carlo simulations), we developed an efficient and portable hardware architecture fully compatible with SPRNG’s Parallel Additive Lagged Fibonacci Generator (PALFG). Our general design produces identical results for all the parameter sets that SPRNG supports and yields high performance parallel random number generators which can each generate 162 million 31-bit uniform random integers per second on Xilinx ...


Multivariate Discretization Of Continuous Valued Attributes., Ehab Ahmed El Sayed Ahmed 1978- Dec 2006

Multivariate Discretization Of Continuous Valued Attributes., Ehab Ahmed El Sayed Ahmed 1978-

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The area of Knowledge discovery and data mining is growing rapidly. Feature Discretization is a crucial issue in Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD), or Data Mining because most data sets used in real world applications have features with continuously values. Discretization is performed as a preprocessing step of the data mining to make data mining techniques useful for these data sets. This thesis addresses discretization issue by proposing a multivariate discretization (MVD) algorithm. It begins withal number of common discretization algorithms like Equal width discretization, Equal frequency discretization, Naïve; Entropy based discretization, Chi square discretization, and orthogonal hyper planes. After ...


A Fuzzy Logic Controller For Autonomous Wheeled Vehicles, Mohamed Trabia, Linda Z. Shi, Neil Eugene Hodge Dec 2006

A Fuzzy Logic Controller For Autonomous Wheeled Vehicles, Mohamed Trabia, Linda Z. Shi, Neil Eugene Hodge

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Autonomous vehicles have potential applications in many fields, such as replacing humans in hazardous environments, conducting military missions, and performing routine tasks for industry. Driving ground vehicles is an area where human performance has proven to be reliable. Drivers typically respond quickly to sudden changes in their environment. While other control techniques may be used to control a vehicle, fuzzy logic has certain advantages in this area; one of them is its ability to incorporate human knowledge and experience, via language, into relationships among the given quantities. Fuzzy logic controllers for autonomous vehicles have been successfully applied to address various ...


Gridfields: Model-Driven Data Transformation In The Physical Sciences, Bill Howe Dec 2006

Gridfields: Model-Driven Data Transformation In The Physical Sciences, Bill Howe

Dissertations and Theses

Scientists' ability to generate and store simulation results is outpacing their ability to analyze them via ad hoc programs. We observe that these programs exhibit an algebraic structure that can be used to facilitate reasoning and improve performance. In this dissertation, we present a formal data model that exposes this algebraic structure, then implement the model, evaluate it, and use it to express, optimize, and reason about data transformations in a variety of scientific domains.

Simulation results are defined over a logical grid structure that allows a continuous domain to be represented discretely in the computer. Existing approaches for manipulating ...


Computer Model To Select Leed Certification For Building Projects, Mohammed Dec 2006

Computer Model To Select Leed Certification For Building Projects, Mohammed

Master's Theses

According to the US Green Building Council (USGBC) residential and commercial buildings in the United State consume huge amounts of natural resources; pollute the environment, and generate large amounts of waste, all of which affect the environment, economy, public health, and productivity. As a result, USGBC committees developed the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system to help professionals improve the quality of buildings and lessen their impact on the environment.

The (LEED) Green Building Rating System is a point-based system for certifying the level of a building's sustainability. There are four LEED certification categories: (1) Certified ...


Robust Control Techniques Enabling Duty Cycle Experiments Utilizing A 6-Dof Crewstation Motion Base, A Full Scale Combat Hybrid Electric Power System, And Long Distance Internet Communications, Marc Compere, Jarrett Goodell, Miguel Simon, Wilford Smith, Mark Brudnak Nov 2006

Robust Control Techniques Enabling Duty Cycle Experiments Utilizing A 6-Dof Crewstation Motion Base, A Full Scale Combat Hybrid Electric Power System, And Long Distance Internet Communications, Marc Compere, Jarrett Goodell, Miguel Simon, Wilford Smith, Mark Brudnak

Publications

The RemoteLink effort supports the U.S. Army's objective for developing and fielding next generation hybrid-electric combat vehicles. It is a distributed soldierin- the-Ioop and hardware-in-the-Ioop environment with a 6-DOF motion base for operator realism, a full-scale combat hybrid electric power system, and an operational context provided by OneSAF. The driver/gunner crewstations rest on one of two 6-DOF motion bases at the U.S. Army TARDEC Simulation Laboratory (TSL). The hybrid power system is located 2,450 miles away at the TARDEC Power and Energy System Integration Laboratory (P&E SIL). The primary technical challenge in the RemoteLink ...


Context-Aware Data Caching For Mobile Computing Environments, Stylianos Drakatos Nov 2006

Context-Aware Data Caching For Mobile Computing Environments, Stylianos Drakatos

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The deployment of wireless communications coupled with the popularity of portable devices has led to significant research in the area of mobile data caching. Prior research has focused on the development of solutions that allow applications to run in wireless environments using proxy based techniques. Most of these approaches are semantic based and do not provide adequate support for representing the context of a user (i.e., the interpreted human intention.). Although the context may be treated implicitly it is still crucial to data management. In order to address this challenge this dissertation focuses on two characteristics: how to predict ...


Biogasoline Production From Palm Oil Via Catalytic Hydrocracking Over Gamma-Alumina Catalyst, Anondho Wijanarko, Dadi Ahmad Mawardi, Mohammad Nasikin Nov 2006

Biogasoline Production From Palm Oil Via Catalytic Hydrocracking Over Gamma-Alumina Catalyst, Anondho Wijanarko, Dadi Ahmad Mawardi, Mohammad Nasikin

Makara Journal of Technology

Biogasoline Production from Palm Oil Via Catalytic Hydrocracking over Gamma-Alumina Catalyst. Bio gasoline conversion from palm oil is an alternative energy resources method which can be substituted fossil fuel base energy utilization. Previous research resulted that palm oil can be converted into hydrocarbon by catalytic cracking reaction with γ-alumina catalyst. In this research, catalytic cracking reaction of palm oil by γ-alumina catalyst is done in a stirrer batch reactor with the oil/catalyst weight ratio variation of 100:1, 75:1, and 50:1; at suhue variation of 260 to 340oC and reaction time variation of 1 to 2 hour ...


A Study On Parallel Computation Tools On Networked Pcs, Heru Suhartanto Nov 2006

A Study On Parallel Computation Tools On Networked Pcs, Heru Suhartanto

Makara Journal of Technology

A Study on Parallel Computation Tools on Networked PCs. Many models for natural phenomena, engineering applications and industries need powerfull computing resources to solve their problems. High Performance Computing resources were introduced by many researchers. This comes in the form of Supercomputers and with operating systems and tools for development such as parallel compiler and its library. However, these resources are expensive for the investation and maintenance, hence people need some alternatives. Many people then introduced parallel distributed computing by using available computing resource such as PCs. Each of these PCs is treated as a processors, hence the cluster of ...


Segmental Sinusoidal Model For Speech Signal Coding, Florentinus Budi Setiawan, Soegijardjo Soegijoko, Sugihartono Sugihartono, Suhartono Tjondronegoro Nov 2006

Segmental Sinusoidal Model For Speech Signal Coding, Florentinus Budi Setiawan, Soegijardjo Soegijoko, Sugihartono Sugihartono, Suhartono Tjondronegoro

Makara Journal of Technology

Segmental Sinusoidal Model for Speech Signal Coding. Periodic signal can be decomposed by sinusoidal component with Fourier series. With this characteristic, it can be modeled referring by sinusoidal form. By the sinusoidal model, signal can be quantized in order to encode the speech signal at the lower rate. The recent sinusoidal method is implemented in speech coding. By using this method, a block of the speech signal with 20 ms to 30 ms width is coded based on Fourier series coefficients. The new method proposed is quantization and reconstruction of speech signal by the segmental sinusoidal model. A segment is ...


Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior Of Stainless Steel 304 In The Sulfuric Acid Environment Due To Prestrain, Mohammad Badaruddin, Ahmad Suudi, Arinal Hamni Nov 2006

Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior Of Stainless Steel 304 In The Sulfuric Acid Environment Due To Prestrain, Mohammad Badaruddin, Ahmad Suudi, Arinal Hamni

Makara Journal of Technology

Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Stainless Steel 304 in the Sulfuric Acid Environment Due to Prestrain. The aim of research is to investigate the effect of prestrain on the stress corossion cracking behavior of AISI 304 stainless steel in the sulfuric acid of 10% concentration under the static cantilever loading according to ASTM E-1681 standart. The specimen of 304 Stainless steel was strain up over the yield strength until reaching the uniform strain of 5% and 10% using servopulser UTM 9506 under the displacement control of 0,3 mm/sec. The results of test show that the prestrain of 5 ...


Crude Oil Sludge Degradation In Microcosmic Scale: Simple Simulation As Preliminary Study On Land Treatment Bioremediation., Astri Nugroho Nov 2006

Crude Oil Sludge Degradation In Microcosmic Scale: Simple Simulation As Preliminary Study On Land Treatment Bioremediation., Astri Nugroho

Makara Journal of Technology

Crude Oil Sludge Degradation in Microcosmic Scale: Simple Simulation as Preliminary Study on Land Treatment Bioremediation. A study in microcosmic condition has been carried out to evaluate the bacterial hydrocarbonoclastic capability in increasing the oil sludge degradation being mixed with NPK fertilizer as nitrogen resources. Aerobic test was carried out by putting erlenmeyers in a shaker incubator, 120 rpm shaking speed, at 50°C temperature. While 150 days in microcosmic one observation showed that the consortium has the potential to grow up to 50% (v/v) sludge oil load. Maximum growth and maximum growth rate of the consortium occurred in ...


Determination Of Operation Condition And Product Dimension Accuracy Optimization Of Filament Deposition Modelling On Layer Manufacturing Application, Slamet A. Widyanto, Alva Edy Tontowi, Jamasri Jamasri, Heru Santoso Budi Rochardjo Nov 2006

Determination Of Operation Condition And Product Dimension Accuracy Optimization Of Filament Deposition Modelling On Layer Manufacturing Application, Slamet A. Widyanto, Alva Edy Tontowi, Jamasri Jamasri, Heru Santoso Budi Rochardjo

Makara Journal of Technology

Layer manufacturing process has proven as a process that can produce a high complexity mechanical part. Now, Improvement of LM methods continuously conduct that is aimed to increase precessions and efficiency of these processes. Pressure filament deposition modelling is a form of layer manufacturing process that is designed to produce a plastic part with controlling its semisolid phase. In this research, the equipment of filament depositor is designed and tested to make the product filament deposition. With operation condition observation, the optimal temperature and pressure of deposition process was determined. These experiments used PVC as crystalline material and polypropylene as ...


Magnetic Field Effects On Caco3 Precipitation Process In Hard Water, Nelson Saksono, Setijo Bismo, Elsa Krisanti, Azwar Manaf, Roekmijati Widaningrum Nov 2006

Magnetic Field Effects On Caco3 Precipitation Process In Hard Water, Nelson Saksono, Setijo Bismo, Elsa Krisanti, Azwar Manaf, Roekmijati Widaningrum

Makara Journal of Technology

Magnetic Field Effects on CaCO3 Precipitation Process in Hard Water. Magnetic treatment is applied as physical water treatment for scale prevention especially CaCO3, from hard water in piping equipment by reducing its hardness. Na2CO3 and CaCl2 solution sample was used in to investigate the magnetic fields influence on the formation of particle of CaCO3. By changing the strength of magnetic fields, exposure time and concentration of samples solution, this study presents quantitative results of total scale deposit, total precipitated CaCO3 and morphology of the deposit. This research was run by comparing magnetically and non-magnetically treated samples. The results showed an ...


Multi-User Uwb-Ir Systems With Interleaved Coding-Modulation On Multipath Fading Channels, Michal M. Pietrzyk, Keni Popovski, Tadeusz Wysocki, Beata J. Wysocki, Jos H. Weber Nov 2006

Multi-User Uwb-Ir Systems With Interleaved Coding-Modulation On Multipath Fading Channels, Michal M. Pietrzyk, Keni Popovski, Tadeusz Wysocki, Beata J. Wysocki, Jos H. Weber

Faculty Publications in Computer & Electronics Engineering (to 2015)

Interleaved coding-modulation (ICM) is a recently proposed method for ultra-wideband impulse radio (UWBIR) systems. ICM exploits the concept of chip interleaving, allowing to alleviate the problem of inter-symbol and inter-pulse interference commonly present in high data rate UWB-IR systems. In this paper, we extend previous work on ICM to scarcely populated multi-user scenarios. We propose a design of a deterministic chip interleaver based on time-hopping hyperbolic congruence sequences. We also review the main parameters of the random and hyperbolic interleavers. Our results indicate that the proposed type of interleaver yields similar performance to random interleavers but with the advantage of ...


How To Take Into Account Dependence Between The Inputs: From Interval Computations To Constraint-Related Set Computations, With Potential Applications To Nuclear Safety, Bio- And Geosciences, Martine Ceberio, Scott Ferson, Vladik Kreinovich, Sanjeev Chopra, Gang Xiang, Adrian Murguia, Jorge Santillan Nov 2006

How To Take Into Account Dependence Between The Inputs: From Interval Computations To Constraint-Related Set Computations, With Potential Applications To Nuclear Safety, Bio- And Geosciences, Martine Ceberio, Scott Ferson, Vladik Kreinovich, Sanjeev Chopra, Gang Xiang, Adrian Murguia, Jorge Santillan

Departmental Technical Reports (CS)

In many real-life situations, in addition to knowing the intervals Xi of possible values of each variable xi, we also know additional restrictions on the possible combinations of xi; in this case, the set X of possible values of x=(x1,..,xn) is a proper subset of the original box X1 x ... x Xn. In this paper, we show how to take into account this dependence between the inputs when computing the range of a function f(x1,...,xn).


Cad/Fea Tools And The Analysis Of Design For Optimization, Patil Yogesh Oct 2006

Cad/Fea Tools And The Analysis Of Design For Optimization, Patil Yogesh

Morehead State Theses and Dissertations

A thesis presented to the faculty of the College of Science and Technology at Morehead State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science by Patil Yogesh on October 21, 2006.


What Users Say They Want In Documentation, David G. Novick, Karen Ward Oct 2006

What Users Say They Want In Documentation, David G. Novick, Karen Ward

Departmental Papers (CS)

While earlier work provided a partial view of users’ preferences about manuals, for most users in most work contexts the important question remains open: What do users want in documentation? This paper presents the results of a study in which a diverse cross-section of 25 users was interviewed in depth about their needs and preferences with respect to software help systems, whether printed or on-line, that they use at work. The study’s participants indicated that they preferred documentation, whether online or printed, that is easy to navigate, provides explanations at an appropriate level of technical detail, enables finding as ...


Why Don't People Read The Manual?, David G. Novick, Karen Ward Oct 2006

Why Don't People Read The Manual?, David G. Novick, Karen Ward

Departmental Papers (CS)

Few users of computer applications seek help from the documentation. This paper reports the results of an empirical study of why this is so and examines how, in real work, users solve their usability problems. Based on in-depth interviews with 25 subjects representing a varied cross-section of users, we find that users do avoid using both paper and online help systems. Few users have paper manuals for the most heavily used applications, but none complained about their lack. Online help is more likely to be consulted than paper manuals, but users are equally likely to report that they solve their ...