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Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Near Real-Time Rf-Dna Fingerprinting For Zigbee Devices Using Software Defined Radios, Frankie A. Cruz Mar 2019

Near Real-Time Rf-Dna Fingerprinting For Zigbee Devices Using Software Defined Radios, Frankie A. Cruz

Theses and Dissertations

Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network(s) (LR-WPAN) usage has increased as more consumers embrace Internet of Things (IoT) devices. ZigBee Physical Layer (PHY) is based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.15.4 specification designed to provide a low-cost, low-power, and low-complexity solution for Wireless Sensor Network(s) (WSN). The standard’s extended battery life and reliability makes ZigBee WSN a popular choice for home automation, transportation, traffic management, Industrial Control Systems (ICS), and cyber-physical systems. As robust and versatile as the standard is, ZigBee remains vulnerable to a myriad of common network attacks. Previous research ...


Confidence Inference In Defensive Cyber Operator Decision Making, Graig S. Ganitano Mar 2019

Confidence Inference In Defensive Cyber Operator Decision Making, Graig S. Ganitano

Theses and Dissertations

Cyber defense analysts face the challenge of validating machine generated alerts regarding network-based security threats. Operations tempo and systematic manpower issues have increased the importance of these individual analyst decisions, since they typically are not reviewed or changed. Analysts may not always be confident in their decisions. If confidence can be accurately assessed, then analyst decisions made under low confidence can be independently reviewed and analysts can be offered decision assistance or additional training. This work investigates the utility of using neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of decision confidence to train machine learning models to infer confidence in analyst decisions. Electroencephalography ...


Unresolved Object Detection Using Synthetic Data Generation And Artificial Neural Networks, Yong U. Sinn Mar 2019

Unresolved Object Detection Using Synthetic Data Generation And Artificial Neural Networks, Yong U. Sinn

Theses and Dissertations

This research presents and solves constrained real-world problems of using synthetic data to train artificial neural networks (ANNs) to detect unresolved moving objects in wide field of view (WFOV) electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) satellite motion imagery. Objectives include demonstrating the use of the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) Sensor and Scene Emulation Tool (ASSET) as an effective tool for generating EO/IR motion imagery representative of real WFOV sensors and describing the ANN architectures, training, and testing results obtained. Deep learning using a 3-D convolutional neural network (3D ConvNet), long short term memory (LSTM) network, and U-Net are used ...


Examining Effectiveness Of Web-Based Internet Of Things Honeypots, Lukas A. Stafira Mar 2019

Examining Effectiveness Of Web-Based Internet Of Things Honeypots, Lukas A. Stafira

Theses and Dissertations

The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing at an alarming rate. It is estimated that there will be over 25 billion IoT devices by 2020. The simplicity of their function usually means that IoT devices have low processing power, which prevent them from having intricate security features, leading to vulnerabilities. This makes IoT devices the prime target of attackers in the coming years. Honeypots are intentionally vulnerable machines that run programs which appear as a vulnerable device to a would-be attacker. They are placed on a network to entice and trap an attacker and then gather information on them, including ...


High Resolution Low-Bandwidth Real-Time Reconnaissance Using Structure From Motion With Planar Homography Estimation, Christian M.A. Arnold Mar 2019

High Resolution Low-Bandwidth Real-Time Reconnaissance Using Structure From Motion With Planar Homography Estimation, Christian M.A. Arnold

Theses and Dissertations

Aerial real-time surveillance exists in a paradigm balancing the constraints of delivering high quality data and transporting data quickly. Typically, to have more of one, sacrifices must be made to the other. This is true of the environment in which an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operates, where real-time communication may be done through a low-bandwidth satellite connection resulting in low-resolution data, and serves as the primary limiting factor in all intelligence operations. Through the use of efficient computer vision techniques, we propose a new Structure from Motion (SfM) method capable of compressing high-resolution data, and delivering that data in real-time ...


Machine Learning Models Of C-17 Specific Range Using Flight Recorder Data, Marcus Catchpole Mar 2019

Machine Learning Models Of C-17 Specific Range Using Flight Recorder Data, Marcus Catchpole

Theses and Dissertations

Fuel is a significant expense for the Air Force. The C-17 Globemaster eet accounts for a significant portion. Estimating the range of an aircraft based on its fuel consumption is nearly as old as flight itself. Consideration of operational energy and the related consideration of fuel efficiency is increasing. Meanwhile machine learning and data-mining techniques are on the rise. The old question, "How far can my aircraft y with a given load cargo and fuel?" has given way to "How little fuel can I load into an aircraft and safely arrive at the destination?" Specific range is a measure of ...


Autonomous Association Of Geo Rso Observations Using Deep Neural Networks, Ian W. Mcquaid Mar 2019

Autonomous Association Of Geo Rso Observations Using Deep Neural Networks, Ian W. Mcquaid

Theses and Dissertations

Ground-based non-resolved optical observations of resident space objects (RSOs) in geosynchronous orbit (GEO) represent the majority of the space surveillance network’s (SSN’s) deep-space tracking. Reliable and accurate tracking necessitates temporal separation of the observations. This requires that subsequent observations be associated with prior observations of a given RSO before they can be used to create or refine that RSO’s ephemeris. The use of astrometric data (e.g. topocentric angular position) alone for this association task is complicated by RSO maneuvers between observations, and by RSOs operating in close proximity. Accurately associating an observation with an RSO thus ...


A Blockchain-Based Anomalous Detection System For Internet Of Things Devices, Joshua K. Mosby Mar 2019

A Blockchain-Based Anomalous Detection System For Internet Of Things Devices, Joshua K. Mosby

Theses and Dissertations

Internet of Things devices are highly susceptible to attack, and owners often fail to realize they have been compromised. This thesis describes an anomalous-based intrusion detection system that operates directly on Internet of Things devices utilizing a custom-built Blockchain. In this approach, an agent on each node compares the node's behavior to that of its peers, generating an alert if they are behaving differently. An experiment is conducted to determine the effectiveness at detecting malware. Three different code samples simulating common malware are deployed against a testbed of 12 Raspberry Pi devices. Increasing numbers are infected until two-thirds of ...


Modeling A Consortium-Based Distributed Ledger Network With Applications For Intelligent Transportation Infrastructure, Luis A. Cintron Mar 2019

Modeling A Consortium-Based Distributed Ledger Network With Applications For Intelligent Transportation Infrastructure, Luis A. Cintron

Theses and Dissertations

Emerging distributed-ledger networks are changing the landscape for environments of low trust among participating entities. Implementing such technologies in transportation infrastructure communications and operations would enable, in a secure fashion, decentralized collaboration among entities who do not fully trust each other. This work models a transportation records and events data collection system enabled by a Hyperledger Fabric blockchain network and simulated using a transportation environment modeling tool. A distributed vehicle records management use case is shown with the capability to detect and prevent unauthorized vehicle odometer tampering. Another use case studied is that of vehicular data collected during the event ...


A Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Localization Approach For An Autonomy Framework, Edwin A. Mora Mar 2019

A Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Localization Approach For An Autonomy Framework, Edwin A. Mora

Theses and Dissertations

Offensive techniques produced by technological advancement present opportunities for adversaries to threaten the operational advantages of our joint and allied forces. Combating these new methodologies requires continuous and rapid development towards our own set of \game-changing" technologies. Through focused development of unmanned systems and autonomy, the Air Force can strive to maintain its technological superiority. Furthermore, creating a robust framework capable of testing and evaluating the principles that define autonomy allows for the exploration of future capabilities. This research presents development towards a hybrid reactive/deliberative architecture that will allow for the testing of the principles of task, cognitive, and ...


Let’S Face It: The Effect Of Orthognathic Surgery On Facial Recognition Algorithm Analysis, Carolyn Bradford Dragon Jan 2019

Let’S Face It: The Effect Of Orthognathic Surgery On Facial Recognition Algorithm Analysis, Carolyn Bradford Dragon

Theses and Dissertations

Aim: To evaluate the ability of a publicly available facial recognition application program interface (API) to calculate similarity scores for pre- and post-surgical photographs of patients undergoing orthognathic surgeries. Our primary objective was to identify which surgical procedure(s) had the greatest effect(s) on similarity score.

Methods: Standard treatment progress photographs for 25 retrospectively identified, orthodontic-orthognathic patients were analyzed using the API to calculate similarity scores between the pre- and post-surgical photographs. Photographs from two pre-surgical timepoints were compared as controls. Both relaxed and smiling photographs were included in the study to assess for the added impact of facial ...


Smart Surge Irrigation Using Microcontroller Based Embedded Systems And Internet Of Things, Prashant Dinkar Borhade Dec 2018

Smart Surge Irrigation Using Microcontroller Based Embedded Systems And Internet Of Things, Prashant Dinkar Borhade

Theses and Dissertations

Surge Irrigation is a type of furrow irrigation and one of many efficient irrigation techniques. It is one of the economical techniques and requires minimum labor for monitoring it. In surge irrigation, water is applied intermittently to a field to achieve uniform distribution of water along the furrows, which is important while irrigating, as it ensures that there is enough water near the root zone of the crop. The uneven distribution can cause a loss in crop productivity.

Surge irrigation uses a surge valve, which is an electro-mechanical device that irrigates a field. The commercial surge valves available on the ...


Progressive Network Deployment, Performance, And Control With Software-Defined Networking, Daniel J. Casey Mar 2018

Progressive Network Deployment, Performance, And Control With Software-Defined Networking, Daniel J. Casey

Theses and Dissertations

The inflexible nature of traditional computer networks has led to tightly-integrated systems that are inherently difficult to manage and secure. New designs move low-level network control into software creating software-defined networks (SDN). Augmenting an existing network with these enhancements can be expensive and complex. This research investigates solutions to these problems. It is hypothesized that an add-on device, or "shim" could be used to make a traditional switch behave as an OpenFlow SDN switch while maintaining reasonable performance. A design prototype is found to cause approximately 1.5% reduction in throughput for one ow and less than double increase in ...


Assessing The Competing Characteristics Of Privacy And Safety Within Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks, Jacob W. Connors Mar 2018

Assessing The Competing Characteristics Of Privacy And Safety Within Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks, Jacob W. Connors

Theses and Dissertations

The introduction of Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication has the promise of decreasing vehicle collisions, congestion, and emissions. However, this technology places safety and privacy at odds; an increase of safety applications will likely result in the decrease of consumer privacy. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has proposed the Security Credential Management System (SCMS) as the back end infrastructure for maintaining, distributing, and revoking vehicle certificates attached to every Basic Safety Message (BSM). This Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) scheme is designed around the philosophy of maintaining user privacy through the separation of functions to prevent any one subcomponent from identifying ...


Estimating Defensive Cyber Operator Decision Confidence, Markus M. Borneman Mar 2018

Estimating Defensive Cyber Operator Decision Confidence, Markus M. Borneman

Theses and Dissertations

As technology continues to advance the domain of cyber defense, signature and heuristic detection mechanisms continue to require human operators to make judgements about the correctness of machine decisions. Human cyber defense operators rely on their experience, expertise, and understanding of network security, when conducting cyber-based investigations, in order to detect and respond to cyber alerts. Ever growing quantities of cyber alerts and network traffic, coupled with systemic manpower issues, mean no one has the time to review or change decisions made by operators. Since these cyber alert decisions ultimately do not get reviewed again, an inaccurate decision could cause ...


Bandwidth Analysis Of A Tightly-Packed Crossed-Dipole Array For Satellite Communications, Lawrence J. Lee Mar 2018

Bandwidth Analysis Of A Tightly-Packed Crossed-Dipole Array For Satellite Communications, Lawrence J. Lee

Theses and Dissertations

A bandwidth analysis of a tightly-packed crossed-dipole array antenna is presented in this thesis. A parametric study is described which varies the element spacing in the array and the resulting change in the terminal impedances is reported. The increased mutual coupling seen by the elements as a result of smaller element spacings is shown to minimize the variation in the value of the elements terminal currents across a 0.3 GHz to 3.0 GHz frequency range. This small variation in current translates into a minimal variation in the terminal impedances for a fixed excitation voltage. This is shown to ...


Evaluation Of Resiliency In A Wide-Area Backup Protection System Via Model Checking, Kolby H. Elliot Mar 2018

Evaluation Of Resiliency In A Wide-Area Backup Protection System Via Model Checking, Kolby H. Elliot

Theses and Dissertations

Modern civilization relies heavily on having access to reliable power sources. Recent history has shown that present day protection systems are not adequate. Numerous backup protection (BP) systems have been proposed to mitigate the impact of primary protection system failures. Many of these novel BP systems rely on autonomous agents communicating via wide-area networks. These systems are highly complex and their control logic is based on distributed computing. Model checking has been shown to be a powerful tool in analyzing the behavior of distributed systems. In this research the model checker SPIN is used to evaluate the resiliency of an ...


Quality Of Service Impacts Of A Moving Target Defense With Software-Defined Networking, Samuel A. Mayer Mar 2018

Quality Of Service Impacts Of A Moving Target Defense With Software-Defined Networking, Samuel A. Mayer

Theses and Dissertations

An analysis of the impact a defensive network technique implemented with software-defined networking has upon quality of service experienced by legitimate users. The research validates previous work conducted at AFIT to verify claims of defensive efficacy and then tests network protocols in common use (FTP, HTTP, IMAP, POP, RTP, SMTP, and SSH) on a network that uses this technique. Metrics that indicate the performance of the protocols under test are reported with respect to data gathered in a control network. The conclusions of these experiments enable network engineers to determine if this defensive technique is appropriate for the quality of ...


Securing Soft Ips Against Hardware Trojan Insertion, Thao Phuong Le Jan 2018

Securing Soft Ips Against Hardware Trojan Insertion, Thao Phuong Le

Theses and Dissertations

Due to the increasing complexity of hardware designs, third-party hardware Intellectual Property (IP) blocks are often incorporated in order to alleviate the burden on hardware designers. However, the prevalence use of third-party IPs has raised security concerns such as Trojans inserted by attackers. Hardware Trojans in these soft IPs are extremely difficult to detect through functional testing and no single detection methodology has been able to completely address this issue. Based on a Register-Transfer Level (RTL) and gate-level soft IP analysis method named Structural Checking, this dissertation presents a hardware Trojan detection methodology and tool by detailing the implementation of ...


Consuming Digital Debris In The Plasticene, Stephen R. Parks Jan 2018

Consuming Digital Debris In The Plasticene, Stephen R. Parks

Theses and Dissertations

Claims of customization and control by socio-technical industries are altering the role of consumer and producer. These narratives are often misleading attempts to engage consumers with new forms of technology. By addressing capitalist intent, material, and the reproduction limits of 3-D printed objects’, I observe the aspirational promise of becoming a producer of my own belongings through new networks of production. I am interested in gaining a better understanding of the data consumed that perpetuates hyper-consumptive tendencies for new technological apparatuses. My role as a designer focuses on the resolution of not only the surface of the object through 3-D ...


Efficient Information Dissemination In Vehicular Networks With Privacy Protection, Xiaolu Cheng Jan 2018

Efficient Information Dissemination In Vehicular Networks With Privacy Protection, Xiaolu Cheng

Theses and Dissertations

Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a key component of intelligent transportation System (ITS). In VANETs, vehicles and roadside units exchange information for the purpose of navigation, safe driving, entertainment and so on. The high mobility of vehicles makes efficient and private communications in VANETs a big challenge.

Improving the performance of information dissemination while protecting data privacy is studied in this research. Meet-Table based information dissemination method is first proposed, so as to improve the information dissemination, and to efficiently distribute information via utilizing roadside units, Cloud Computing, and Fog Computing. A clustering algorithm is proposed as well, to ...


A Location-Aware Middleware Framework For Collaborative Visual Information Discovery And Retrieval, Andrew J.M. Compton Sep 2017

A Location-Aware Middleware Framework For Collaborative Visual Information Discovery And Retrieval, Andrew J.M. Compton

Theses and Dissertations

This work addresses the problem of scalable location-aware distributed indexing to enable the leveraging of collaborative effort for the construction and maintenance of world-scale visual maps and models which could support numerous activities including navigation, visual localization, persistent surveillance, structure from motion, and hazard or disaster detection. Current distributed approaches to mapping and modeling fail to incorporate global geospatial addressing and are limited in their functionality to customize search. Our solution is a peer-to-peer middleware framework based on XOR distance routing which employs a Hilbert Space curve addressing scheme in a novel distributed geographic index. This allows for a universal ...


Operating System Identification By Ipv6 Communication Using Machine Learning Ensembles, Adrian Ordorica Aug 2017

Operating System Identification By Ipv6 Communication Using Machine Learning Ensembles, Adrian Ordorica

Theses and Dissertations

Operating system (OS) identification tools, sometimes called fingerprinting tools, are essential for the reconnaissance phase of penetration testing. While OS identification is traditionally performed by passive or active tools that use fingerprint databases, very little work has focused on using machine learning techniques. Moreover, significantly more work has focused on IPv4 than IPv6. We introduce a collaborative neural network ensemble that uses a unique voting system and a random forest ensemble to deliver accurate predictions. This approach uses IPv6 features as well as packet metadata features for OS identification. Our experiment shows that our approach is valid and we achieve ...


Framework For Industrial Control System Honeypot Network Traffic Generation, Htein A. Lin Mar 2017

Framework For Industrial Control System Honeypot Network Traffic Generation, Htein A. Lin

Theses and Dissertations

Defending critical infrastructure assets is an important but extremely difficult and expensive task. Historically, decoys have been used very effectively to distract attackers and in some cases convince an attacker to reveal their attack strategy. Several researchers have proposed the use of honeypots to protect programmable logic controllers, specifically those used to support critical infrastructure. However, most of these honeypot designs are static systems that wait for a would-be attacker. To be effective, honeypot decoys need to be as realistic as possible. This paper introduces a proof-of-concept honeypot network traffic generator that mimics genuine control systems. Experiments are conducted using ...


Applying Cyber Threat Intelligence To Industrial Control Systems, Matthew P. Sibiga Mar 2017

Applying Cyber Threat Intelligence To Industrial Control Systems, Matthew P. Sibiga

Theses and Dissertations

A cybersecurity initiative known as cyber threat intelligence (CTI) has recently been developed and deployed. The overall goal of this new technology is to help protect network infrastructures. Threat intelligence platforms (TIPs) have also been created to help facilitate CTI effectiveness within organizations. There are many benefits that both can achieve within the information technology (IT) sector. The industrial control system (ICS) sector can also benefit from these technologies as most ICS networks are connected to IT networks. CTI and TIPs become resourceful when using indicators of compromise (IOCs) from known ICS malware attacks and an open source intrusion detection ...


Active Response Using Host-Based Intrusion Detection System And Software-Defined Networking, Jonathon S. Goodgion Mar 2017

Active Response Using Host-Based Intrusion Detection System And Software-Defined Networking, Jonathon S. Goodgion

Theses and Dissertations

This research proposes AHNSR: Active Host-based Network Security Response by utilizing Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDS) with Software-Defined Networking (SDN) to enhance system security by allowing dynamic active response and reconstruction from a global network topology perspective. Responses include traffic redirection, host quarantining, filtering, and more. A testable SDN-controlled network is constructed with multiple hosts, OpenFlow enabled switches, and a Floodlight controller, all linked to a custom, novel interface for the Open-Source SECurity (OSSEC) HIDS framework. OSSEC is implemented in a server-agent architecture, allowing scalability and OS independence. System effectiveness is evaluated against the following factors: alert density and a ...


A Framework For Categorization Of Industrial Control System Cyber Training Environments, Evan G. Plumley Mar 2017

A Framework For Categorization Of Industrial Control System Cyber Training Environments, Evan G. Plumley

Theses and Dissertations

First responders and professionals in hazardous occupations undergo training and evaluations for the purpose of mitigating risk and damage. For example, helicopter pilots train with multiple categorized simulations that increase in complexity before flying a real aircraft. However in the industrial control cyber incident response domain, where incident response professionals help detect, respond and recover from cyber incidents, no official categorization of training environments exist. To address this gap, this thesis provides a categorization of industrial control training environments based on realism. Four levels of environments are proposed and mapped to Blooms Taxonomy. This categorization will help organizations determine which ...


Dynamic Network Security Control Using Software Defined Networking, Michael C. Todd Mar 2016

Dynamic Network Security Control Using Software Defined Networking, Michael C. Todd

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis develops and implements a process to rapidly respond to host level security events using a host agent, Software Defined Networking and OpenFlow updates, role based flow classes, and Advanced Messaging Queuing Protocol to automatically update configuration of switching devices and block malicious traffic. Results show flow table updates are made for all tested levels in less than 5.27 milliseconds and event completion time increased with treatment level as expected. As the number of events increases from 1,000 to 50,000, the design scales logarithmically caused mainly by message delivery time. Event processing throughput is limited primarily ...


Novel Techniques For Secure Use Of Public Cloud Computing Resources, Kyle E. Stewart Sep 2015

Novel Techniques For Secure Use Of Public Cloud Computing Resources, Kyle E. Stewart

Theses and Dissertations

The federal government has an expressed interest in moving data and services to third party service providers in order to take advantage of the flexibility, scalability, and potential cost savings. This approach is called cloud computing. The thesis for this research is that efficient techniques exist to support the secure use of public cloud computing resources by a large, federated enterprise. The primary contributions of this research are the novel cryptographic system MA-AHASBE (Multi-Authority Anonymous Hierarchical Attribute-Set Based Encryption), and the techniques used to incorporate MA-AHASBE in a real world application. Performance results indicate that while there is a cost ...


Automatic User Profile Construction For A Personalized News Recommender System Using Twitter, Shiva Theja Reddy Gopidi Jul 2015

Automatic User Profile Construction For A Personalized News Recommender System Using Twitter, Shiva Theja Reddy Gopidi

Theses and Dissertations

Modern society has now grown accustomed to reading online or digital news. However, the huge corpus of information available online poses a challenge to users when trying to find relevant articles. A hybrid system “Personalized News Recommender Using Twitter’ has been developed to recommend articles to a user based on the popularity of the articles and also the profile of the user. The hybrid system is a fusion of a collaborative recommender system developed using tweets from the “Twitter” public timeline and a content recommender system based the user’s past interests summarized in their conceptual user profile. In previous ...