Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Computer Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Integration Of Robotic Perception, Action, And Memory, Li Yang Ku Jan 2018

Integration Of Robotic Perception, Action, And Memory, Li Yang Ku

Doctoral Dissertations

In the book "On Intelligence", Hawkins states that intelligence should be measured by the capacity to memorize and predict patterns. I further suggest that the ability to predict action consequences based on perception and memory is essential for robots to demonstrate intelligent behaviors in unstructured environments. However, traditional approaches generally represent action and perception separately---as computer vision modules that recognize objects and as planners that execute actions based on labels and poses. I propose here a more integrated approach where action and perception are combined in a memory model, in which a sequence of actions can be planned based on ...


Dynamic In Vivo Skeletal Feature Tracking Via Fluoroscopy Using A Human Gait Model, William Patrick Anderson Dec 2017

Dynamic In Vivo Skeletal Feature Tracking Via Fluoroscopy Using A Human Gait Model, William Patrick Anderson

Doctoral Dissertations

The Tracking Fluoroscope System II, a mobile robotic fluoroscopy platform, developed and built at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, presently employs a pattern matching algorithm in order to identify and track a marker placed upon a subject’s knee joint of interest. The purpose of this research is to generate a new tracking algorithm based around the human gait cycle for prediction and improving the overall accuracy of joint tracking.

This research centers around processing the acquired x-ray images of the desired knee joint obtained during standard clinical operation in order to identify and track directly through the acquired image ...


Computational Imaging Approach To Recovery Of Target Coordinates Using Orbital Sensor Data, Michael D. Vaughan Aug 2017

Computational Imaging Approach To Recovery Of Target Coordinates Using Orbital Sensor Data, Michael D. Vaughan

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the components necessary for simulation of an image-based recovery of the position of a target using orbital image sensors. Each component is considered in detail, focusing on the effect that design choices and system parameters have on the accuracy of the position estimate. Changes in sensor resolution, varying amounts of blur, differences in image noise level, selection of algorithms used for each component, and lag introduced by excessive processing time all contribute to the accuracy of the result regarding recovery of target coordinates using orbital sensor data.

Using physical targets and sensors in this scenario would be ...


Modeling The Consumer Acceptance Of Retail Service Robots, So Young Song Aug 2017

Modeling The Consumer Acceptance Of Retail Service Robots, So Young Song

Doctoral Dissertations

This study uses the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) and domestication theories as the underlying framework of an acceptance model of retail service robots (RSRs). The model illustrates the relationships among facilitators, attitudes toward Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), anxiety toward robots, anticipated service quality, and the acceptance of RSRs. Specifically, the researcher investigates the extent to which the facilitators of usefulness, social capability, the appearance of RSRs, and the attitudes toward HRI affect acceptance and increase the anticipation of service quality. The researcher also tests the inhibiting role of pre-existing anxiety toward robots on the relationship between these facilitators and attitudes ...


Learning Multimodal Structures In Computer Vision, Ali Taalimi Aug 2017

Learning Multimodal Structures In Computer Vision, Ali Taalimi

Doctoral Dissertations

A phenomenon or event can be received from various kinds of detectors or under different conditions. Each such acquisition framework is a modality of the phenomenon. Due to the relation between the modalities of multimodal phenomena, a single modality cannot fully describe the event of interest. Since several modalities report on the same event introduces new challenges comparing to the case of exploiting each modality separately.

We are interested in designing new algorithmic tools to apply sensor fusion techniques in the particular signal representation of sparse coding which is a favorite methodology in signal processing, machine learning and statistics to ...


Adaft: A Resource-Efficient Framework For Adaptive Fault-Tolerance In Cyber-Physical Systems, Ye Xu Jan 2017

Adaft: A Resource-Efficient Framework For Adaptive Fault-Tolerance In Cyber-Physical Systems, Ye Xu

Doctoral Dissertations

Cyber-physical systems frequently have to use massive redundancy to meet application requirements for high reliability. While such redundancy is required, it can be activated adaptively, based on the current state of the controlled plant. Most of the time the physical plant is in a state that allows for a lower level of fault-tolerance. Avoiding the continuous deployment of massive fault-tolerance will greatly reduce the workload of CPSs. In this dissertation, we demonstrate a software simulation framework (AdaFT) that can automatically generate the sub-spaces within which our adaptive fault-tolerance can be applied. We also show the theoretical benefits of AdaFT, and ...


Belief-Space Planning For Resourceful Manipulation And Mobility, Dirk Ruiken Jan 2017

Belief-Space Planning For Resourceful Manipulation And Mobility, Dirk Ruiken

Doctoral Dissertations

Robots are increasingly expected to work in partially observable and unstructured environments. They need to select actions that exploit perceptual and motor resourcefulness to manage uncertainty based on the demands of the task and environment. The research in this dissertation makes two primary contributions. First, it develops a new concept in resourceful robot platforms called the UMass uBot and introduces the sixth and seventh in the uBot series. uBot-6 introduces multiple postural configurations that enable different modes of mobility and manipulation to meet the needs of a wide variety of tasks and environmental constraints. uBot-7 extends this with the use ...


Multi-Classifier Fusion Strategy For Activity And Intent Recognition Of Torso Movements, Abhijit Kadrolkar Jan 2016

Multi-Classifier Fusion Strategy For Activity And Intent Recognition Of Torso Movements, Abhijit Kadrolkar

Doctoral Dissertations

As assistive, wearable robotic devices are being developed to physically assist their users, it has become crucial to develop safe, reliable methods to coordinate the device with the intentions and motions of the wearer. This dissertation investigates the recognition of user intent during flexion and extension of the human torso in the sagittal plane to be used for control of an assistive exoskeleton for the human torso. A multi-sensor intent recognition approach is developed that combines information from surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals from the user’s muscles and inertial sensors mounted on the user’s body. Intent recognition is implemented ...


Neuron Clustering For Mitigating Catastrophic Forgetting In Supervised And Reinforcement Learning, Benjamin Frederick Goodrich Dec 2015

Neuron Clustering For Mitigating Catastrophic Forgetting In Supervised And Reinforcement Learning, Benjamin Frederick Goodrich

Doctoral Dissertations

Neural networks have had many great successes in recent years, particularly with the advent of deep learning and many novel training techniques. One issue that has affected neural networks and prevented them from performing well in more realistic online environments is that of catastrophic forgetting. Catastrophic forgetting affects supervised learning systems when input samples are temporally correlated or are non-stationary. However, most real-world problems are non-stationary in nature, resulting in prolonged periods of time separating inputs drawn from different regions of the input space.

Reinforcement learning represents a worst-case scenario when it comes to precipitating catastrophic forgetting in neural networks ...


A Magnetic Actuated Fully Insertable Robotic Camera System For Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery, Xiaolong Liu Aug 2015

A Magnetic Actuated Fully Insertable Robotic Camera System For Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery, Xiaolong Liu

Doctoral Dissertations

Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a common surgical procedure which makes tiny incisions in the patients anatomy, inserting surgical instruments and using laparoscopic cameras to guide the procedure. Compared with traditional open surgery, MIS allows surgeons to perform complex surgeries with reduced trauma to the muscles and soft tissues, less intraoperative hemorrhaging and postoperative pain, and faster recovery time. Surgeons rely heavily on laparoscopic cameras for hand-eye coordination and control during a procedure. However, the use of a standard laparoscopic camera, achieved by pushing long sticks into a dedicated small opening, involves multiple incisions for the surgical instruments. Recently, single ...


Dynamic Simulation And Neuromuscular Control Of Movement: Applications For Predictive Simulations Of Balance Recovery, Misagh Mansouri Boroujeni May 2015

Dynamic Simulation And Neuromuscular Control Of Movement: Applications For Predictive Simulations Of Balance Recovery, Misagh Mansouri Boroujeni

Doctoral Dissertations

Balance is among the most challenging tasks for patients with movement disorders. Study and treatment of these disorders could greatly benefit from combined software tools that offer better insights into neuromuscular biomechanics, and predictive capabilities for optimal surgical and rehabilitation treatment planning. A platform was created to combine musculoskeletal modeling, closed-loop forward dynamic simulation, optimization techniques, and neuromuscular control system design. Spinal (stretch-reflex) and supraspinal (operational space task-based) controllers were developed to test simulation-based hypotheses related to balance recovery and movement control. A corrective procedure (rectus femoris transfer surgery) was targeted for children experiencing stiff-knee gait and how this procedure ...


An Opportunistic Service Oriented Approach For Robot Search, Dan Xie Feb 2015

An Opportunistic Service Oriented Approach For Robot Search, Dan Xie

Doctoral Dissertations

Health care for the elderly poses a major challenge as the baby boomer generation ages. Part of the solution is to develop technology using sensor networks and service robotics to increase the length of time that an elder can remain at home. Since moderate immobility and memory impairment are common as people age, a major problem for the elderly is locating and retrieving frequently used "common" objects such as keys, cellphones, books, etc. However, for robots to assist people while they search for objects, they must possess the ability to interact with the human client, complex client-side environments and heterogeneous ...


Learning Parameterized Skills, Bruno Castro Da Silva Feb 2015

Learning Parameterized Skills, Bruno Castro Da Silva

Doctoral Dissertations

One of the defining characteristics of human intelligence is the ability to acquire and refine skills. Skills are behaviors for solving problems that an agent encounters often—sometimes in different contexts and situations—throughout its lifetime. Identifying important problems that recur and retaining their solutions as skills allows agents to more rapidly solve novel problems by adjusting and combining their existing skills.

In this thesis we introduce a general framework for learning reusable parameterized skills. Reusable skills are parameterized procedures that—given a description of a problem to be solved—produce appropriate behaviors or policies. They can be sequentially and ...


3d Robotic Sensing Of People: Human Perception, Representation And Activity Recognition, Hao Zhang Aug 2014

3d Robotic Sensing Of People: Human Perception, Representation And Activity Recognition, Hao Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

The robots are coming. Their presence will eventually bridge the digital-physical divide and dramatically impact human life by taking over tasks where our current society has shortcomings (e.g., search and rescue, elderly care, and child education). Human-centered robotics (HCR) is a vision to address how robots can coexist with humans and help people live safer, simpler and more independent lives.

As humans, we have a remarkable ability to perceive the world around us, perceive people, and interpret their behaviors. Endowing robots with these critical capabilities in highly dynamic human social environments is a significant but very challenging problem in ...


Modeling, Analysis, And Control Of A Mobile Robot For In Vivo Fluoroscopy Of Human Joints During Natural Movements, Matthew A. Young May 2014

Modeling, Analysis, And Control Of A Mobile Robot For In Vivo Fluoroscopy Of Human Joints During Natural Movements, Matthew A. Young

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, the modeling, analysis and control of a multi-degree of freedom (mdof) robotic fluoroscope was investigated. A prototype robotic fluoroscope exists, and consists of a 3 dof mobile platform with two 2 dof Cartesian manipulators mounted symmetrically on opposite sides of the platform. One Cartesian manipulator positions the x-ray generator and the other Cartesian manipulator positions the x-ray imaging device. The robotic fluoroscope is used to x-ray skeletal joints of interest of human subjects performing natural movement activities. In order to collect the data, the Cartesian manipulators must keep the x-ray generation and imaging devices accurately aligned while ...


Vision-Based Robot Control In The Context Of Human-Machine Interactions, Andrzej Nycz Aug 2012

Vision-Based Robot Control In The Context Of Human-Machine Interactions, Andrzej Nycz

Doctoral Dissertations

This research has explored motion control based on visual servoing – in the context of complex human-machine interactions and operations in realistic environments. Two classes of intelligent robotic systems were studied in this context: operator assistance with a high dexterity telerobotic manipulator performing remote tooling-centric tasks, and a bio-robot for X-ray imaging of lower extremity human skeletal joints during natural walking. The combination of human-machine interactions and practical application scenarios has led to the following fundamental contributions: 1) exploration and evaluation of a new concept of acquiring fluoroscope images of musculoskeletal features of interest during natural human motion, 2) creation of ...


Coalition Formation And Execution In Multi-Robot Tasks, Yu Zhang Aug 2012

Coalition Formation And Execution In Multi-Robot Tasks, Yu Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

In this research, I explore several related problems in distributed robot systems that must be addressed in order to achieve multi-robot tasks, in which individual robots may not possess all the required capabilities. While most previous research work on multi-robot cooperation mainly concentrates on loosely-coupled multi-robot tasks, a more challenging problem is to also address tightly-coupled multi- robot tasks involving close robot interactions, which often require capability sharing. Three related topics towards addressing these tasks are discussed, as follows:

Forming coalitions, which determines how robots should form into subgroups (i.e., coalitions) to address individual tasks. To achieve system autonomy ...


Feature-Based Image Comparison And Its Application In Wireless Visual Sensor Networks, Yang Bai May 2011

Feature-Based Image Comparison And Its Application In Wireless Visual Sensor Networks, Yang Bai

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation studies the feature-based image comparison method and its application in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks.

Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs), formed by a large number of low-cost, small-size visual sensor nodes, represent a new trend in surveillance and monitoring practices. Although each single sensor has very limited capability in sensing, processing and transmission, by working together they can achieve various high level tasks. Sensor collaboration is essential to WVSNs and normally performed among sensors having similar measurements, which are called neighbor sensors. The directional sensing characteristics of imagers and the presence of visual occlusion present unique challenges to neighborhood ...


Nonlinear Control Strategy For A Cost Effective Myoelectric Prosthetic Hand, Cristian Federico Pasluosta Oct 2010

Nonlinear Control Strategy For A Cost Effective Myoelectric Prosthetic Hand, Cristian Federico Pasluosta

Doctoral Dissertations

The loss of a limb tremendously impacts the life of the affected individual. In the past decades, researchers have been developing artificial limbs that may return some of the missing functions and cosmetics. However, the development of dexterous mechanisms capable of mimicking the function of the human hand is a complex venture. Even though myoelectric prostheses have advanced, several issues remain to be solved before an artificial limb may be comparable to its human counterpart. Moreover, the high cost of advanced limbs prevents their widespread use among the low-income population.

This dissertation presents a strategy for the low-level of control ...


Anomaly Detection In Unknown Environments Using Wireless Sensor Networks, Yuanyuan Li May 2010

Anomaly Detection In Unknown Environments Using Wireless Sensor Networks, Yuanyuan Li

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the problem of distributed anomaly detection in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). A challenge of designing such systems is that the sensor nodes are battery powered, often have different capabilities and generally operate in dynamic environments. Programming such sensor nodes at a large scale can be a tedious job if the system is not carefully designed. Data modeling in distributed systems is important for determining the normal operation mode of the system. Being able to model the expected sensor signatures for typical operations greatly simplifies the human designer’s job by enabling the system to autonomously characterize the ...


Swarm Engineering, S. Kazadi '90 May 2000

Swarm Engineering, S. Kazadi '90

Doctoral Dissertations

Swarm engineering is the natural evolution of the use of swarm-based techniques in the accomplishment of high level tasks using a number of simple robots. In this approach, one seeks not to generate a class of behaviors designed to accomplish a given global goal, as is the approach typically found in mainstream robotics. Once the class of behaviors has been understood and decided upon, specific behaviors designed to accomplish this goal may be generated that will complete the desired task without any concern about whether or not the final goal will actually be completed. As long as the generated behaviors ...