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Doctoral Dissertations

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Improving Computer Network Operations Through Automated Interpretation Of State, Abhishek Dwaraki, Abhishek Dwaraki Jul 2020

Improving Computer Network Operations Through Automated Interpretation Of State, Abhishek Dwaraki, Abhishek Dwaraki

Doctoral Dissertations

Networked systems today are hyper-scaled entities that provide core functionality for distributed services and applications spanning personal, business, and government use. It is critical to maintain correct operation of these networks to avoid adverse business outcomes. The advent of programmable networks has provided much needed fine-grained network control, enabling providers and operators alike to build some innovative networking architectures and solutions. At the same time, they have given rise to new challenges in network management. These architectures, coupled with a multitude of devices, protocols, virtual overlays on top of physical data-plane etc. make network management a highly challenging task. Existing ...


Formal Verification Of Divider And Square-Root Arithmetic Circuits Using Computer Algebra Methods, Atif Yasin Jul 2020

Formal Verification Of Divider And Square-Root Arithmetic Circuits Using Computer Algebra Methods, Atif Yasin

Doctoral Dissertations

A considerable progress has been made in recent years in verification of arithmetic circuits such as multipliers, fused multiply-adders, multiply-accumulate, and other components of arithmetic datapaths, both in integer and finite field domain. However, the verification of hardware dividers and square-root functions have received only a limited attention from the verification community, with a notable exception for theorem provers and other inductive, non-automated systems. Division, square root, and transcendental functions are all tied to the basic Intel architecture and proving correctness of such algorithms is of grave importance. Although belonging to the same iterative-subtract class of architectures, they widely differ ...


Towards Optimized Traffic Provisioning And Adaptive Cache Management For Content Delivery, Aditya Sundarrajan Mar 2020

Towards Optimized Traffic Provisioning And Adaptive Cache Management For Content Delivery, Aditya Sundarrajan

Doctoral Dissertations

Content delivery networks (CDNs) deploy hundreds of thousands of servers around the world to cache and serve trillions of user requests every day for a diverse set of content such as web pages, videos, software downloads and images. In this dissertation, we propose algorithms to provision traffic across cache servers and manage the content they host to achieve performance objectives such as maximizing the cache hit rate, minimizing the bandwidth cost of the network and minimizing the energy consumption of the servers.

Traffic provisioning is the process of determining the set of content domains hosted on the servers. We propose ...


Qoe-Aware Content Distribution Systems For Adaptive Bitrate Video Streaming, Divyashri Bhat Mar 2020

Qoe-Aware Content Distribution Systems For Adaptive Bitrate Video Streaming, Divyashri Bhat

Doctoral Dissertations

A prodigious increase in video streaming content along with a simultaneous rise in end system capabilities has led to the proliferation of adaptive bit rate video streaming users in the Internet. Today, video streaming services range from Video-on-Demand services like traditional IP TV to more recent technologies such as immersive 3D experiences for live sports events. In order to meet the demands of these services, the multimedia and networking research community continues to strive toward efficiently delivering high quality content across the Internet while also trying to minimize content storage and delivery costs.

The introduction of flexible and adaptable technologies ...


Novel Approaches For Reliable And Efficient Circuit Design, Prashanthi Metku Jan 2020

Novel Approaches For Reliable And Efficient Circuit Design, Prashanthi Metku

Doctoral Dissertations

"In this research work, a suite of approaches are presented to improve reliability of 3D heterogeneous processors (3DHP) and to reduce the area overhead of asynchronous designs. This work is primarily divided into two parts. In the first part, we present an approach for improving reliability in 3DHP. Typically, in 3DHP, thermal hotspots introduce spatial and temporal variability that results in wide bit error variation in DRAM dies. To address this issue multi- path BCH decoder is introduced. Based on the thermal gradient data generated by on-chip temperature sensors, the proposed methodology specializes in adaptively estimating the number of errors ...


Trajectory Control Of A Wheeled Robot Using Interaction Forces For Intuitive Overground Human-Robot Interaction, George Leno Holmes Jr. Jan 2020

Trajectory Control Of A Wheeled Robot Using Interaction Forces For Intuitive Overground Human-Robot Interaction, George Leno Holmes Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

"Effective and intuitive physical human robot interaction (pHRI) requires an understanding of how humans communicate movement intentions with one another. It has been suggested that humans can guide another human by hand through complex tasks using force information only. However, no clear and applicable paradigm has been set forth to understand these relationships. While the human partner can readily understand and adhere to this expectation, it would be difficult for anyone to explain their intuitive motions with strict rules, algorithms, or steps. Uncovering such a procedural framework for the control of robotic systems to execute expected performance simply from force ...


A Parallel Direct Method For Finite Element Electromagnetic Computations Based On Domain Decomposition, Javad Moshfegh Nov 2019

A Parallel Direct Method For Finite Element Electromagnetic Computations Based On Domain Decomposition, Javad Moshfegh

Doctoral Dissertations

High performance parallel computing and direct (factorization-based) solution methods have been the two main trends in electromagnetic computations in recent years. When time-harmonic (frequency-domain) Maxwell's equation are directly discretized with the Finite Element Method (FEM) or other Partial Differential Equation (PDE) methods, the resulting linear system of equations is sparse and indefinite, thus harder to efficiently factorize serially or in parallel than alternative methods e.g. integral equation solutions, that result in dense linear systems. State-of-the-art sparse matrix direct solvers such as MUMPS and PARDISO don't scale favorably, have low parallel efficiency and high memory footprint. This work ...


Service Competition And Data-Centric Protocols For Internet Access, Thiago Teixeira Oct 2019

Service Competition And Data-Centric Protocols For Internet Access, Thiago Teixeira

Doctoral Dissertations

The Internet evolved in many aspects, from the application to the physical layers. However, the evolution of the Internet access technologies, most visible in dense urban scenarios, is not easily noticeable in sparsely populated and rural areas.

In the United States, for example, the FCC identified that 50% of the census blocks have access to up to two broadband providers; however, these providers do not necessarily compete. Additionally, due to the methodology of the study, there is evidence that the number of actual customers without broadband access is higher since the FCC considers the entire block to have broadband if ...


Time-Difference Circuits: Methodology, Design, And Digital Realization, Shuo Li Oct 2019

Time-Difference Circuits: Methodology, Design, And Digital Realization, Shuo Li

Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis presents innovations for a special class of circuits called Time Difference (TD) circuits. We introduce a signal processing methodology with TD signals that alters the target signal from a magnitude perspective to time interval between two time events and systematically organizes the primary TD functions abstracted from existing TD circuits and systems. The TD circuits draw attention from a broad range of application fields. In addition, highly evolved complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology suffers from various problems related to voltage and current amplitude signal processing methods. Compared to traditional analog and digital circuits, TD circuits bring several compelling features ...


Stealthy Parametric Hardware Trojans In Vlsi Circuits, Samaneh Ghandali Oct 2019

Stealthy Parametric Hardware Trojans In Vlsi Circuits, Samaneh Ghandali

Doctoral Dissertations

Over the last decade, hardware Trojans have gained increasing attention in academia, industry and by government agencies. In order to design reliable countermeasures, it is crucial to understand how hardware Trojans can be built in practice. This is an area that has received relatively scant treatment in the literature. In this thesis, we examine how particularly stealthy parametric Trojans can be introduced to VLSI circuits. Parametric Trojans do not require any additional logic and are purely based on subtle manipulations on the sub-transistor level to modify the parameters of few transistors which makes them very hard to detect.

We introduce ...


Function And Dissipation In Finite State Automata - From Computing To Intelligence And Back, Natesh Ganesh Oct 2019

Function And Dissipation In Finite State Automata - From Computing To Intelligence And Back, Natesh Ganesh

Doctoral Dissertations

Society has benefited from the technological revolution and the tremendous growth in computing powered by Moore's law. However, we are fast approaching the ultimate physical limits in terms of both device sizes and the associated energy dissipation. It is important to characterize these limits in a physically grounded and implementation-agnostic manner, in order to capture the fundamental energy dissipation costs associated with performing computing operations with classical information in nano-scale quantum systems. It is also necessary to identify and understand the effect of quantum in-distinguishability, noise, and device variability on these dissipation limits. Identifying these parameters is crucial to ...


Feature Space Modeling For Accurate And Efficient Learning From Non-Stationary Data, Ayesha Akter Oct 2019

Feature Space Modeling For Accurate And Efficient Learning From Non-Stationary Data, Ayesha Akter

Doctoral Dissertations

A non-stationary dataset is one whose statistical properties such as the mean, variance, correlation, probability distribution, etc. change over a specific interval of time. On the contrary, a stationary dataset is one whose statistical properties remain constant over time. Apart from the volatile statistical properties, non-stationary data poses other challenges such as time and memory management due to the limitation of computational resources mostly caused by the recent advancements in data collection technologies which generate a variety of data at an alarming pace and volume. Additionally, when the collected data is complex, managing data complexity, emerging from its dimensionality and ...


Sparsity In Machine Learning: An Information Selecting Perspective, Siwei Feng Jul 2019

Sparsity In Machine Learning: An Information Selecting Perspective, Siwei Feng

Doctoral Dissertations

Today we are living in a world awash with data. Large volumes of data are acquired, analyzed and applied to tasks through machine learning algorithms in nearly every area of science, business, and industry. For example, medical scientists analyze the gene expression data from a single specimen to learn the underlying causes of disease (e.g. cancer) and choose the best treatment; retailers can know more about customers' shopping habits from retail data to adjust their business strategies to better appeal to customers; suppliers can enhance supply chain success through supply chain systems built on knowledge sharing. However, it is ...


Improving And Understanding Data Quality In Large-Scale Data Systems, Xiaolan Wang Mar 2019

Improving And Understanding Data Quality In Large-Scale Data Systems, Xiaolan Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

Systems and applications rely heavily on data, which makes data quality a critical factor for their function. In turn, low quality data can be incredibly costly and disruptive, leading to loss of revenue, incorrect conclusions, and misguided policy decisions. Improving data quality is far more than purging datasets of errors; it is more important to improve the processes that produce the data, to collect good data sources that are used for generating the data, and to truly understand the quality of the data. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to improve and understand data quality from the above aspects ...


Sequence Design Via Semidefinite Programming Relaxation And Randomized Projection, Dian Mo Mar 2019

Sequence Design Via Semidefinite Programming Relaxation And Randomized Projection, Dian Mo

Doctoral Dissertations

Wideband is a booming technology in the field of wireless communications. The receivers in wideband communication systems are expected to cover a very wide spectrum and adaptively extract the parts of interest. The literature has focused on mixing the input spectrum to baseband using a pseudorandom sequence modulation and recovering the received signals from linearly independent measurements by parallel branches to mitigate the pressures from required extreme high sampling frequency. However, a pseudorandom sequence provides no rejection for the strong interferers received together with weak signals from distant sources. The interferers cause significant distortion due to the nonlinearity of the ...


Neuroengineering Of Clustering Algorithms, Leonardo Enzo Brito Da Silva Jan 2019

Neuroengineering Of Clustering Algorithms, Leonardo Enzo Brito Da Silva

Doctoral Dissertations

"Cluster analysis can be broadly divided into multivariate data visualization, clustering algorithms, and cluster validation. This dissertation contributes neural network-based techniques to perform all three unsupervised learning tasks. Particularly, the first paper provides a comprehensive review on adaptive resonance theory (ART) models for engineering applications and provides context for the four subsequent papers. These papers are devoted to enhancements of ART-based clustering algorithms from (a) a practical perspective by exploiting the visual assessment of cluster tendency (VAT) sorting algorithm as a preprocessor for ART offline training, thus mitigating ordering effects; and (b) an engineering perspective by designing a family of ...


Multi-Sensor Localization And Tracking In Disaster Management And Indoor Wayfinding For Visually Impaired Users, Zhuorui Yang Oct 2018

Multi-Sensor Localization And Tracking In Disaster Management And Indoor Wayfinding For Visually Impaired Users, Zhuorui Yang

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation proposes a series of multi-sensor localization and tracking algorithms particularly developed for two important application domains, which are disaster management and indoor wayfinding for blind and visually impaired (BVI) users. For disaster management, we developed two different localization algorithms, one each for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology, which enable the disaster management system to track patients in real-time. Both algorithms work in the absence of any pre-deployed infrastructure along with smartphones and wearable devices. Regarding indoor wayfinding for BVI users, we have explored several types of indoor positioning techniques including BLE-based, inertial, visual ...


Transiency-Driven Resource Management For Cloud Computing Platforms, Prateek Sharma Oct 2018

Transiency-Driven Resource Management For Cloud Computing Platforms, Prateek Sharma

Doctoral Dissertations

Modern distributed server applications are hosted on enterprise or cloud data centers that provide computing, storage, and networking capabilities to these applications. These applications are built using the implicit assumption that the underlying servers will be stable and normally available, barring for occasional faults. In many emerging scenarios, however, data centers and clouds only provide transient, rather than continuous, availability of their servers. Transiency in modern distributed systems arises in many contexts, such as green data centers powered using renewable intermittent sources, and cloud platforms that provide lower-cost transient servers which can be unilaterally revoked by the cloud operator.

Transient ...


Leveraging Eye Structure And Motion To Build A Low-Power Wearable Gaze Tracking System, Addison Mayberry Oct 2018

Leveraging Eye Structure And Motion To Build A Low-Power Wearable Gaze Tracking System, Addison Mayberry

Doctoral Dissertations

Clinical studies have shown that features of a person's eyes can function as an effective proxy for cognitive state and neurological function. Technological advances in recent decades have allowed us to deepen this understanding and discover that the actions of the eyes are in fact very tightly coupled to the operation of the brain. Researchers have used camera-based eye monitoring technology to exploit this connection and analyze mental state across across many different metrics of interest. These range from simple things like attention and scene processing, to impairments such as a fatigue or substance use, and even significant mental ...


Integration Of Robotic Perception, Action, And Memory, Li Yang Ku Oct 2018

Integration Of Robotic Perception, Action, And Memory, Li Yang Ku

Doctoral Dissertations

In the book "On Intelligence", Hawkins states that intelligence should be measured by the capacity to memorize and predict patterns. I further suggest that the ability to predict action consequences based on perception and memory is essential for robots to demonstrate intelligent behaviors in unstructured environments. However, traditional approaches generally represent action and perception separately---as computer vision modules that recognize objects and as planners that execute actions based on labels and poses. I propose here a more integrated approach where action and perception are combined in a memory model, in which a sequence of actions can be planned based on ...


Hybrid Black-Box Solar Analytics And Their Privacy Implications, Dong Chen Oct 2018

Hybrid Black-Box Solar Analytics And Their Privacy Implications, Dong Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

The aggregate solar capacity in the U.S. is rising rapidly due to continuing decreases in the cost of solar modules. For example, the installed cost per Watt (W) for residential photovoltaics (PVs) decreased by 6X from 2009 to 2018 (from $8/W to $1.2/W), resulting in the installed aggregate solar capacity increasing 128X from 2009 to 2018 (from 435 megawatts to 55.9 gigawatts). This increasing solar capacity is imposing operational challenges on utilities in balancing electricity's real-time supply and demand, as solar generation is more stochastic and less predictable than aggregate demand.

To address this ...


An Architecture Evaluation And Implementation Of A Soft Gpgpu For Fpgas, Kevin Andryc Oct 2018

An Architecture Evaluation And Implementation Of A Soft Gpgpu For Fpgas, Kevin Andryc

Doctoral Dissertations

Embedded and mobile systems must be able to execute a variety of different types of code, often with minimal available hardware. Many embedded systems now come with a simple processor and an FPGA, but not more energy-hungry components, such as a GPGPU. In this dissertation we present FlexGrip, a soft architecture which allows for the execution of GPGPU code on an FPGA without the need to recompile the design. The architecture is optimized for FPGA implementation to effectively support the conditional and thread-based execution characteristics of GPGPU execution without FPGA design recompilation. This architecture supports direct CUDA compilation to a ...


Skybridge-3d-Cmos: A Fine-Grained Vertical 3d-Cmos Technology Paving New Direction For 3d Ic, Jiajun Shi Jul 2018

Skybridge-3d-Cmos: A Fine-Grained Vertical 3d-Cmos Technology Paving New Direction For 3d Ic, Jiajun Shi

Doctoral Dissertations

2D CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technology scaling faces severe challenges that result from device scaling limitations, interconnect bottleneck that dominates power and performance, etc. 3D ICs with die-die and layer-layer stacking using Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) and Monolithic Inter-layer Vias (MIVs) have been explored in recent years to generate circuits with considerable interconnect saving for continuing technology scaling. However, these 3D IC technologies still rely on conventional 2D CMOS’s device, circuit and interconnect mindset showing only incremental benefits while adding new challenges reliability issues, robustness of power delivery network design and short-channel effects as technology node scaling.

Skybridge-3D-CMOS (S3DC ...


Power Laws In Complex Graphs: Parsimonious Generative Models, Similarity Testing Algorithms, And The Origins, Shan Lu Jul 2018

Power Laws In Complex Graphs: Parsimonious Generative Models, Similarity Testing Algorithms, And The Origins, Shan Lu

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation mainly discussed topics related to power law graphs, including graph similarity testing algorithms and power law generative models.

For graph similarity testing, we proposed a method based on the mathematical theory of diffusion over manifolds using random walks over graphs. We show that our method not only distinguishes between graphs with different degree distributions, but also graphs with the same degree distributions. We compare the undirected power law graphs generated by Barabasi-Albert model and directed power law graphs generated by Krapivsky's model to the random graphs generated by Erdos-Renyi model. We also compare power law graphs generated ...


Analog Signal Processing Solutions And Design Of Memristor-Cmos Analog Co-Processor For Acceleration Of High-Performance Computing Applications, Nihar Athreyas Jul 2018

Analog Signal Processing Solutions And Design Of Memristor-Cmos Analog Co-Processor For Acceleration Of High-Performance Computing Applications, Nihar Athreyas

Doctoral Dissertations

Emerging applications in the field of machine vision, deep learning and scientific simulation require high computational speed and are run on platforms that are size, weight and power constrained. With the transistor scaling coming to an end, existing digital hardware architectures will not be able to meet these ever-increasing demands. Analog computation with its rich set of primitives and inherent parallel architecture can be faster, more efficient and compact for some of these applications. The major contribution of this work is to show that analog processing can be a viable solution to this problem. This is demonstrated in the three ...


Deep Learning And Localized Features Fusion For Medical Image Classification, Haidar A. Almubarak Jan 2018

Deep Learning And Localized Features Fusion For Medical Image Classification, Haidar A. Almubarak

Doctoral Dissertations

"Local image features play an important role in many classification tasks as translation and rotation do not severely deteriorate the classification process. They have been commonly used for medical image analysis. In medical applications, it is important to get accurate diagnosis/aid results in the fastest time possible.

This dissertation tries to tackle these problems, first by developing a localized feature-based classification system for medical images and using these features and to give a classification for the entire image, and second, by improving the computational complexity of feature analysis to make it viable as a diagnostic aid system in practical ...


Adaptive Dynamic Programming With Eligibility Traces And Complexity Reduction Of High-Dimensional Systems, Seaar Jawad Kadhim Al-Dabooni Jan 2018

Adaptive Dynamic Programming With Eligibility Traces And Complexity Reduction Of High-Dimensional Systems, Seaar Jawad Kadhim Al-Dabooni

Doctoral Dissertations

"This dissertation investigates the application of a variety of computational intelligence techniques, particularly clustering and adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) designs especially heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) and dual heuristic programming (DHP). Moreover, a one-step temporal-difference (TD(0)) and n-step TD (TD(λ)) with their gradients are utilized as learning algorithms to train and online-adapt the families of ADP. The dissertation is organized into seven papers. The first paper demonstrates the robustness of model order reduction (MOR) for simulating complex dynamical systems. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering based on performance evaluation is introduced for MOR. This method computes the reduced order denominator of ...


Machine Learning Techniques Implementation In Power Optimization, Data Processing, And Bio-Medical Applications, Khalid Khairullah Mezied Al-Jabery Jan 2018

Machine Learning Techniques Implementation In Power Optimization, Data Processing, And Bio-Medical Applications, Khalid Khairullah Mezied Al-Jabery

Doctoral Dissertations

"The rapid progress and development in machine-learning algorithms becomes a key factor in determining the future of humanity. These algorithms and techniques were utilized to solve a wide spectrum of problems extended from data mining and knowledge discovery to unsupervised learning and optimization. This dissertation consists of two study areas. The first area investigates the use of reinforcement learning and adaptive critic design algorithms in the field of power grid control. The second area in this dissertation, consisting of three papers, focuses on developing and applying clustering algorithms on biomedical data. The first paper presents a novel modelling approach for ...


Dynamic In Vivo Skeletal Feature Tracking Via Fluoroscopy Using A Human Gait Model, William Patrick Anderson Dec 2017

Dynamic In Vivo Skeletal Feature Tracking Via Fluoroscopy Using A Human Gait Model, William Patrick Anderson

Doctoral Dissertations

The Tracking Fluoroscope System II, a mobile robotic fluoroscopy platform, developed and built at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, presently employs a pattern matching algorithm in order to identify and track a marker placed upon a subject’s knee joint of interest. The purpose of this research is to generate a new tracking algorithm based around the human gait cycle for prediction and improving the overall accuracy of joint tracking.

This research centers around processing the acquired x-ray images of the desired knee joint obtained during standard clinical operation in order to identify and track directly through the acquired image ...


Formal Analysis Of Arithmetic Circuits Using Computer Algebra - Verification, Abstraction And Reverse Engineering, Cunxi Yu Nov 2017

Formal Analysis Of Arithmetic Circuits Using Computer Algebra - Verification, Abstraction And Reverse Engineering, Cunxi Yu

Doctoral Dissertations

Despite a considerable progress in verification and abstraction of random and control logic, advances in formal verification of arithmetic designs have been lagging. This can be attributed mostly to the difficulty in an efficient modeling of arithmetic circuits and datapaths without resorting to computationally expensive Boolean methods, such as Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) and Boolean Satisfiability (SAT), that require “bit blasting”, i.e., flattening the design to a bit-level netlist. Approaches that rely on computer algebra and Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) methods are either too abstract to handle the bit-level nature of arithmetic designs or require solving computationally expensive decision ...