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Computer Science Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Ieee Access Special Section Editorial: Wirelessly Powered Networks, And Technologies, Theofanis P. Raptis, Nuno B. Carvalho, Diego Masotti, Lei Shu, Cong Wang, Yuanyuan Yang Jan 2019

Ieee Access Special Section Editorial: Wirelessly Powered Networks, And Technologies, Theofanis P. Raptis, Nuno B. Carvalho, Diego Masotti, Lei Shu, Cong Wang, Yuanyuan Yang

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is, by definition, a process that occurs in any system where electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to a load without the connection of electrical conductors. WPT is the driving technology that will enable the next stage in the current consumer electronics revolution, including battery-less sensors, passive RF identification (RFID), passive wireless sensors, the Internet of Things and 5G, and machine-to-machine solutions. WPT-enabled devices can be powered by harvesting energy from the surroundings, including electromagnetic (EM) energy, leading to a new communication networks paradigm, the Wirelessly Powered Networks.


Image Zooming Using Corner Matching, Ronald Marsh, Md Nurul Amin, Charles Crandall, Raymond Davis Oct 2018

Image Zooming Using Corner Matching, Ronald Marsh, Md Nurul Amin, Charles Crandall, Raymond Davis

Computer Science Faculty Publications

This work was intended to direct the choice of an image interpolation/zoom algorithm for use in UND’s Open Prototype for Educational Nanosats (OPEN) satellite program. Whether intended for a space-borne platform or a balloon-borne platform, we expect to use a low cost camera (Raspberry Pi) and expect to have very limited bandwidth for image transmission. However, the technique developed could be used for any imaging application. The approach developed analyzes overlapping 3x3 blocks of pixels looking for “L” patterns that suggest the center pixel should be changed such that a triangle pattern results. We compare this approach against ...


Containers And Reproducibility In Scientific Research, Sara Faraji Jalal Apostal, David Apostal, Ronald Marsh Oct 2018

Containers And Reproducibility In Scientific Research, Sara Faraji Jalal Apostal, David Apostal, Ronald Marsh

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Numerical reproducibility has received increased emphasis in the scientific community. One reason that makes scientific research difficult to repeat is that different computing platforms calculate mathematical operations differently. Software containers have been shown to improve reproducibility in some instances and provide a convenient way to deploy applications in a variety of computing environments. However, there are software patterns or idioms that produce inconsistent results because mathematical operations are performed in different orders in different environments resulting in reproducibility errors. The performance of software in containers and the performance of software that improves numeric reproducibility may be of concern for some ...


Developing A New Storage Format And A Warp-Based Spmv Kernel For Configuration Interaction Sparse Matrices On The Gpu†, Mohammed Mahmoud, Mark Hoffmann, Hassan Reza Aug 2018

Developing A New Storage Format And A Warp-Based Spmv Kernel For Configuration Interaction Sparse Matrices On The Gpu†, Mohammed Mahmoud, Mark Hoffmann, Hassan Reza

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Sparse matrix-vector multiplication (SpMV) can be used to solve diverse-scaled linear systems and eigenvalue problems that exist in numerous, and varying scientific applications. One of the scientific applications that SpMV is involved in is known as Configuration Interaction (CI). CI is a linear method for solving the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation for quantum chemical multi-electron systems, and it can deal with the ground state as well as multiple excited states. In this paper, we have developed a hybrid approach in order to deal with CI sparse matrices. The proposed model includes a newly-developed hybrid format for storing CI sparse matrices on ...


Detecting Wildlife In Unmanned Aerial Systems Imagery Using Convolutional Neural Networks Trained With An Automated Feedback Loop, Connor Bowley, Marshall Bowley, Andrew Barnas, Susan Ellis-Felege, Travis Desell Jun 2018

Detecting Wildlife In Unmanned Aerial Systems Imagery Using Convolutional Neural Networks Trained With An Automated Feedback Loop, Connor Bowley, Marshall Bowley, Andrew Barnas, Susan Ellis-Felege, Travis Desell

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Using automated processes to detect wildlife in uncontrolled outdoor imagery in the field of wildlife ecology is a challenging task. This is especially true in imagery provided by an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS), where the relative size of wildlife is small and visually similar to its background. This work presents an automated feedback loop which can be used to train convolutional neural networks with extremely unbalanced class sizes, which alleviates some of these challenges. This work utilizes UAS imagery collected by the Wildlife@Home project, which has employed citizen scientists and trained experts to go through collected UAS imagery and ...


G-Code Modeling For 3d Printer Quality Assessment, Tyler Welander, Ronald Marsh, Md Nurul Amin Jan 2018

G-Code Modeling For 3d Printer Quality Assessment, Tyler Welander, Ronald Marsh, Md Nurul Amin

Computer Science Faculty Publications

The Department of Computer Science at the University of North Dakota (UND) has been evaluating optical/imaging methods for measuring the quality of 3D printed parts. In particular, we are interested in optical/imaging methods that can detect and measure such quality issues as layer shifting, layer separation and splitting, overheating, dimensional accuracy, and infill errors. This paper describes our work towards the analysis of infill errors as the quality of the infill does impact the structural integrity of the part being made. Externally, a part may look acceptable, but if the infill is faulty the part may be structurally ...


An Exercise In Reverse Engineering For Safety-Critical Systems: An Experience For The Classroom, Emanuel S. Grant, Pann Ajjimaporn Jan 2018

An Exercise In Reverse Engineering For Safety-Critical Systems: An Experience For The Classroom, Emanuel S. Grant, Pann Ajjimaporn

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Since the Y2K crisis, reverse engineering has become a major area of work in industrial software application development, but lacks emphasis in US academia. This issue is exemplified by the high demand for software systems in new and expanding software application areas, which has resulted in systems being implemented before the requirements and design phases have been completed. Towards the maintenance of such systems, it is necessary to conducted reverse engineering for the derivation of software documentation for requirements and high-level and low-level design. When this scenario exists in the domain of safety-critical system, particularly in the aviation industry, reverse ...


Toward Quality Attribute Driven Approach To Software Architectural Design, Payel Bajpayee, Hassan Reza Jun 2017

Toward Quality Attribute Driven Approach To Software Architectural Design, Payel Bajpayee, Hassan Reza

Computer Science Faculty Publications

It has been well-documented that the software architecture of any system plays a critical role in success or failure of software intensive systems. In this paper, a method has been proposed to evaluate the software architecture’s fitness with respect to key quality attributes for a web-based system. To the end, a comparative analysis based on quality attributes scenarios and tactics is carried out to select an optimal software architecture that meets the system level requirements of a web-based system, namely, Student and Course Evaluation System (SCES). The comparative study was driven by study of quality attributes and tactics with ...


A Security Analysis Of Cyber-Physical Systems Architecture For Healthcare, Darren Seifert, Hassan Reza Oct 2016

A Security Analysis Of Cyber-Physical Systems Architecture For Healthcare, Darren Seifert, Hassan Reza

Computer Science Faculty Publications

This paper surveys the available system architectures for cyber-physical systems. Several candidate architectures are examined using a series of essential qualities for cyber-physical systems for healthcare. Next, diagrams detailing the expected functionality of infusion pumps in two of the architectures are analyzed. The STRIDE Threat Model is then used to decompose each to determine possible security issues and how they can be addressed. Finally, a comparison of the major security issues in each architecture is presented to help determine which is most adaptable to meet the security needs of cyber-physical systems in healthcare.


Enhancing Mobile Cloud Computing Security Using Steganography, Hassan Reza, Madhuri Sonawane Jul 2016

Enhancing Mobile Cloud Computing Security Using Steganography, Hassan Reza, Madhuri Sonawane

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Cloud computing is an emerging and popular method of accessing shared and dynamically configurable resources via the computer network on demand. Cloud computing is excessively used by mobile applications to offload data over the network to the cloud. There are some security and privacy concerns using both mobile devices to offload data to the facilities provided by the cloud providers. One of the critical threats facing cloud users is the unauthorized access by the insiders (cloud administrators) or the justification of location where the cloud providers operating. Although, there exist variety of security mechanisms to prevent unauthorized access by unauthorized ...


Leveraging Heritrix And The Wayback Machine On A Corporate Intranet: A Case Study On Improving Corporate Archives, Justin F. Brunelle, Krista Ferrante, Eliot Wilczek, Michele C. Weigle, Michael L. Nelson Jan 2016

Leveraging Heritrix And The Wayback Machine On A Corporate Intranet: A Case Study On Improving Corporate Archives, Justin F. Brunelle, Krista Ferrante, Eliot Wilczek, Michele C. Weigle, Michael L. Nelson

Computer Science Faculty Publications

In this work, we present a case study in which we investigate using open-source, web-scale web archiving tools (i.e., Heritrix and the Wayback Machine installed on the MITRE Intranet) to automatically archive a corporate Intranet. We use this case study to outline the challenges of Intranet web archiving, identify situations in which the open source tools are not well suited for the needs of the corporate archivists, and make recommendations for future corporate archivists wishing to use such tools. We performed a crawl of 143,268 URIs (125 GB and 25 hours) to demonstrate that the crawlers are easy ...


Flexc: Protein Flexibility Prediction Using Context-Based Statistics, Predicted Structural Features, And Sequence Information, Ashraf Yaseen, Mais Nijim, Brandon Williams, Lei Qian, Min Li, Jianxin Wang, Yaohang Li Jan 2016

Flexc: Protein Flexibility Prediction Using Context-Based Statistics, Predicted Structural Features, And Sequence Information, Ashraf Yaseen, Mais Nijim, Brandon Williams, Lei Qian, Min Li, Jianxin Wang, Yaohang Li

Computer Science Faculty Publications

The fluctuation of atoms around their average positions in protein structures provides important information regarding protein dynamics. This flexibility of protein structures is associated with various biological processes. Predicting flexibility of residues from protein sequences is significant for analyzing the dynamic properties of proteins which will be helpful in predicting their functions.


A Blackboard-Style Decision-Making System For Multi-Tier Craft Control And Its Evaluation, Jeremy Straub, Hassan Reza Apr 2015

A Blackboard-Style Decision-Making System For Multi-Tier Craft Control And Its Evaluation, Jeremy Straub, Hassan Reza

Computer Science Faculty Publications

This article presents an approach for decision-making in support of the control of an autonomous system of multiple tiers of robots (e.g., satellite, aerial and ground) based on the Blackboard architectural style. Under the proposed approach, the system evaluates prospective approaches for goal satisfaction (identified by user selected final rules), identifies the lowest-cost solution and determines the best path to achieving the goal, via the analysis of the Blackboard rule and action set. Two different approaches to this rule and action path generation are discussed. This article presents the proposed Blackboard-style architecture for autonomous multi-tier control and describes its ...


Reminiscing About 15 Years Of Interoperability Efforts, Herbert Van De Sompel, Michael L. Nelson Jan 2015

Reminiscing About 15 Years Of Interoperability Efforts, Herbert Van De Sompel, Michael L. Nelson

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. We also lament the lack of interoperability across nodes that ...


Mapping Aadl To Petri Net Tool-Sets Using Pnml Framework, Hassan Reza, Amrita Chatterjee Oct 2014

Mapping Aadl To Petri Net Tool-Sets Using Pnml Framework, Hassan Reza, Amrita Chatterjee

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) has been utilized to specify and verify non- functional properties of Real-Time Embedded Systems (RTES) used in critical application systems. Examples of such critical application systems include medical devices, nuclear power plants, aer- ospace, financial, etc. Using AADL, an engineer is enable to analyze the quality of a system. For example, a developer can perform performance analysis such as end-to-end flow analysis to guarantee that system components have the required resources to meet the timing requirements relevant to their communications. The critical issue related to developing and deploying safety critical systems is how to ...


The Use Of The Blackboard Archiecture For A Decision Making System For The Control Of Craft With Various Actuator And Movement Capabilities, Jeremy Straub, Hassan Reza Jun 2014

The Use Of The Blackboard Archiecture For A Decision Making System For The Control Of Craft With Various Actuator And Movement Capabilities, Jeremy Straub, Hassan Reza

Computer Science Faculty Publications

This paper provides an overview of an approach to the control of multiple craft with heterogeneous movement and actuation characteristics that is based on the Blackboard software architecture. An overview of the Blackboard architecture is provided. Then, the operational and mission requirements that dictate the need for autonomous control are characterized and the utility of the Blackboard architecture is for meeting these requirements is discussed. The performance of a best-path solver and naïve solver are compared. The results demonstrate that the best-path solver outperforms the naïve solver in the amount of time taken to generate a solution, however ...


Broadcasting With Prediction And Selective Forwarding In Vehicular Networks, Jainjun Yang, Zongming Fei Dec 2013

Broadcasting With Prediction And Selective Forwarding In Vehicular Networks, Jainjun Yang, Zongming Fei

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Broadcasting in vehicular networks has attracted great interest in research community and industry. Broadcasting on disseminating information to individual vehicle beyond the transmission range is based on inter-vehicle communication systems. It is crucial to broadcast messages to other vehicles as fast as possible because the messages in vehicle communication systems are often emergency messages such as accident warning or alarm. In many current approaches, the message initiator or sender selects the node among its neighbors that is farthest away from it in the broadcasting direction and then assigns the node to rebroadcast the message once the node gets out of ...


A Method For Identifying Personalized Representations In Web Archives, Mat Kelly, Justin F. Brunelle, Michele C. Weigle, Michael L. Nelson Jan 2013

A Method For Identifying Personalized Representations In Web Archives, Mat Kelly, Justin F. Brunelle, Michele C. Weigle, Michael L. Nelson

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Web resources are becoming increasingly personalized — two different users clicking on the same link at the same time can see content customized for each individual user. These changes result in multiple representations of a resource that cannot be canonicalized in Web archives. We identify characteristics of this problem by presenting a potential solution to generalize personalized representations in archives. We also present our proof-of-concept prototype that analyzes WARC (Web ARChive) format files, inserts metadata establishing relationships, and provides archive users the ability to navigate on the additional dimension of environment variables in a modified Wayback Machine.


Automation Techniques For Intelligent Environments - Prediction Of Building Activity Patterns Using A Cyclic Genetic Algorithm, Gary Parker, David T. Alpert Oct 2012

Automation Techniques For Intelligent Environments - Prediction Of Building Activity Patterns Using A Cyclic Genetic Algorithm, Gary Parker, David T. Alpert

Computer Science Faculty Publications

This work involves learning the use schedule of an academic building in order to intelligently control various aspects of the environment. Motion sensors are used to monitor and record the activity of each of the rooms in the building. After a basic preprocessing of the data, a Cyclic Genetic Algorithm (CGA) is used to pick out the patterns of use of the rooms. The CGA is seen as ideal for such a problem because of its ability to find repetitive cyclic patterns in the data. Our results show that a CGA has the ability to pick out such patterns and ...


Evolving Expert Agent Parameters For Capture The Flag Agent In Xpilot, Gary Parker, Sarah Penrose Oct 2012

Evolving Expert Agent Parameters For Capture The Flag Agent In Xpilot, Gary Parker, Sarah Penrose

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Xpilot is an open source, 2d space combat game. Xpilot-AI allows a programmer to write scripts that control an agent playing a game of Xpilot. It provides a reasonable environment for testing learning systems for autonomous agents, both video game agents and robots. In previous work, a wide range of techniques have been used to develop controllers that are focused on the combat skills for an Xpilot agent. In this research, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) was used to evolve the parameters for an expert agent solving the more challenging problem of capture the flag.


Evolving Predator Control Programs For An Actual Hexapod Robot Predator, Gary Parker, Basar Gulcu Oct 2012

Evolving Predator Control Programs For An Actual Hexapod Robot Predator, Gary Parker, Basar Gulcu

Computer Science Faculty Publications

In the development of autonomous robots, control program learning systems are important since they allow the robots to adapt to changes in their surroundings. Evolutionary Computation (EC) is a method that is used widely in learning systems. In previous research, we used a Cyclic Genetic Algorithm (CGA), a form of EC, to evolve a simulated predator robot to test the effectiveness of a learning system in the predator/prey problem. The learned control program performed search, chase, and capture behavior using 64 sensor states relative to the nearest obstacle and the target, a simulated prey robot. In this paper, we ...


Using Cyclic Genetic Algorithms To Learn Gaits For An Actual Quadruped Robot, Gary Parker, William T. Tarimo Oct 2011

Using Cyclic Genetic Algorithms To Learn Gaits For An Actual Quadruped Robot, Gary Parker, William T. Tarimo

Computer Science Faculty Publications

It is a difficult task to generate optimal walking gaits for mobile legged robots. Generating and coordinating an optimal gait involves continually repeating a series of actions in order to create a sustained movement. In this work, we present the use of a Cyclic Genetic Algorithm (CGA) to learn near optimal gaits for an actual quadruped servo-robot with three degrees of movement per leg. This robot was used to create a simulation model of the movement and states of the robot which included the robot’s unique features and capabilities. The CGA used this model to learn gaits that were ...


Fitness Biasing For The Box Pushing Task, Gary Parker, Jim O'Connor Oct 2011

Fitness Biasing For The Box Pushing Task, Gary Parker, Jim O'Connor

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Anytime Learning with Fitness Biasing has been shown in previous works to be an effective tool for evolving hexapod gaits. In this paper, we present the use of Anytime Learning with Fitness Biasing to evolve the controller for a robot learning the box pushing task. The robot that was built for this task, was measured to create an accurate model. The model was used in simulation to test the effectiveness of Anytime Learning with Fitness Biasing for the box pushing task. This work is the first step in new research where an automated system to test the viability of Fitness ...


Investigating The Effects Of Learning Speeds On Xpilot Agent Evolution, Gary Parker, Phil Fritzsche Oct 2011

Investigating The Effects Of Learning Speeds On Xpilot Agent Evolution, Gary Parker, Phil Fritzsche

Computer Science Faculty Publications

In this paper we present a comparison of the effects of varying play speeds on a genetic algorithm in the space combat game Xpilot. Xpilot-AI, an Xpilot add-on designed for testing learning systems, is used to evolve the controller for an Xpilot combat agent at varying frames per second to determine an optimal speed for learning. The controller is a rule-based system modified to work with a genetic algorithm that learns numeric parameters for the agent’s rule base. The goal of this research is to increase the quality and speed of standard learning algorithms in Xpilot as well as ...


Comparison Of A Greedy Selection Operator To Tournament Selection And A Hill Climber, Lee Graham, John Borbone, Gary Parker Jun 2011

Comparison Of A Greedy Selection Operator To Tournament Selection And A Hill Climber, Lee Graham, John Borbone, Gary Parker

Computer Science Faculty Publications

A new deterministic greedy genetic algorithm selection operator with very high selection pressure, dubbed the "Jugate Adaptive Method" is examined. Its performance and behavior are compared to thoseof a canonical genetic algorithm with tournament selection, and a random-restarting next-ascent stochastic hill-climber. All three algorithms are tuned using parameter sweeps to optimize their success rates on five combinatorial optimization problems, tuning each algorithm for each problem independently. Results were negative in that the new method was outperformed in nearly all experiments. Experimental data show the hill climber to be the clear winner in four of five test problems.


The Effects Of Using A Greedy Factor In Hexapod Gait Learning, Gary Parker, William T. Tarimo Jun 2011

The Effects Of Using A Greedy Factor In Hexapod Gait Learning, Gary Parker, William T. Tarimo

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Various selection schemes have been described for use in genetic algorithms. This paper investigates the effects of adding greediness to the standard roulette-wheel selection. The results of this study are tested on a Cyclic Genetic Algorithm (CGA) used for learning gaits for a hexapod servo-robot. The effectiveness of CGA in learning optimal gaits with selection based on roulette-wheel selection with and without greediness is compared. The results were analyzed based on fitness of the individual gaits, convergence time of the evolution process, and the fitness of the entire population evolved. Results demonstrate that selection with too much greediness tends to ...


Quadruped Gait Learning Using Cyclic Genetic Algorithms, Gary Parker, William T. Tarimo, Michael Cantor Jun 2011

Quadruped Gait Learning Using Cyclic Genetic Algorithms, Gary Parker, William T. Tarimo, Michael Cantor

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Generating walking gaits for legged robots is a challenging task. Gait generation with proper leg coordination involves a series of actions that are continually repeated to create sustained movement. In this paper we present the use of a Cyclic Genetic Algorithm (CGA) to learn gaits for a quadruped servo robot with three degrees of movement per leg. An actual robot was used to generate a simulation model of the movement and states of the robot. The CGA used the robot's unique features and capabilities to develop gaits specific for that particular robot. Tests done in simulation show the success ...


Fitness Biasing For Evolving An Xpilot Combat Agent, Gary Parker, Phil Fritzsche Jun 2011

Fitness Biasing For Evolving An Xpilot Combat Agent, Gary Parker, Phil Fritzsche

Computer Science Faculty Publications

In this paper we present an application of Fitness Biasing, a type of Punctuated Anytime Learning, for learning autonomous agents in the space combat game Xpilot. Fitness Biasing was originally developed as a means of linking the model to the actual robot in evolutionary robotics. We use fitness biasing with a standard genetic algorithm to learn control programs for a video game agent in real-time. Xpilot-AI, an Xpilot add-on designed for testing learning systems, is used to evolve the controller in the background while periodic checks in normal game play are used to compensate for errors produced by running the ...


Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks, Syed R. Rizvi, Stephan Olariu, Christina M. Oinotti, Shaharuddin Salleh, Mona E. Rizvi, Zainab Zaidi Jan 2011

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks, Syed R. Rizvi, Stephan Olariu, Christina M. Oinotti, Shaharuddin Salleh, Mona E. Rizvi, Zainab Zaidi

Computer Science Faculty Publications

(First paragraph) Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have recently been proposed as one of the promising ad hoc networking techniques that can provide both drivers and passengers with a safe and enjoyable driving experience. VANETs can be used for many applications with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. In the United States, motor vehicle traffic crashes are the leading cause of death for all motorists between two and thirty-four years of age. In 2009, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reported that 33,808 people were killed in motor vehicle traffic crashes. The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates ...


Using Evolutionary Strategies For The Real-Time Learning Of Controllers For Autonomous Agents In Xpilot-Ai, Gary Parker, Michael H. Probst Jul 2010

Using Evolutionary Strategies For The Real-Time Learning Of Controllers For Autonomous Agents In Xpilot-Ai, Gary Parker, Michael H. Probst

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Real-time learning is the process of an artificial intelligence agent learning behavior(s) at the same pace as it operates in the real world. Video games tend to be an excellent locale for testing real-time learning agents, as the action happens at real speeds with a good visual feedback mechanism, coupled with the possibility of comparing human performance to that of the agent's. In addition, players want to be competing against a consistently challenging opponent. This paper is a discussion of a controller for an agent in the space combat game Xpilot and the evolution of said controller using ...