# Computer Engineering Commons™

Articles 31 - 60 of 183

## Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Robust And Agile System Against Fault And Anomaly Traffic In Software Defined Networks, Mihui Kim, Younghee Park, Rohit Kotalwar Dec 2016

#### Robust And Agile System Against Fault And Anomaly Traffic In Software Defined Networks, Mihui Kim, Younghee Park, Rohit Kotalwar

##### Younghee Park

The main advantage of software defined networking (SDN) is that it allows intelligent control and management of networking though programmability in real time. It enables efficient utilization of network resources through traffic engineering, and offers potential attack defense methods when abnormalities arise. However, previous studies have only identified individual solutions for respective problems, instead of finding a more global solution in real time that is capable of addressing multiple situations in network status. To cover diverse network conditions, this paper presents a comprehensive reactive system for simultaneously monitoring failures, anomalies, and attacks for high availability and reliability. We design three ...

Impact Of Reviewer Social Interaction On Online Consumer Review Fraud Detection, Kunal Ketan Goswami, Younghee Park, Chungsik Song Dec 2016

#### Impact Of Reviewer Social Interaction On Online Consumer Review Fraud Detection, Kunal Ketan Goswami, Younghee Park, Chungsik Song

##### Younghee Park

Background
Online consumer reviews have become a baseline for new consumers to try out a business or a new product. The reviews provide a quick look into the application and experience of the business/product and market it to new customers. However, some businesses or reviewers use these reviews to spread fake information about the business/product. The fake information can be used to promote a relatively average product/business or can be used to malign their competition. This activity is known as reviewer fraud or opinion spam. The paper proposes a feature set, capturing the user social interaction behavior ...

A Multi-Value Sequence Generated By Power Residue Symbol And Trace Function Over Odd Characteristic Field, Yasuyuki Nogami, Satoshi Uehara, Kazuyoshi Tsuchiya, Nasima Begum, Hiroto Ino, Robert H. Morelos-Zaragoza Nov 2016

#### A Multi-Value Sequence Generated By Power Residue Symbol And Trace Function Over Odd Characteristic Field, Yasuyuki Nogami, Satoshi Uehara, Kazuyoshi Tsuchiya, Nasima Begum, Hiroto Ino, Robert H. Morelos-Zaragoza

##### Robert Henry Morelos-Zaragoza

This paper proposes a new multi-value sequence generated by utilizing primitive element, trace, and power residue symbol over odd characteristic finite field. In detail, let p and k be an odd prime number as the characteristic and a prime factor of p-1, respectively. Our proposal generates k-value sequence T={ti | ti=fk(Tr(ωi)+A)}, where ω is a primitive element in the extension field $\F{p}{m}$, Tr(⋅) is the trace function that maps $\F{p}{m} \rightarrow \f{p}$, A is a non-zero scalar in the prime field $\f{p}$, and fk(⋅) is a certain ...

Perceptions Of Planned Versus Unplanned Malfunctions: A Human-Robot Interaction Scenario, Theresa T. Kessler, Keith R. Macarthur, Manuel Trujillo-Silva, Thomas Macgillivray, Chris Ripa, Peter A. Hancock Nov 2016

#### Perceptions Of Planned Versus Unplanned Malfunctions: A Human-Robot Interaction Scenario, Theresa T. Kessler, Keith R. Macarthur, Manuel Trujillo-Silva, Thomas Macgillivray, Chris Ripa, Peter A. Hancock

##### Keith Reid MacArthur

The present study investigated the effect of malfunctions on trust in a human-robot interaction scenario. Participants were exposed to either a planned or unplanned robot malfunction and then completed two different self-report trust measures. Resulting trust between planned and unplanned exposures was analyzed, showing that trust levels impacted by planned malfunctions did not significantly differ from those impacted by unplanned malfunctions. Therefore, it can be surmised that the methods used for the manipulation of the planned malfunctions were effective and are recommended for further study use.

Achieving The Holy Grail Of Electronic Resource Management With Automated Holdings Feeds, Antje Mays, Jody Stroh, Jozef Paulik Nov 2016

#### Achieving The Holy Grail Of Electronic Resource Management With Automated Holdings Feeds, Antje Mays, Jody Stroh, Jozef Paulik

##### Antje Mays

Libraries face many challenges with maintaining electronic resource holdings that are constantly changing. In this session, attendees will learn how libraries, a content provider and a knowledge base are working together to ensure accurate, up-to-date holdings via automated, institution-specific feeds that save libraries both time and frustration.

Library panelists will share their e-resource challenges and lessons learned followed by publisher/partner perspectives outlining what it takes to create and share these feeds.
Be sure to join the conversation that follows and learn how automated holdings maintenance is a win-win-win for everybody!

A Modular Approach For Key-Frame Selection In Wide Area Surveillance Video Analysis, Almabrok Essa, Paheding Sidike, Vijayan K. Asari Oct 2016

#### A Modular Approach For Key-Frame Selection In Wide Area Surveillance Video Analysis, Almabrok Essa, Paheding Sidike, Vijayan K. Asari

##### Vijayan K. Asari

This paper presents an efficient preprocessing algorithm for big data analysis. Our proposed key-frame selection method utilizes the statistical differences among subsequent frames to automatically select only the frames that contain the desired contextual information and discard the rest of the insignificant frames.

We anticipate that such key frame selection technique will have significant impact on wide area surveillance applications such as automatic object detection and recognition in aerial imagery. Three real-world datasets are used for evaluation and testing and the observed results are encouraging.

Human-Robot Versus Human-Human Relationship Impact On Comfort Levels Regarding In Home Privacy, Keith R. Macarthur, Thomas G. Macgillivray, Eva L. Parkhurst, Peter A. Hancock Mar 2016

#### Human-Robot Versus Human-Human Relationship Impact On Comfort Levels Regarding In Home Privacy, Keith R. Macarthur, Thomas G. Macgillivray, Eva L. Parkhurst, Peter A. Hancock

##### Keith Reid MacArthur

When considering in-group vs. out-group concepts, certain degrees of human relationships naturally assume one of two categories. Roles such as immediate and extended family members and friends tend to fit quite nicely in the in-group category. Strangers, hired help, as well as acquaintances would likely be members of the out-group category due to a lack of personal relation to the perceiver. Though an out-group member may possess cultural, socioeconomic, or religious traits that an individual may perceive as in-group, the fact that they are an unknown stranger should immediately place them in the out-group. From [K1] this notion, it can ...

Platform-Specific Code Generation From Platform-Independent Timed Models, Baekgyu Kim, Lu Feng, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Mar 2016

#### Platform-Specific Code Generation From Platform-Independent Timed Models, Baekgyu Kim, Lu Feng, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

##### Oleg Sokolsky

Many safety-critical real-time embedded systems need to meet stringent timing constraints such as preserving delay bounds between input and output events. In model-based development, a system is often implemented by using a code generator to automatically generate source code from system models, and integrating the generated source code with a platform. It is challenging to guarantee that the implemented systems preserve required timing constraints, because the timed behavior of the source code and the platform is closely intertwined. In this paper, we address this challenge by proposing a model transformation approach for the code generation. Our approach compensates the platform-processing ...

From Requirements To Code: Model Based Development Of A Medical Cyber Physical System, Anitha Murugesan, Mats Heimdahl, Michael Whalen, Sanjai Rayadurgam, John Komp, Lian Duan, Baekgyu Kim, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Mar 2016

#### From Requirements To Code: Model Based Development Of A Medical Cyber Physical System, Anitha Murugesan, Mats Heimdahl, Michael Whalen, Sanjai Rayadurgam, John Komp, Lian Duan, Baekgyu Kim, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

##### Oleg Sokolsky

The advanced use of technology in medical devices has improved the way health care is delivered to patients. Unfortunately, the increased complexity of modern medical devices poses challenges for development, assurance, and regulatory approval. In an e ort to improve the safety of advanced medical devices, organizations such as FDA have supported exploration of techniques to aid in the development and regulatory approval of such systems. In an ongoing research project, our aim is to provide effective development techniques and exemplars of system development artifacts that demonstrate state of the art development techniques.

In this paper we present an end-to-end ...

Verified Ros-Based Deployment Of Platform-Independent Control Systems, Wenrui Meng, Junkil Park, Oleg Sokolsky, Stephanie Weirich, Insup Lee Mar 2016

#### Verified Ros-Based Deployment Of Platform-Independent Control Systems, Wenrui Meng, Junkil Park, Oleg Sokolsky, Stephanie Weirich, Insup Lee

##### Oleg Sokolsky

The paper considers the problem of model-based deployment of platform-independent control code on a specific platform. The approach is based on automatic generation of platform-specific glue code from an architectural model of the system. We present a tool, ROSGen, that generates the glue code based on a declarative specification of platform interfaces. Our implementation targets the popular Robot Operating System (ROS) platform. We demonstrate that the code generation process is amenable to formal verification. The code generator is implemented in Coq and relies on the infrastructure provided by the CompCert and VST tool. We prove that the generated code always ...

Verified Ros-Based Deployment Of Platform-Independent Control Systems, Wenrui Meng, Junkil Park, Oleg Sokolsky, Stephanie Weirich, Insup Lee Mar 2016

#### Verified Ros-Based Deployment Of Platform-Independent Control Systems, Wenrui Meng, Junkil Park, Oleg Sokolsky, Stephanie Weirich, Insup Lee

##### Oleg Sokolsky

The paper considers the problem of model-based deployment of platform-independent control code on a specific platform. The approach is based on automatic generation of platform-specific glue code from an architectural model of the system. We present a tool, ROSGen, that generates the glue code based on a declarative specification of platform interfaces. Our implementation targets the popular Robot Operating System (ROS) platform. We demonstrate that the code generation process is amenable to formal verification. The code generator is implemented in Coq and relies on the infrastructure provided by the CompCert and VST tool. We prove that the generated code always ...

Automatic Verification Of Linear Controller Software, Miroslav Pajic, Junkil Park, Insup Lee, George Pappas, Oleg Sokolsky Mar 2016

#### Automatic Verification Of Linear Controller Software, Miroslav Pajic, Junkil Park, Insup Lee, George Pappas, Oleg Sokolsky

##### Oleg Sokolsky

We consider the problem of verification of software implementations of linear time-invariant controllers. Commonly, different implementations use different representations of the controller’s state, for example due to optimizations in a third-party code generator. To accommodate this variation, we exploit input-output controller specification captured by the controller’s transfer function and show how to automatically verify correctness of C code controller implementations using a Frama-C/Why3/Z3 toolchain. Scalability of the approach is evaluated using randomly generated controller specifications of realistic size.

From Requirements To Code: Model Based Development Of A Medical Cyber Physical System, Anitha Murugesan, Mats Heimdahl, Michael Whalen, Sanjai Rayadurgam, John Komp, Lian Duan, Baekgyu Kim, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Mar 2016

#### From Requirements To Code: Model Based Development Of A Medical Cyber Physical System, Anitha Murugesan, Mats Heimdahl, Michael Whalen, Sanjai Rayadurgam, John Komp, Lian Duan, Baekgyu Kim, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

##### Oleg Sokolsky

The advanced use of technology in medical devices has improved the way health care is delivered to patients. Unfortunately, the increased complexity of modern medical devices poses challenges for development, assurance, and regulatory approval. In an e ort to improve the safety of advanced medical devices, organizations such as FDA have supported exploration of techniques to aid in the development and regulatory approval of such systems. In an ongoing research project, our aim is to provide effective development techniques and exemplars of system development artifacts that demonstrate state of the art development techniques.

In this paper we present an end-to-end ...

Platform-Specific Code Generation From Platform-Independent Timed Models, Baekgyu Kim, Lu Feng, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Mar 2016

#### Platform-Specific Code Generation From Platform-Independent Timed Models, Baekgyu Kim, Lu Feng, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

##### Oleg Sokolsky

Many safety-critical real-time embedded systems need to meet stringent timing constraints such as preserving delay bounds between input and output events. In model-based development, a system is often implemented by using a code generator to automatically generate source code from system models, and integrating the generated source code with a platform. It is challenging to guarantee that the implemented systems preserve required timing constraints, because the timed behavior of the source code and the platform is closely intertwined. In this paper, we address this challenge by proposing a model transformation approach for the code generation. Our approach compensates the platform-processing ...

A Data-Driven Behavior Modeling And Analysis Framework For Diabetic Patients On Insulin Pumps, Sanjian Chen, Lu Feng, Michael Rickels, Amy Peleckis, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee Mar 2016

#### A Data-Driven Behavior Modeling And Analysis Framework For Diabetic Patients On Insulin Pumps, Sanjian Chen, Lu Feng, Michael Rickels, Amy Peleckis, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee

##### Oleg Sokolsky

About 30%-40% of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) patients in the United States use insulin pumps. Current insulin infusion systems require users to manually input meal carb count and approve or modify the system-suggested meal insulin dose. Users can give correction insulin boluses at any time. Since meal carbohydrates and insulin are the two main driving forces of the glucose physiology, the user-specific eating and pump-using behavior has a great impact on the quality of glycemic control.

In this paper, we propose an “Eat, Trust, and Correct” (ETC) framework to model the T1D insulin pump users’ behavior. We use machine ...

A Cloud-Based Framework For Smart Permit System For Buildings, Magdalini Eirinaki, Subhankar Dhar, Shishir Mathur Dec 2015

#### A Cloud-Based Framework For Smart Permit System For Buildings, Magdalini Eirinaki, Subhankar Dhar, Shishir Mathur

##### Magdalini Eirinaki

In this paper we propose a novel cloud-based platform for building permit system that is efficient, user-friendly, transparent, and has quick turn-around time for homeowners. Compared to the existing permit systems, the proposed smart city permit framework provides a pre-permitting decision workflow, and incorporates a data analytics and mining module that enables the continuous improvement of a) the end user experience, by analyzing explicit and implicit user feedback, and b) the permitting and urban planning process, allowing a gleaning of key insights for real estate development and city planning purposes, by analyzing how users interact with the system depending on ...

Development Of Cloud-Based Uav Monitoring And Management System, Mason Itkin, Mihui Kim, Younghee Park Dec 2015

#### Development Of Cloud-Based Uav Monitoring And Management System, Mason Itkin, Mihui Kim, Younghee Park

##### Younghee Park

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this ...

A Cloud-Based Framework For Smart Permit System For Buildings, Magdalini Eirinaki, Subhankar Dhar, Shishir Mathur Dec 2015

#### A Cloud-Based Framework For Smart Permit System For Buildings, Magdalini Eirinaki, Subhankar Dhar, Shishir Mathur

##### Subhankar Dhar

In this paper we propose a novel cloud-based platform for building permit system that is efficient, user-friendly, transparent, and has quick turn-around time for homeowners. Compared to the existing permit systems, the proposed smart city permit framework provides a pre-permitting decision workflow, and incorporates a data analytics and mining module that enables the continuous improvement of a) the end user experience, by analyzing explicit and implicit user feedback, and b) the permitting and urban planning process, allowing a gleaning of key insights for real estate development and city planning purposes, by analyzing how users interact with the system depending on ...

Dec 2015

#### Can Declared Strategy Voting Be An Effective Instrument For Group Decision-Making?, Lorrie Cranor

##### Lorrie F Cranor

The goal of this research is to determine whether declared strategy voting can be an effective tool for group decision-making. Declared strategy voting is a novel group decision-making procedure in which preference is specified using voting strategies - first-order mathematical functions that specify a choice in terms of zero or more parameters. This research will focus on refining the declared strategy voting concept, developing an accessible implementation of declared strategy voting that can be used for mock elections, assessing the potential impacts of declared strategy voting, and evaluating the effectiveness of declared strategy voting for group decision-making. This proposal describes the ...

Design And Implementation Of A Practical Security-Conscious Electronic Polling System, Lorrie Cranor, Ron Cytron Dec 2015

#### Design And Implementation Of A Practical Security-Conscious Electronic Polling System, Lorrie Cranor, Ron Cytron

##### Lorrie F Cranor

We present the design and implementation of Sensus, a practical, secure and private system for conducting surveys and elections over computer networks. Expanding on the work of Fujioka, Okamoto, and Ohta, Sensus uses blind signatures to ensure that only registered voters can vote and that each registered voter only votes once, while at the same time maintaining voters' privacy. Sensus allows voters to verify independently that their votes were counted correctly, and anonymously challenge the results should their votes be miscounted. We outline seven desirable properties of voting systems and show that Sensus satisfied these properties well, in some cases ...

Software Metrics And Dashboard, Shilpika Shilpika, George K. Thiruvathukal, Saulo Aguiar, Konstantin Läufer, Nicholas J. Hayward Aug 2015

#### Software Metrics And Dashboard, Shilpika Shilpika, George K. Thiruvathukal, Saulo Aguiar, Konstantin Läufer, Nicholas J. Hayward

##### George K. Thiruvathukal

Software metrics are a critical tool which provide continuous insight to products and processes and help build reliable software in mission critical environments. Using software metrics we can perform calculations that help assess the effectiveness of the underlying software or process. The two types of metrics relevant to our work is complexity metrics and in-process metrics. Complexity metrics tend to focus on intrinsic code properties like code complexity. In-process metrics focus on a higher-level view of software quality, measuring information that can provide insight into the underlying software development process.

Our aim is to develop and evaluate a metrics dashboard ...

Towards Real-Time, On-Board, Hardware-Supported Sensor And Software Health Management For Unmanned Aerial Systems, Johann M. Schumann, Kristin Y. Rozier, Thomas Reinbacher, Ole J. Mengshoel, Timmy Mbaya, Corey Ippolito Jun 2015

#### Towards Real-Time, On-Board, Hardware-Supported Sensor And Software Health Management For Unmanned Aerial Systems, Johann M. Schumann, Kristin Y. Rozier, Thomas Reinbacher, Ole J. Mengshoel, Timmy Mbaya, Corey Ippolito

##### Ole J Mengshoel

For unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to be successfully deployed and integrated within the national airspace, it is imperative that they possess the capability to effectively complete their missions without compromising the safety of other aircraft, as well as persons and property on the ground. This necessity creates a natural requirement for UAS that can respond to uncertain environmental conditions and emergent failures in real-time, with robustness and resilience close enough to those of manned systems. We introduce a system that meets this requirement with the design of a real-time onboard system health management (SHM) capability to continuously monitor sensors, software ...

Towards Synthesis Of Platform-Aware Attack-Resilient Control Systems: Extended Abstract, Miroslav Pajic, Nicola Bezzo, James Weimer, Rajeev Alur, Rahul Mangharam, Nathan Michael, George Pappas, Oleg Sokolsky, Paulo Tabuada, Stephanie Weirich, Insup Lee Jun 2015

#### Towards Synthesis Of Platform-Aware Attack-Resilient Control Systems: Extended Abstract, Miroslav Pajic, Nicola Bezzo, James Weimer, Rajeev Alur, Rahul Mangharam, Nathan Michael, George Pappas, Oleg Sokolsky, Paulo Tabuada, Stephanie Weirich, Insup Lee

##### Stephanie Weirich

No abstract provided.

Contracts Made Manifest, Michael Greenberg, Benjamin C. Pierce, Stephanie Weirich Jun 2015

#### Contracts Made Manifest, Michael Greenberg, Benjamin C. Pierce, Stephanie Weirich

##### Stephanie Weirich

Since Findler and Felleisen (Findler, R. B. & Felleisen, M. 2002) introduced higher-order contracts, many variants have been proposed. Broadly, these fall into two groups: some follow Findler and Felleisen (2002) in using latent contracts, purely dynamic checks that are transparent to the type system; others use manifest contracts, where refinement types record the most recent check that has been applied to each value. These two approaches are commonly assumed to be equivalent—different ways of implementing the same idea, one retaining a simple type system, and the other providing more static information. Our goal is to formalize and clarify this folklore understanding. Our work extends that of Gronski and Flanagan (Gronski, J. & Flanagan, C. 2007), who defined a latent calculus λC and a manifest calculus λH, gave a translation φ from λC to λH, and proved that ...

Combining Proofs And Programs In A Dependently Typed Language, Stephanie Weirich, Vilhelm Sjoberg, Chris Casinghino Jun 2015

#### Combining Proofs And Programs In A Dependently Typed Language, Stephanie Weirich, Vilhelm Sjoberg, Chris Casinghino

##### Stephanie Weirich

Most dependently-typed programming languages either require that all expressions terminate (e.g. Coq, Agda, and Epigram), or allow infinite loops but are inconsistent when viewed as logics (e.g. Haskell, ATS, mega). Here, we combine these two approaches into a single dependently-typed core language. The language is composed of two fragments that share a common syntax and overlapping semantics: a logic that guarantees total correctness, and a call-by-value programming language that guarantees type safety but not termination. The two fragments may interact: logical expressions may be used as programs; the logic may soundly reason about potentially nonterminating programs; programs can ...

Programming Up To Congruence (Extended Version), Vilhelm Sjoberg, Stephanie Weirich Jun 2015

#### Programming Up To Congruence (Extended Version), Vilhelm Sjoberg, Stephanie Weirich

##### Stephanie Weirich

This paper presents the design of ZOMBIE, a dependently-typed programming language that uses an adaptation of a congruence closure algorithm for proof and type inference. This algorithm allows the type checker to automatically use equality assumptions from the context when reasoning about equality. Most dependently typed languages automatically use equalities that follow from -reduction during type checking; however, such reasoning is incompatible with congruence closure. In contrast, ZOMBIE does not use automatic -reduction because types may contain potentially diverging terms. Therefore ZOMBIE provides a unique opportunity to explore an alternative definition of equivalence in dependently typed language design. Our work ...

Closed Type Families With Overlapping Equations (Extended Version), Richard A. Eisenberg, Dimitrios Vytiniotis, Simon Peyton Jones, Stephanie Weirich Jun 2015

#### Closed Type Families With Overlapping Equations (Extended Version), Richard A. Eisenberg, Dimitrios Vytiniotis, Simon Peyton Jones, Stephanie Weirich

##### Stephanie Weirich

Open, type-level functions are a recent innovation in Haskell that move Haskell towards the expressiveness of dependent types, while retaining the look and feel of a practical programming language. This paper shows how to increase expressiveness still further, by adding closed type functions whose equations may overlap, and may have non-linear patterns over an open type universe. Although practically useful and simple to implement, these features go beyond conventional dependent type theory in some respects, and have a subtle metatheory.

Pinpoint: Efficient And Effective Resource Isolation For Mobile Security And Privacy, Paul Ratazzi, Ashok Bommisetti, Nian Ji, Wenliang Du May 2015

#### Pinpoint: Efficient And Effective Resource Isolation For Mobile Security And Privacy, Paul Ratazzi, Ashok Bommisetti, Nian Ji, Wenliang Du

##### Paul Ratazzi

No abstract provided.

Data Management In Cloud Environments: Nosql And Newsql Data Stores, Katarina Grolinger, Wilson A. Higashino, Abhinav Tiwari, Miriam Am Capretz May 2015

#### Data Management In Cloud Environments: Nosql And Newsql Data Stores, Katarina Grolinger, Wilson A. Higashino, Abhinav Tiwari, Miriam Am Capretz

##### Wilson A Higashino

: Advances in Web technology and the proliferation of mobile devices and sensors connected to the Internet have resulted in immense processing and storage requirements. Cloud computing has emerged as a paradigm that promises to meet these requirements. This work focuses on the storage aspect of cloud computing, specifically on data management in cloud environments. Traditional relational databases were designed in a different hardware and software era and are facing challenges in meeting the performance and scale requirements of Big Data. NoSQL and NewSQL data stores present themselves as alternatives that can handle huge volume of data. Because of the large ...

Crowdsourced Earthquake Early Warning, Sarah Minson, Benjamin Brooks, Craig Glennie, Jessica Murray, John Langbein, Susan Owen, Thomas Heaton, Robert Iannucci, Darren Hauser Mar 2015

#### Crowdsourced Earthquake Early Warning, Sarah Minson, Benjamin Brooks, Craig Glennie, Jessica Murray, John Langbein, Susan Owen, Thomas Heaton, Robert Iannucci, Darren Hauser

##### Robert A Iannucci

Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.